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Economic mentality of the Don Cossacks (on materials of the GARO personal funds)

 © 2007 urban districts of M. Morozov


Providing people of with means of livelihood - from volume minimum to the sizes which are obviously beyond obvious moderation - in science call both economic mentality, and economic representations, and economic behavior [1-3], but it is obvious that it is about the same phenomenon. The second and third are two forms of the first, the mentality is an installation and outlook, i.e., on the one hand, "habits", the perception "avtomatizm" which are shown in behavior, and with another - outlook which owing to the systemacity establishes interdependence of the components making a whole in a certain, though mobile hierarchy.

Our purpose: to find out whether there was economic thinking and behavior of the Cossacks patriarchally natural, or it apprehended specific norms of economy of commodity-money type, and probably earlier, than the population of the central provinces of Russia. It seemed, would be to refer to existence of Trade society of the Don Cossacks enough to speak about existence of the corresponding traditions in their environment. But it which received Pyatisotsky's name could not be numerous on structure. We will lead the speech about the most mass group of the Don Cossacks - mainly about officers and partly about privates because of the insufficient illumination of life of ordinary Cossacks in sources.

If we manage to find signs of capitalist behavior in deaf farms on the Cossack plots not only during the post-reform period, but also to it, then we will say goodbye to stereotypes and once again we will thank archival funds which do not cease to surprise us. As sources documents from personal funds of noblemen from Cossacks Yanov, Ulyanov and Denisov are used. These materials show features of shape of the Cossacks as economic entity. Thinking of Cossack noblemen early enough and quickly gained commodity character. Old noble Cossack families, according to documents of the second half of the 18th century, already well understand value of serfs and economy in general in their welfare. The new nobility from among toadied in wars with Napoleon and with Turks at the beginning of the 19th century began to consider as the main source of the income not a salary and spoils of war, and economic activity on an army plot too, but it was shown at them with a delay on the corresponding number of decades.

The old Cossack family of Yanov in the 1800th shows strong preference of life in the settlement to participation in campaigns. Two brothers Yanov in any way

will not divide considerable fatherly property. The quarrel is so strong that successors organize attacks on estates each other. Date of one of events of this long-term intra family squabble is especially remarkable: September, 1812. Both brothers - a Cossack captain Vasily and the centurion Alexey - still did not oppose in a campaign Napoleon [4].

Yanova is an elite of Army: their ancestor clerk Ivan Yanov was the deputy of the Laid commission of 1767 It is known that at it several class commissions for "the composition of the draft of the New code" worked. Yanov would have to be interested more in what concerned a legal status of the Cossacks, but in family archive "The draft of laws on the rights of a neutral gender of the state inhabitants" [5] with traces of attentive reading, an amendment and changes of a number of articles made his hand remained. Chapter VIII "The rights of merchants" contains the greatest number of marks and the made changes. Articles about categories of trade people, their rights, about rules of "record of contractual letters" and execution of the guarantee, about responsibility of salesmen to owners and so forth are subjected to editing. It is remarkable that the deputy Yanov brought from the capital and kept this document, as well as the fact that the greatest interest of it was attracted by the chapter 8 of the project. The rudimentary memory of trade and predatory teams of thousand-year prescription about which V.O. Klyuchevsky, decayed in the central Russian lands wrote, probably, did not run low in inhabitants of Don and vividly responded to the changing conditions.

The recorded evidence of interest of donts in questions of housekeeping becomes especially numerous in the 1830th. Till this time the housekeeping was women's occupation as the Cossack for one or two years of stay on "privilege", as a rule, did not manage to enter a course of household chores. Here what wrote about it serving in 1880 - the 1890th the representative ROPITA in Rostov-on-Don N.E. Wrangel: "To process itself the lands the stanichnik was not adapted... The Cossack even in the house not the owner, but the temporary guest. The owner - his wife" [6, page 244]. How not to believe the eyewitness, but here he describes life of the ordinary Cossacks. To the first third of the 19th century the difference in life of officers and ordinary Cossacks was not too big, but after 1835 it became more considerable. The personal fund of noblemen Ulyanov saved correspondence of the officers who were in a campaign, and their house. If the earliest letter is dated 1803, then the subject of economy for the first time appears in 1825 [7, l. 45]. In former years the main embodiment of material interests of family is receiving gifts from "cordon": sitets, britskas, sha-

leu; whether confiscated, whether received from smugglers as a compensation. The second - not a rarity that is confirmed by archival documents [8].

