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The beginning of process of resettlement of the Tajik kishlak in Tajik the ASSR



Mirbabaev A.K., Usmonov N.N.

The Arabian ethnic settlers of the near and middle east VII — IX centuries

Many history orientalists ofArabian Peninsula of the period VI - VII with. estimate the time of occurrence of Islam and caliphate formation as a gloomy time in the history of Arabs. During this epoch either at Bedouins of Arabian Peninsula and at other Arabian tribes was generated the aristocracy estate, aspiring to take hold of richness and the earths of the adjacent northeast states, first of all Mesopotamia and Iran. The important role in these plans was taken away by gases. They were the militarized groups which in numerous internal wars have improved tactics of gases. The main purpose of this research is to study and analyze the Arabian ethnic settlers which is in detail stated in authors’ article.

Furkatzhon Hamidov — to. and. N, associate professor of the international relations of TGUPBP

The BEGINNING of PROCESS of RESETTLEMENT of the TAJIK KISHLAK IN TAJIK the ASSR

For expansion of Dehkan land use in the declaration of the II plenum of Organizational bureau of the RC (b) of Uzbekistan in Tajik the ASSR legislatively enshrined the decision on resettlement dekhkan on new lands.

The declaration on nationalization of the earth, water, the depths of the earth and wood in spite of the fact that it did not provide basic changes in the nature of land use and the land relations, had great political and social and economic value.

One of the main directions of agrarian policy of the Soviet power in Tajik the ASSR was resettlement dekhkan from overpopulated areas in sparsely populated where there were many free lands.

"This historically developed unevenness

agricultural development, being the main constraining issue in development of productive forces, it has to be obsolete by the organization of internal planned resettlement and full use of the lived free lands".2

Really even if not to take social stratification of the kishlak into account, in some areas of the republic at that time the population had acute shortage of the earth. In the closed mountainous areas, according to the carried-out survey, the allotment providing a living wage was defined in 0.4 tithes per capita, and the actual nadelyonnost the earth in many areas was much lower. So, in Garmsky fog the population had 0.2 tithes on soul, in the Darwaz fog-0.1

2 TsGA RT, t. 12, op. 1, 5, l. 87.

tithe.1 In the Ishkashim volost of GBAO 1.5 hectares were the share of the eater, and in the Bartansky volost - only 1/10 hectare.2 the Land narrowness took place in a number of areas Kulob, Gissar and other wilayats.

Thus, resettlement had important social and economic value.

First, elimination of overpopulation in certain areas created conditions for economic recovery of the Dehkan farms remaining here.

Secondly, as a result of resettlement of a part of Dehkan farms an opportunity to provide them considerably big was given, than they had before, the land plots.

Thirdly, owing to expansion of labor land use possibilities of baysky exploitation of the poor were inevitably limited and, therefore, economic positions of a baystvo were weakened.

Fourthly, the policy of resettlement allowed to introduce the new land which could be used for increase in agricultural production into economic circulation.

Fifthly in view of the fact that management of resettlement was performed by public authorities, they influenced transition of dekhkan-immigrants to higher level of the organization and farming, primary development of cotton breeding.

Before Dehkan farms had no funds for resettlement for new lands and the more so for their development.

Resettlement became possible only at Sovetsk the state. But it was not simple and easy business. It was necessary to carry out the big preparatory work in places of the new settlement connected with irrigational construction, land management, creation of normal living conditions and work for settlers. Therefore resettlement was carried out not at once, and for several years.

The foundation was laid for resettlement even before adoption of official decisions on this question by the II plenum of Organizational bureau of the RC (b) of Uzbekistan in Tajik the ASSR and the I congress of Councils of the republic. In 1925-1926 as the first experience which appeared successful, 460 Dehkan farms moved from the Garmsky wilayat in Kurgan-Tyube on again developed lands of the Vakhsh valley. 1 In the next years the bulk of immigrants also went to the Vakhsh valley which had great economic value as base of cotton breeding and also to free lands of the southern districts of the Kulob wilayat and to some low-populated places of the Gissar wilayat. The main regions of an exit of immigrants, besides Garm, were Gissar, Kulob, Ur-Tyube,

1 CGA RUz, t. 837, op. 2, 216, l. 146.
2 Revolution and nationalities. - 1930. No. 6. - page 61.
1 From history of collectivization of agriculture and collective-farm construction in Tajikistan, t. 1, table, page 209.

Panjekent and Fergana of the Uzbek SSR from where came to the dekhkena, having wide experience of cultivation of a cotton. In view of lack of convenient means of communication it was necessary to refuse mass resettlement of Dehkan farms from the Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Region, but, according to some information, the small group of volunteers in quantity up to 100 farms in 1927 nevertheless managed to move to areas of development of the new earths.2 Where there was an opportunity, first of all in Gissar and Kulob, also interdistrict resettlement within wilayats was carried out.

For the leadership in all this work in March, 1927 at the Central Committee Tajik the ASSR was founded the Central resettlement committee, and on places the commissions of assistance to resettlement consisting of representatives of party, Soviet and land bodies were created.

