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The first radio engineerings in the Tomsk technological



stranitsa of history TPU

UDC 621.37/.39 (091)

The FIRST RADIO ENGINEERINGS IN TOMSK TECHNOLOGICAL

S.I. Kuznetsova

Tomsk state university E-mail: svetateneva@mail.ru

According to archive materials and memoirs of contemporaries radio engineering history in TTI (TPI-TPU) is restored. Short biographies of the first radio technicians of Tomsk are provided: V.V. Shirkov, B.A. Golubkov, A.A. Holodkovsky.

Radio electronics history, radio communication, radio stations.

The letter directed to administration came to the Tomsk polytechnical institute in 1979: "... it is known that at your institute one of founder members of the Russian society of radio engineers (RORI) Doctor of Engineering Vasily Vasilyevich Shirkov (1891-1958) worked. You could not report about it the had biographic data during work at your institute. Captain of the I rank, engineer of a stock E.N. Shoshkov, city of Dubna".

The letter it remained in TPU archive in the case of V.V. Shirkov. V.V. Shirkov's activity as member of RORI and actively working radio engineer, it is reflected in pages of the book on the history of the Nizhny Novgorod radio laboratory [1].

The city of Tomsk long since was famous for the radio engineering personnel and radio engineering faculties of higher education institutions. The history of Tomsk is closely connected with the history of development of radio engineering. In 1887 Tomsk was visited by future inventor of radio Alexander Stepanovich Popov as a part of an expedition of Academy of Sciences according to a solar eclipse. The first radio receiver of A.S. Popov called then a grozootmetchik was brought to Tomsk in 1895 by Fyodor Yakovlevich Kapustin, future professor of department of physics of the Tomsk university.

The main data on radio engineering sources in Tomsk contain in L.V. Zarzhitskaya's article, etc. [2], the Soviet Army written on materials of the Central archive, and in memoirs of professor Alexander Borisovich Sapozhnikov,

TGU which remained at radio physical faculty. Textbooks on radio engineering and prints of articles of V.V. Shirkov with a dedicatory inscription still are in the TGU Scientific library.

Before the October revolution in Russia there were three radio bases: Moscow and Vladimir, Kazan and Tomsk. The third base of military radiotelegraphic formations was organized in Tomsk even during World War I. The base represented military, technical establishment, one of the main objectives of which was a repair of the equipment and equipment of military mobile radio stations.

In October, 1918 by the order of the day of National army of Provisional government it was announced the organization and formation in Tomsk of radiotelegraphic school, a workshop and warehouse. Under radio school occupied the building of city schools of N.I. Pirogov. At school opened classes of radio telegraphists, electricians, supervisors of radio stations and also a class of "listener-ins". The Tomsk Institute of Technology allowed to use laboratories of internal combustion engines and electrotechnical and also a part of audiences. In November, 1918 the power in Siberia passed to the Provisional Siberian government at the head of which there was the Supreme governor - the admiral Alexander Vasilyevich Kolchak.

During the same period in the village of Berdsk (in 80 versts from Novonikolayevsk) the radiotelegraphic division was created. Because appeared

need of creation of radiotelegraphic base, a division soon transferred to Tomsk, and in March, 1919 there was a merge of all mentioned radiotelegraphic parts - schools, a division, a workshop and a warehouse - in one general under the name the Main radiotelegraphic base of the White movement.

Due to the approach of the Red Army in A.V. Kolchak's government made the decision on evacuation. In December, 1919 almost all radio property was evacuated from Tomsk to Krasnoyarsk. In Tomsk left only a few field English radio stations, one cavalry, four pack Marconi, 30 radio specialists and 150 people of economic team. All this intended for transfer to the Siberian army, for formation of a radiotelegraphic division. The division was created, but, having existed only 10 days, with arrival of troops of the Red Army in full fighting structure came over to the side of red.

In the same time, December 20, 1919, in Tomsk there arrived the echelon with the troops of White army evacuated from Omsk where there was a 20-year-old first-year student of the Kazan university, the electrician of artillery workshops A.B. Sapozhnikov. It it, having become professor of the Tomsk university, will write memories of the first radio engineerings of Tomsk.