The Cossack officers gained skills of financial accounting during service as the Cossack regiments unlike regular army were on self-supply. Commanders hundreds kept so-called memorable books [9, l. 2-5] where brought expenses - costs of a billeting, purchase of food and fodder, urgent repair work. Market prices of fodder on counties of the Bessarabia region [9, l were traced. 29, 142]. Economy of means of a regiment was carried out in all directions. Responsible for expenditure of army means was the commander of a regiment; the current control was exercised by his aide-de-camp, he knew regimental cash desk and gave to centurions money for purchases, stored regimental financial documents.

The officers which are not belonging to landed gentry hard were given both service, and a family life as everywhere it was pursued by need. The salary, low in comparison with "the Russian officers ", and heavy expenses on housekeeping because for work in it they employed seasonal workers were the reasons. Of course, such situation with time made active various mechanisms of adaptation: who fell into defect of embezzlement of public funds, who perished from "passion for a cup" [10, l. 465] who began to be engaged actively in own economy, without missing it from the attention even during regimental service. Ivan Samoylovich Ulyanov (1803 - 1874) serving the headquarters captain in Warsaw dreamed to grow rich and return to Don to economy; together with the companion it makes the project of versatile economy with the plants, "different rukodelnyam", windmills. However, that all this so far in imaginations, but as it is not similar to sleepy small estate life of many great Russian landowners. "However I firmly hold the ground, - the officer writes, - that if god brings to be accepted to housekeeping, then or I will grow rich... or... in down I will be ruined" [7, l.108].

"Already I order a division, and so-so, almost private person", I.I. Krasnov in 1835 [11, l admits. 370 about.]. Thoughts it all houses: "No. it is necessary to serve, it is necessary to lay there the foundation on the basis of which to build and collect domesticity" [11, l. 252]. Being in a holiday (1838), he is completely given to agriculture: "I. the right am ready to exchange the. a uniform on a gray beshme-tishko and all fields of honor and glory to exchange for my field occupied with wheat and lined by tithes. Incomprehensible business as the destiny twirls by the person autocratically and gives it appointments, contrary to calling! I would like to be a house-keeper, to plow the earth and to breed pigs, and here the-nravnitsa rubs in a hand a saber, a feather". Further he tells the brother-soldier that he "got at himself. a harrow with iron teeths, and last year

an eksterpater (can be, the conveyor? - The island of M.), a .molotilka, .vypisat travny seeds: cock's head and clover". The end of the letter shows that between officers there is a constant exchange of progressive ideas and achievements: "I send you an ag-litsky pluzhok to couple of bulls. As for to a respectable sivokoloska (an ancient grade of firm spring-sown field, ostya which had a gray shade. - Lakes of M.), your praises so made it mine conceited that I too [want to try]" [11, l. 325]. Moreover, Krasnov suggests Ulyanov "to tisnut an article" about these innovations. It was fashionable to share the innovative ideas and to have a reputation for the progressive owner. In the light of the tradition which took to Dona root in the 1830th, letters "From the village" A.N. Engelgardt appearing in "Domestic notes" in the 1870th look just the example which gained the greatest fame. It is rather interesting to compare motives of what induced the Don officers and the St. Petersburg professor-chemist to begin to penetrate into art of farming. For the first it was the way to patch holes in the family budget, for the second - desire to disappear in the family estate from a scandal story of an abandoning the family of his wife. For Engelgardt departure to the Smolensk solitude - an act. For Ulyanov, Krasnov, Ezhov, Shurupov, Denisov and hundreds such, as they, - a way of life.