Resettlement was carried out on the basis of voluntariness and at the great state assistance to zemleustraivayemy farms. In places of settlement they received the land plots considerably of the bigger size and the best quality, than had before, the working and productive cattle, loans for housing and economic construction were provided to them on favorable terms. All resettlement farms were exempted within five years from an agricultural tax. 1

In December, 1927 Council of People's Commissars of the republic, having heard the question "About Progress in Resettlement and Resettlement", established norm of a plot for immigrants in cotton areas of 4 hectares of the irrigation earth on economy. And also suggested Selkhozsnab to reserve for them necessary quantity of sets of agricultural stock, Narkomat obliged to deliver trade to areas of resettlement in enough manufactured goods. 2

In places of resettlement cultural construction was developed: schools opened, red teahouses reading rooms were created, medical care of the population returned to normal.

However in a resettlement campaign it was not without difficulties, nedouchyot and errors.

Bai, being afraid of weakening of the economic positions and ideological influence on dekhkan, resorted to various means to interfere with resettlement. So, in Garmsky and Kulob wilayats at registration of immigrants they by means of the agency spread provocative rumors that allegedly under the guise of resettlement the mobilization for forced labor is carried out to the central regions of the country and also for military service in connection with the forthcoming war, etc.

Enemies of the Tajik people resorted also to one of favourite methods - to kindling of the race hatred. They tried on the soil

2 A.Ya. Mizarbayev. The Tajik people in fight for restoration and reconstruction of the national economy (1924-1937) - Dushanbe, 1962. - page 51.
1 CGA RT, t. 17, op. 2, 1, l. 67.
2 In the same place, op. 1, 30, l. 804.

land disputes to organize collision between Uzbeks and Tajik immigrants in a number of districts of the Gissar and Kulob wilayats.1 On their task the hired bandits committed robberies at resettlement kishlaks in the Vakhsh valley. All this demonstrated that the elements hostile to a new system, all means available to them sought to break carrying out agrarian policy for the benefit of workers.

The class enemy was played into the hands by curvatures of party policy at resettlement. Because of separate party, Soviet and economic organizations the principle of voluntariness was broken and administration at selection of immigrants was allowed that caused discontent dekhkan. There were cases when immigrants in due time were not provided with stock and food. The basic principle of resettlement policy was quite often broken: together with dekhkanami-immigrants on new lands, prosperous elements moved. A consequence of administration and other curvatures of policy of the party in 1928-29 some part of the farms moved to the Kurgan-Tyube wilayat and Parkharsky district of the Kulob wilayat returned to old residences. 3

The management and the government of Tajikistan took immediate measures for elimination of the allowed curvatures. Broad explanatory work in kishlaks about value of resettlement in rise of agricultural production was at the same time carried out. All this brought calm in masses dekhkan and gave the chance to successfully implement the plan of resettlement.

Results of resettlement are confirmed by the following data. In 1925-27 the contingent of immigrants made 2835 farms, in 1927-29 - 4542, in 1930-33goda - 7204 farms, and all for years of existence Tajik the ASSR on new lands moved over 15 thousand farms, from them more than 3 thousand - to areas of the Vakhsh valley.

All resettlement farms which did not have before in enough the earth were provided with it now. So, 7204 farms moved in 1922-23 received 23,450 hectares of irrigation and 13,390 hectares of the bogharic earth. On average 5 hectares, from them 3.2 hectares of irrigation and 1.8 hectares of the bogharic earth were the share of each economy, in the conditions of Tajikistan it was the norm of the middling person giving the chance to conduct economy without resorting to land lease at Bai. Along with the earth what it was already told about, immigrants were provided with the working cattle and agricultural stock. And, along with local instruments of labor, modern agricultural machinery mainly went to areas of resettlement. In particular it concerns the Vakhsh valley where it was necessary to master

1 Materials to a question of the land relations in Tajikistan. - page 33-34.
2 CGA RT, t. 17, op. 1, 142, l. 58.
3 Soviet Tajikistan, Dec. 1929, 16; Revolution and nationalities, 1930, No. 6, page 63.

virgin lands and to conduct big irrigational construction.1 Here the majority of the tractors coming to the republic, in significant amounts plows, seeders, harrows and other types of the equipment went.

During 1923-1925 on the basis of resettlement policy it was succeeded to develop tens of thousands of new lands and to expand material resources of agriculture. On all republic by the beginning of 1929 there were about 50 new kishlaks, including 36 kishlaks in the Kurgan-Tyube wilayat, 2 become one of the main cotton bases of the republic. Thousands dekhkan from among immigrants became the wonderful masters of cotton breeding who became widely known not only in the republic subsequently, but also is far beyond its limits.

However, despite a big role of resettlement in the solution of an agrarian question, it is impossible to exaggerate its social value. In this regard we will remind that in historical literature of the end of the 50th - the beginnings of the 60th years the attempt to present resettlement as a peculiar zemelnovodny reform was made. 2

Is not subject to doubt that the specified researchers make a basic mistake, losing sight of the main thing: the edge of land and water reform was directed against the feudal land tenure and the feudal land relations serving as the main obstacle for social development. Resettlement did not affect bases of a social system in the kishlak and, therefore, could not serve as land and water reform.