In December, 1919 in Tomsk there arrived the headquarters of the 5th Red Army, and the radiotelegraphic division was poured in structure of the 5th Radiotelegraphic division and disbanded. Further there was a need of creation of radiotelegraphic base. In January, 1920 near Krasnoyarsk, echelons of the Main radiotelegraphic base of Kolchak were taken. All property and the most part of radio specialists were sent for completion of radio base to Tomsk. The approval of radio base is final it was made the order RVSR of 1920 No. 5/3 [2].

In the third (Tomsk) base of radiotelegraphic formations very prepared shots were collected: members of command structure in the majority were qualified professionals, with wide technical experience. Engineers of various specialties took part in designing of powerful installations. Among staff of radio base there were many people with university education and students of technical colleges. Her employees took active part in development of technical questions of radio base: V.V. Shirkov, B.A. Golubkov, A.A. Holodkov-sky.

The organization of training of radio specialists existing then at radio school deserves attention. At radio school, classes of radio technicians, radio telegraphists, radio mechanics and electricians were organized. The school had offices: radiotelegraphic, elektrotekhniche-

sky, machine, educational and metalwork and workshop. At radio school the technology of metals and the mechanical equipment were read by professor of the Tomsk Institute of Technology T.I. Tikhonov. It was the high-class expert. In scientific works of Tikhon Ivanovich Tikhonov the foundation of two Tomsk schools of sciences is laid: cutting of metals and metallurgical science. Repeatedly T.I. Tikhonov advised production workers on difficult technical questions. Subsequently, in 1927, professor T.I. Tikhonov was officially enlisted in the highest group of scientists of the country [3].

The radio school prepared shots of operators of all specialties for front-line units and connections of the Red Army and in the spring of 1920 gave the accelerated release of 18 experts. On May 3, 1921 there was a rearrangement of the 3rd base of military radiotelegraphic formations in the Educational-experimental radiotelegraphic division "peace time to number of eaters 644". Command of a division was entrusted to I.I. Serpukhov. E.P. Eyt-ner, the chief of radio school - V.R. Schneider [2] was the assistant to the commander of a division by a technical part. The radio school had laboratory which was managed by V.V. Shirkov. At laboratory there were two offices: radiotelegraphic and electrotechnical. In laboratory, installations for measurement of capacity and a self-induction and also for removal of characteristics of intensifying lamps were mounted.

The central educational-experimental radio station of not damped oscillations serving for the educational and practical purposes was constructed in 1919 on the project of the radio specialist B.A. Golubkov. On the outskirts of Tomsk, near Lagerny Garden, there is a building of the former wine monopoly, with a huge krasnokirpichny pipe. Here also the mast of the first dalnodeystvuyushchy radio station designed by B.A. Golubkov [4] rose. In 1925 the engineer B.A. Golubkov together with the employee of TGU A.B. Sapozhnikov and V.V. Scheer-kovym sent from Nizhny Novgorod to Tomsk started construction of the powerful transfer and reception station for communication since. New Nikolaev.

In memoirs of professor of TGU Alexander Borisovich Sapozhnikov who became the cadet of radio school in 1919 there is a mention of B.A. Golubkov. "Boris Andreevich Golubkov, the electrical engineer, the pupil of the Tomsk Institute of Technology managing the TTI educational electrotechnical laboratory fine for those times was very picturesque figure at radio base. It was widely erudite practician who was among talented self-educated persons in the field of radio engineering about whom the proverb speaks - "it takes an old hand to do a good job". B.A. Golubkov's authority as electrics was so big and categorical that "Radio Vasya" (as for fun called V.V. Shirkov) did not hesitate to address sometimes B.A. Golubkov for consultation.

Command of radio base charged to B.A. Golubkov construction of powerful radio station about which we spoke above. This work was carried out in exclusively difficult conditions and was successfully completed in time".

In TPU archive business of the student B.A. Golubkov remained. Here what it was succeeded to learn from it. B.A. Golubkov was born in country family on April 30, 1892 in the settlement Okunyovskaya of the Chelyabinsk County of the Orenburg province. In 1911 graduated from the Chelyabinsk real school. Being in real school, lost parents and remained the orphan. In 1915 entered the Tomsk Institute of Technology.