Not all officials and officers are poor. Many inherited fatherly lands and fortunes, others increased the property by own efforts. Such persons involved in prereform life of Don as the inspector of Zadonsky steppes army foreman Kalashnikov, combined execution of a state position with own business activity. As the official Kalashnikov, using the situation, complicates life to "competitors", i.e. other konezavodchi-ka: demands to break already constructed dam, the zimovnik far away from the river disposes to transfer if the earth attracted to someone from his protege. He is blamed for the arbitrariness connected with satisfaction own commercial interests.

Life of the subaltern officer who served more than thirty years on military and civil army service is still poor, as well as in youth. When one of sons asks to send unnecessary the father who is in resignation, a military dress, I.S. Ulyanov answers: ". At me all clothes consist of a shabby uniform and two chekmeny from which it would be ashamed and to put on one and there is nothing to do" [7, l. 380]. The officer becomes more senior, the it is heavier than his thought, the heavier he is given service - diseases, impassable poverty. Approximately from the middle of the 1830th Ulyanov tries to buy in full property a farm [10, l. 67]. The urgent plot in a yurta of the native village of Ust-Medveditskoy on the Tsutskan River does not suit it with the temporariness: in close time after his death the family will need to leave this already about -

embroidered a steppe corner, having conceded it to other officer family. Therefore it just demands from sons that they continued its business. At the colonel Ulyanov three sons grow up. He inspires in them the same that professed itself at their age: it is necessary to serve the sovereign and to serve true and honest. But sons whether did not inherit fatherly vanity, whether for them there was instructive an experience of the father which, having a reputation for the person influential, was a living incarnation of a saying that for works just you will not acquire chambers stone. As a result they served a little and did not repeat career progress of Ivan Samoylo-vich. Has to be, and Ulyanov Sr. was not convincing in manuals because in 1848 he wrote to one of friends: ". In the world there is no purpose more nobly, vozvyshenny how to be useful to themselves" [11, l. 383].

The figure of the senior from his sons - Pavel is most interesting. In 1847 he was defined by efforts of the father into the army account in Guards artillery school, but studied, without showing diligence [7, l. 300]. The father extremely dissatisfied with the son writes it: "We grieve, buried hope that you will become a family support" [7, l. 298]. In its address the father releases the most terrible damnations for the fact that the successful artillery officer as it was dreamed to it from this is impossible. After a cruel beating Pavel became reasonable and graduated from school. He bravely was at war in the Crimean campaign. By thirty years retired [12, l. 5, 6, 11], and the reason not only in rheumatism which it got in dank barracks of cadet school in St. Petersburg. In the letter of 1843 the fourteen-year-old teenager, the fifth year as left the house, is interested in economy. Since childhood the life on the farm in the native steppe was for it the most desired: "I will not forget a century how cheerfully and pleasantly I spent time on the Homeland or Tsutskana. As happened, we will go for a mowing and a melon field, or we will go with old man for ducks wild. that was cheerful. I remember. also I shed the tears" [7, l. 229]. In each letter memories alone of native steppes. At the end of one of them the boy even drew against the background of lovely to his heart of Tsutskan of himself going to fishing [7, l. 230].

gu hoJA^,^.,-/expert "^/¿¡^

feritfJ-& Jf^&iW; &

Having appeared in resignation, Pavel Ulyanov was engaged in business management in a manor near Taganrog, priobre-

muddy in 1847 [13, l. 295]. In this manor on the Elanchik River there was nothing therefore Ulyanov ironically called it for the known ephemerality of economy Mirazhem [7, l. 313 about.]. Everything began to change for the better when Pavel took business in hand. By 1858 he achieved the first essential results - this year is sold wheat more than on 7 thousand rubles of assortment. And Pavel decided to hold a new harvest because learned news that in connection with a possible crop failure in Spain, Southern France, a part of Italy is expected increase in prices for bread. The young landowner quickly felt a part of the world grain market. When he invites the father in a manor, writes so: "Recover rather and in the Mirage where the garden, a bread harvest, and with them money - the best property of this world expects you." [7, l. 406].