It is curious to note that investment scales dekhkan as a result of land and water reform and resettlement were the earth (in the share relation to all farms) approximately identical, having made about 10% of all farms in both cases. And the sizes of the plots received by immigrants were more, than the earth of the arranged farms of Northern Tajikistan after reform (on average 4-5 tithes to 2.8 tithes).

However the defining factors at assessment of these two agrarian actions were changes in social structure of the kishlak. If land and water reform exempted productive forces from the feudal fetters connecting them, then resettlement became only an impulse for development of productive forces and could not make basic changes to relations of production.

Re-election campaigns led not only to strengthening of bodies of the Soviet local authorities, but also to important socio-political shifts. There was a further falling of influence and the authority of an exploiter top of the kishlak with a simultaneous growth of class consciousness and political activity of poor man's and farm-labourer's masses. Quite

1 Hamidov F.M. Vakhshstroy is a child of friendship of the people. - Khujand, 1998.
2 CGA RT, t. 168, op. 1, 437, l. 54 about.

definitely withdrawal of a part of middling persons from a baystvo and their joint performance with the poor was outlined during elections to Councils.

All these changes in social and political life created more favorable conditions for the solution of social and economic problems of the Tajik kishlak including an agrarian question.

According to the basic principles of the Declaration on nationalization of the earth and water the government of the republic and local authorities conducted a course towards protection of the rights of a labor dekhkanstvo in land use, restriction of large land tenure and exploiter opportunities of a baystvo and clergy.

F.M. Homidov

The beginning of process of resettlement of the Tajik kishlak in Tajik the ASSR

On the II plenum of Organizational bureau of the RC (b) of Uzbekistan in Tajik the ASSR legislatively fixed the beginning of process of resettlement, besides, decisions on nationalization of the earth, water, the depths of the earth and wood were made.

At resettlement dekhkan from overpopulated areas in sparsely populated, the allotment providing a living wage for one eater was defined.

by

In article determined the social and economic reasons of resettlement on again developed lands of the Vakhsh valley (from the Gissar, Kulob, Uratyubinsky, Panjekent regions and the Fergana region of Uzbekistan).

In March, 1927 at the Central Committee Tajik the ASSR was founded the Central resettlement committee, and on places the commissions of assistance to resettlement were created.

At resettlement defects and curvatures in party policy were allowed. Because of separate party, Soviet and economic organizations the principle of voluntariness was broken and administration at selection of immigrants was allowed that caused discontent dekhkan.

Examples of results of resettlement are given, volumes of the irrigation and bogharic earth and norm of the earth for middling persons are specified.

Elections on places to authorities strengthened trust dekhkan, changed the social and economic relations, created favorable conditions for the solution of problems of the Tajik kishlak.

Hamidov F.M.

The begining of the rpocess of tagik villages mijration in Tajik autonomic

Republics

The author of the article considers migration process during former Soviet Republics. As the author reminds in the II session of ^mmunist party of former

Uzbekistan and Tajikistan legally was fixed the beginning of migration process, and also was taken decision about nationalization of lands, water, land bowels and forests.

This process defined land division, guaranteeing living wage for farmers in overpopulated and seldom occupied districts.

There is also defined social economic migration causes into new long fallow lands of Vakhsh (Hissar valley), Kulyab, Uratyube, Panjakent and Ferghana valleys.

The center of migration committee was established at the Central committee of Tajik Republic. There were made a lot of blunder and errors such as was broken volunteer principle and in migration choice by separate parties, soviet and administrative organs which raised discontent among farmers.

On the basis of vivid examples of migration result, there is shown the volume of watered and deserted lands and norms of land division for intermediate farmers.

There was created favorable conditions for decision of villages’ problems by holding elections among farmers to authority organs which strengthened confidence and changed their social economic attitude.

Mubina Dzhalolovna Hodzhayeva, - to. item of N, associate professor of Russian of TGUPBP

Elmurodova Sadbarg, Sr. ave. kaf.ped. HGU of the academician B. Gafurov

SPECIFICS of the ORGANIZATION of WORK SCHOOL

The STUDENT ORGANIZATIONS PROMOTING FORMATION of SOCIAL and VALUE MOTIVES FOR WORK AT PUPILS of COMPREHENSIVE SCHOOLS

At the present stage the school student organization of Ismoil Somoni has important value in labor education of younger generation. Organizing the educational process promoting formation of social and value motives for work the teacher has to include school students in a context real public and relations of production, conditions of course of work of the person. In this communication were

the actions directed to updating at school students of awareness of social and personal need of their active participation in study and work on formation of ability at them are organized and carried out it is correct to combine own opportunities with conditions of training and work of a various type, to choose possible and expedient options of behavior in various life and production situations. Within these actions the conditions allowing were created:

>- to induce school students to desirable behavior, to give it certain qualities as a result of purposeful influence;

>- to stop or constrain negative behavior of school students, purposefully eliminating undesirable reactions.

Gloria Mason
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