The Ekaterinburg association in Tomsk cared for it. The certificate of association dated on October 31, 1917 demonstrates to it: "Present following makes sure: Student technologist Boris Andreyev. Golubkov, having lost parents even before the termination of the Chelyabinsk real school and, without getting monetary support from outside, needs the material relation, being forced to earn money with own work that perniciously affects his health and classes at institute".

Texts of telegrams remained. Apparently, his distant relatives cared for the orphan. Telegram of 13.02.1917. "to the director of TTI. The request to report whether the student Golubkov is alive". Response telegram. "Barrow. To Osip Vasilyevich Golyshev. January was sick. The present - it is healthy. Write. Golubkov". Being a poor student, B.A. Golubkov was forced to earn additionally. In 1917 addressed to the director of TTI he writes the application to direct it for the summer to work at KVZhD.

In 1919 B.A. Golubkov called up Kolchak for military service. He received the certificate. "The bearer of this Boris Andreevich Golubkov (1892) is subject to an appeal on the basis of the resolution of Council of ministers of March 4, 1919 approved by the Supreme governor. It is obliged to be to the Tomsk military chief in time. On March 23, 1919". But Golubkov had a poor health, to military service it was recognized as unsuitable. In 1919. Golubkov became the employee of electrotechnical laboratory of the Main radiotelegraphic base of the White movement, taught at radio school

From December, 1919 to 1923 B.A. Golubkov was on service in the Red Army. Sent to higher education institution by radio battalion in 1923. There is a typewritten address of the commander of the 4th radio battalion: "I received the official report of the former serviceman of a radio-division comrade Golubkov from which it is visible that it is expelled from the Tomsk Institute of Technology. Owing to the developed circumstances of comrade. Golubkov was detained on military service as the electrician of great value and only in the spring of this year was demobilized by me. From 1920 for 1923 comrade Golubkov executed in radio base, and then in a radio division a number tekhniche-

the sky works which had very essential value for the Defense Ministry. I find it necessary to specify some of these works for characteristic of comrade Golubkov here. So, for example, in 1920 radio base it was offered to comrade Golubkov to end construction of 6 kW - ache radio stations that by him and it was executed in time. In August of the same year, at the request of the builder of powerful radio station in Chelyabinsk engineer Gramatchikov, comrade. Golubkov was seconded to Chelyabinsk for clarification of the reasons of impossibility of sending operation of just constructed powerful radio set. Thanks to the radical reorganization of an electric part made by comrade Golubkov, the radio station began to function correctly, having increased the power by 4 times, i.e. to full rated capacity in 35 kW. Then comrade Golubkov was given a task on construction of powerful radio station in the city of Tomsk and to reorganization of a radio network that was executed by it earlier set term, and the power of the constructed radio station, thanks to applied by it the combined system of inclusion of alternator and a trasformator, was increased to 12 kW. This work was of great importance for communication of the Red Army.

During further service of comrade. Golubkov is sent as the lab technician in various technical business trips and on consultation. Including all above-mentioned works extremely important for the Defense Ministry, but not justifying long character in the termination by comrade Golubkov of institute, I kindly ask to give the chance to comrade Golubkov to finish the vocational education interrupted on fault in-envedomstva because people with such knowledge and a practical experience are very valuable and necessary to the Republic. I ask me to notify on permission of the matter. Commander of the 4th radio battalion Yakovlev".

The answer came to the address about transfer to higher education institution: "Tomsk. To the commander of radiotelegraphic battalion comrade Yakovlev. I report that the issue of Golubkov's transfer in number of students of TTI is resolved in New Nikolaevsk. From board of institute to reception of the former student Golubkov of objections does not meet what it was reported in Sibnarobraz Chudinovu about".

And, at last, there was an order: "Order No. 91 on higher educational institutions of Siberia of 14.12.1923. The former student Golubkov to rehabilitate the student of the Tomsk Institute of Technology. Basis: Glavprofob-r's order of 20.08.1923 and reference of board of TTI of 8.12.1923". In 1924 B.A. Golubkov graduated from mechanical faculty of TTI on electrotechnical specialty [5].