The commodity nature of economy clearly appears in letters of the young landowner. "... I wait for a sled way to carry hay to Taganrog and on the gained money to buy the woodlands, becheva and tar. What nice leaves a horse the Giant known to you. I hope to make good money on him" [12, l. 48]. Pavel is proud that the budget of the Mirage increases and that in him "the spirit of commerce" [12, l burns. 35, 53 about.]. As almost each nobleman of the 19th century, Pavel Ulyanov thinks of the appointment and so formulates the vital credo: "Recently from St. Petersburg started singing: religion, progress, humanity. I translated these three great ideas. on the personal catechism: wheat, sheep and success in the enterprises" [12, l. 45 about., 46].

Young Ulyanov is not unique among the Don noblemen, many of them have the farms which are famous for the herds in which selection work is carried out. Names of owners of the prospering economiya of obviously capitalist type of General V.D. Ilovaysky and landowner Mer-tsalova [12, l are mentioned in letters. 46]. I.S. Ulyanov's son-in-law, the husband of his daughter Kalista - the colonel Pavel Yepifanov, the conqueror of rebellious Poles and the favourite Muravyeva-veshatelya - having come into inheritance in 1865, became the owner of a part of fatherly property: brewery and market hotel in Novocherkassk, mines, the foundry and limy plant in Grushev-sk and in it inn and a wooden bench with a cellar [7, l. 447]. The shape of the leader of the Don nobility in the 1880th A.K. Krivoshein is transferred by one of contemporaries: not only such clear "trifles" as jugglings on elections, but also participation in unscrupulous commercial transactions, such as sale of steamships with faulty fire chambers were registered for it, - dissolved with the rags moistened in kerosene couples, and it seemed to buyers, the steamship is ready to departure [6, page 240-241].

Ulyanov had serfs, but these are domestic, and agricultural works were performed by hired workers [12, l. 26 about., 38]. If till 1861 the gratuitous slave labor which their more wealthy neighbors - local noblemen used, caused in Ulyanov clear envy,

they had to employ "foreign" people "with a considerable payment of money and contents" [11, l. 162], later this circumstance went to the benefit to the Mirage. As Ulyanov Sr. as it was from the very beginning based not on gratuitous, and at hired work, "the country revolution" did not take them unawares estimated it, they had not to get used to new orders [13, l. 372 about.]. In general the situation to Dona is not similar to that post-reform village which characteristic A.N. Engelgardt in letters "From the village" gave. He noted economic helplessness of the Smolensk neighbors landowners whose economy was conducted badly, "it is even worse. than in serf time when there were good heads owners.". In great Russian old estates "there were mainly mistresses who conduct economy" with which to speak "about economy is absolutely useless because they the most part very little in this case understand" [14].

Gradually there is a formation of the unified aristocrat's type by origin and the businessman on belief irrespective from what branch of a branched tree of the Russian aristocracy there is this product of modernization. From correspondence of the beginning of the 20th century we can learn that two capital dignitaries - the columns Liechtenstein and the stallmaster Dvora, the member of the State Council Don nobleman Vasily Ilyich Denisov [15] - in a private conversation discuss advantages of various schemes of sagination of the cattle [16, l. 58 about.]. It would be possible to exclaim: the land owner at last began to be engaged in effective use of the property closely. But the Don archives demonstrate that many local landowners set this task for themselves during much earlier period, having for this purpose two good reasons: small number of serfs and much lower contents for military service. Level of understanding of economic problems at them was far higher, than at great Russian land owners. It turned out that the nature of economic thinking of the population of Don was prepared by the previous development for perception of laws of new commodity managing.

The personal fund of Denisov relating to the period of 1905 - 1914, and in particular its correspondence with the managing director give an idea of shape of the Don noble elite. Ilyevk's economy represented big, 3000 des. lands, diversified agriculture. On average it brought up to 90 thousand rubles of revenue [16, l. 42]. Among the list of the produced goods there were trough valleys, grape wine, dairy products, meat, highly productive breeds of the cattle - sementalsky and angeln-sky cows, the Yorkshire pigs and so forth got divorced; wheat, grapes, forage crops were grown up; there was a distillery. Till 1904 I. Denisov himself conducted economy in economy and proved to be as the knowing owner. Further, when it was

elected the regional leader of the nobility (1901

>- 1907), and then when, having become the member of the State Council, constantly lived in St. Petersburg, he was forced to employ the managing director from Baltic Germans I.F. Brad. The correspondence consisting of letters of the owner to the managing director gives rather complete idea of methods of business management, commercial ethics, contacts and even the system of values of actively economic entities of the beginning of the 20th century

the Level of special agricultural knowledge of the stallmaster Dvor of V.I. Denisov strikes. After the round of fields the owner who suddenly appeared suddenly from the capital leaves to Breda such note: "Examined a lucerne. Long ago it is time to mow it. In 17 and 16 Lang there is a lot of sow-thistle which if now not to mow, then it will be such firm that its scythe will not be taken" [17, l. 7]. Soon it does not accept a way of delivery of carcasses of rams for restaurants of St. Petersburg, and it gives the detailed instruction to the managing director on this matter [17, l. 9 about.]. One of letters represents the whole research about annual fluctuation in prices of various grades of meat taking into account which it is necessary to plan herd number not to overdo a livestock. So, he recommends to the German to plan the main face of sheep by April - May, and pigs - by the beginning of summer and especially by August

>- to September that contradicts all country traditions, but in terms of commercial calculation is absolutely proved [17, l. 12-13]. The landowner Denisov knows by name all workers and their labor qualities. Respects for diligence of "Ukrainians", and here "we at own expense should not employ Cossacks" the ataman Denisov's descendant because now he is a zealous owner writes.

In spite of the fact that Ilyevka his not only manor and not the only source of income, Denisov takes everything, as for economy very much to heart. He writes the managing director Brede, "for 2000 versts from a manor to be very heavy. I am concerned by both the plant, and alcohol supply, and payment of bills, and results of feeding [cattle]. and you while I do not bother, do not write anything" [17, l. 59 about.]. The German managing director from year to year more and more forced to be nervous the employer. He was capricious, threatened leaving, demanded money for "working capital", "forgot" to make in due time calculations with the owner of economy and with suppliers and so forth. The tone of letters grew stronger over time, but from documents not clearly whether the count decided to leave the willful managing director. Probably, so long-term cooperation cannot be explained only with connivance of the owner; means that in general managing methods suited to Breda Denisov. And these methods stand a special conversation. In archives of economy the fair number of letters complaints from recipients and different buyers of products of this economy remained. But from the owner the sluggish reaction to claims in the form of council arrived only once that it is advisable most to watch quality of goods. It seems that in

"a pursuit of a profit" they were in one team, but to Breda obviously was for radical.

Denisov well understood financial questions: was able to read the financial statements received from the managing director, at the same time caught him on jugglings, payment documents from banks in which had accounts. Gave detailed instructions for repayment of bills for different credit operations, monitored receipt of funds from Excise department, from Ministry of Railways for the site sold under construction of a branch line, etc. Thus, we have before ourselves the new type of the nobleman which is a certain hybrid of "monarchic servants" from whom the statist feeling and zeal about public advantage are inherited and new generation of the capitalist businessmen having necessary knowledge and skills, able to work, with calculation to risk and knowing the account to money. In correspondence with people of the circle and in business correspondence the person of the different worlds appears, but nevertheless the businessman did not win until the end of the nobleman, in any role Denisov wishes to save face, not to fall to meannesses, abuse to the people who really caused it troubles.