After leaving TTI B.A. Golubkov worked in the industry. In the thirties headed not one power enterprise of Siberia. Worked very successfully. In the book about the oldest energeti-

chesky school of Siberia there are several lines about B.A. Golubkov: "From among the first power engineering specialists, graduates of TTI, it is necessary to mention Boris Andreevich Golubkov, it is a lot of made for the development of power industry of Siberia heading a number of the power enterprises of Siberia before war. Its fruitful activity was interrupted by repressions of 1937" [6].

Eighteen years B.A. Golubkov served in camps. It was rehabilitated. Its written address to GATO of 31.01.1963 behind the copy of the diploma of TTI is stored in archive of the Tomsk Polytechnic University.

"Tomsk regional archive.

I appeal to you: Be so kind as, certify my diploma about the termination of the Tomsk Institute of Technology. The original is lost by me. I was arrested in 1937 on consequences of a cult of personality of Stalin and stayed in camps of 18 years. Now it is rehabilitated, but documents all mine are lost by the Ministry of Internal Affairs. Now I need the copy of the diploma. I ask you certify it and send". The last years B.A. Golubkov lived in Novosibirsk.

We will return to A.B. Sapozhnikov's memoirs: "Among the experts who had noticeable impact on work of radio school..., Shirkov was actually scientific consultant at radio base. He organized advanced training courses for a komsostav, and put in laboratory which he knew several interesting scientific research on fight against radio interferences; it possessed also useful initiative to do transfers from foreign radio magazines which on its initiative the library of the Tomsk University began to write out.

V.V. Shirkov was attracted to a role of the chairman of the commission in all responsible cases of the acceptance and delivery of the radio equipment constructed or repaired by workshops of base. On mentality and on the preparation V.V. Shirkov was the worker of a theoretical profile with obvious tendency to scientific and to teaching activity. V.V. Shirkov was a one of very little for those times (1914-1916) of graduates of the Petrograd polytechnical institute as "radio technician". If to add high general culture, good possession of mathematics and foreign languages to it, then it is possible to tell surely that Tomsk and specifically the 3rd (Tomsk) base of radiotelegraphic formations had large scientific and technical unit in the collective. The radio base represented military establishment of technical and supply type, in character it could not use completely knowledge and V.V. Shirkov's abilities. Nevertheless, thanks to the big initiative V.V. Shirkov could perform a number of very useful scientific and pedagogical works.

Under its management the skilled radio engineering laboratory was organized (it occupied one room in the basement floor of the physical case of TPI and the second - in the top floor of the same case). In this laboratory besides tests of the standard equipment, research works, in particular, on radio telephony and on fight against radio interferences were put. In this direction work of the scheme "down with categories", offered by V.V. Shirkov, made very convincing impression. From a talk with V.V. Shirko-vy I could understand that he is interested in generators on gas lamps and cars of high frequency. The expert of generally theoretical profile, V.V. Shirkov placed in the magazine "Telegraphy. and telephony without wires" detailed work on the theory of the intermediate transformer. On its initiative in library of the Tomsk university and Institute of Technology subscribed to the main foreign magazines on radio engineering; he organized the translations of the most interesting works which sometimes listened with delight at technical seminars of base. In the place of the work, that is at radio base, V.V. Shirkov held a number of the actions which had the serious remote consequences. I carry the organization of two-month courses for increase in theoretical knowledge of technical group of command structure of base to number of the last. On these courses V.V. Shirkov acted generally as the qualified lecturer. I was among listeners of these courses and still with feeling of profound gratitude I remember V.V. Shirkov for that exclusively valuable material with which these courses enriched us. They taught us to use the method of complex amplitudes which then was still a novelty. For instilling at cadets of radio-school of skills to work with the reception equipment V.V. Shirkov organized and equipped a special class on the American system" [7].

In 1923 V. Shirkov got demobilize from ranks of RKKA, left radio base and some time remained in Tomsk at department of TTI electrical equipment. At the high scientific and pedagogical level it gave in TTI several special courses. Working in TTI, Vasily Vasilyevich gave the following courses: theory of electricity and magnetism, theory of alternating current and electric fluctuations, general electrical equipment, special electrical equipment, stations and transfers, fundamentals of wireless telegraphy. He conducted laboratory works on electrotechnical disciplines and directed degree design. In 1923-1924 V.V. Shirkov headed department of TTI electrical equipment. Along with execution of duties of the teacher of the higher school in TTI and TGU V.V. Shirkov worked as the scientific consultant in a number of technical institutions of Tomsk (Management of telephone networks, the Tomsk office of electrotrust). Till 1924

V.V. Shirkov was on special account in OGPU as the former white officer doing military service Kolchak. He left Tomsk at once after removal from account [3].