Denisov - elite, Ulyanov - the center, and that the ordinary Cossacks? Whether there was it so patriarchal how we think? N.Je Wrangel observing the Don life in 1880 - the 1890th, draws it it. What is the stanichnik-Cossack when he on a privilege engaged in? "Existence of the Cossack and without any work is provided. The village owns numerous lands which. in rent at Ukrainians, the .kazhdy Cossack on the share annually receives the sum which is quite providing it comfortable existence. The house is mastered by the hostess, and the stanichnik itself lounges about without certain classes. and then again sits down on a horse and goes to service" [6, page 245-246]. From where milk in its millet cereal undertakes, the Cossack did not think neither in a campaign, nor in a native hut. Nonparticipation of the Cossack in economy is connected not with strong material prosperity of his family, Wrangel was mistaken in it: as we made sure, and the Cossack colonel had couple of old uniforms, and debts were paid for years.

The chief economist in family of the Cossack - his mother or the wife; she also is at war with tenants, and on a market trades, and to sons looks for brides with a good dowry. Competence it is almost universal illiterate Cossacks in issues of trade, the rent relations and understanding of own rights shows the following example. The Cossack widow clearly imagined a difference between rent and sublease when protested on the occasion of the fact that her lodger, the merchant non-resident, having moved down from removed at her home, handed over him to the third parties for high price, than paid it. The visitor the merchant tried to convince her that the house is rented is termless and if he does not intend to break off the contract, then she as the initiator of termination of the contract has to pay to it

penalty. But the Cossack competently put forward counterarguments, say, leased the house under housing, but not under a warehouse that to it did not transfer the rights for property rental in hiring and demanded release kurenya [7, l. 288-289]. And the conflict took place in the 1840th! Features of their economic thinking are reflected in the letters dictated by illiterate Cossacks. From them it is possible to draw a conclusion, as Cossacks bottoms in general also well understood the commodity-money relations, as well as the nobility.

The rapid economic development of the South of the country which occurred in the last third of the 19th century can be explained not only natural wealth of edge, weakness of traditions of a serfdom (that in itself is a doubtful argument), with proximity of ports of the nonfreezing sea, but also by the fact that the people inhabiting Don and the neighboring regions, never lived it is economically closed, did not conduct purely subsistence economy, knew advantages of monetary circulation, were an expert in trade and favorable crafts. As mentality they were closer to the Mediterranean ("levantiysky") culture which had thousand-year traditions of international goods turnover.

Literature and notes

1. V.A. Maryanovsky. Russian economic mentality//State and right. 1999. No. 6. Page 11-16.
2. Dietmar X. Economic representations of teenagers//Foreign psychology. 1997. No. 9.
3. Alexandrov T.L. Economic behavior and profession: methodological researches: Yew.... Dr.s sotsiol. sciences. Yekaterinburg, 2000; L.A. Gromova. Ethical models of economic behavior: Yew.... Dr.s filos. sciences. SPb., 1994.
4. State Archive of the Rostov Region (SARR), t. 82, op. 1, 1, l. 37.
5. In the same place, 12.
6. N.E. Wrangel. Memoirs: From the serfdom to Bolsheviks / Vstup. article, comment. and under-got. A. Zeyde's text. M, 2003.
7. GARO, t. 243, op. 1, 40.
8. In the same place, t. 55 (73), op. 1, 7, l. 7.
9. In the same place, t. 243, op. 1, 11.
10. In the same place, 33.
11. In the same place, 34.
12. In the same place, 37.
13. In the same place, 35.
14. A.N. Engelgardt. From the village. 12 letters. 18721887. M, 1956. Page 27, 55.
15. V.I. Denisov. (1863 - died after 1915 abroad); ended the Pazhesky case; since 1883 - in the Cossack and active armed forces. Since 1898 - on civil service: the chamberlain Dvora, then - the stallmaster Dvora. Regional leader of the nobility. Property - 776 tithes own in the Rostov district; 6834 des. inherited from the father;
400 des. acquired. See: Koryagin S.V. Denisova 16. GARO, t. 107, op. 1, 11.

and others. Series "Genealogy and family history 17. In the same place, 14.

Don Cossacks". Issue 20. M, 2001. Page 38.

Russian state trade and economic university (Rostov branch) On December 7, 2006

Thomas Hall
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