Approximately in 1924 V.V. Shirkov accepted the proposal of the director of the Nizhny Novgorod laboratory professor M.A. Bonch-Bruyevich and moved to work to Nizhny Novgorod, having kept communications with Tomsk. V.V. Shirkov left Tomsk with the young wife - the granddaughter of the famous Tomsk educator Pyotr Ivanovich Makushin. V.V. Shirkov was in Nizhny Novgorod before disbandment of the Nizhny Novgorod laboratory then moved to work to Moscow. The laboratory at Shabolovsky radio station was the place of work. Subsequently V.V. Shirkov a long time worked in Moscow in military and air academy of N.E. Zhukovsky. He became the Doctor of Engineering, the general. Created department of radio engineering in this higher education institution. In 1932 the course "Radio Engineering Measurements" of V.V. Shirkov came out. Evgeny Nikolaevich Silov, the radio technician, famous in Tomsk, participating in rescue of Chelyuskins in 1934 told the author of this article that he studied radio measurements according to the book by V.V. Shirkov at department of electromagnetic oscillations of TGU. A.B. Sapozhnikov writes in the memoirs [7]: "The further information about V.V. Shirkov has sketchy character in my representation; I have them generally from professor V.N. Kessenikh acting as the official opponent according to the doctoral dissertation of V.V. Shirkov in Moscow (the thesis concerned questions of direction finding). The last years of the life V.V. Shirkov successfully worked as the head of the department of one of military institutes. He died, speak, suddenly, on duty, as a result of an overload sport (sambo)".

Thanks to Olga Gennadyevna Nikiyenko, the organizer of a circle of study of local lore at Pushkin library, it was succeeded to find in Tomsk for L.A. Huo-romovu, the girlfriend of the great-granddaughter P.I. Makushin who well remembered Elizabeth Dmitriyevna and Maria Dmitriyevna, Pyotr Ivanovich's granddaughters to Poppy tire, daughters of his eldest son Dmitry. In the photo of family Makushinykh in the book by T.V. Staleva [8] is Lisa Makushina.

In 1928 at Elizabeth Dmitriyevna and Vasily Vasilyevich the son Dmitry Vasilyevich Shirkov, future academician widely famous in the scientific world according to N.N. Bogolyubov and D.V. Shirkov's monograph "Introduction to the theory of quantized fields" was born.

And, at last, the information about one more Tomsk radio technician, the employee of radio base A.A. Holodkovsky was found. In 1918 the student of the St. Petersburg university Alexander Holodkovsky who went to Siberia for vacation to relatives was mobilized in White army. On memoirs of A.B. Sapozhnikov who was the cadet of the Tomsk radio base in 1919-1923, B.A. Holodkovsky taught these years at radio school at the 3rd ra-

RKKA diabase and personally participated in production of the radio equipment. "-teachers of radio school - it is necessary to carry Alexander Aleksandrovich Holodkovsky to number of the employees deserving attention. The physicist, the pupil of the Petrograd A.A. Holodkovsky university - finished education at the Tomsk Institute of Technology on electrotechnical specialty. It had a considerable teaching experience and was a rare expert regarding handicraft production of the low-current electrotechnical equipment. The devices manufactured by it in the "house" way on the accuracy and purity of finishing did not differ from factory" [7].

In TPU archive there is a record book of A.A. Holodkovsky who came to TTI in 1917. In it there is A.A. Holodkovsky's photo, it is probable 1918/1919 as the term of issue of the record book is dated this academic year. A.A. Ho-lodkovsky, after the termination TTI and rearrangement of radio base, began to teach at physical and mathematical faculty of TGU where in 1923 at the initiative of V.D. Kuznetsov the department of electromagnetic oscillations was created.

In the Tomsk regional archive Vera Aleksandrovna Holodkovskaya's affairs (1897) and Natalya Aleksandrovna Holodkovskoy-Speran-skoy were found (1894). These are A.A. Holodkovsky's sisters. Both of them were born in Omsk, ended the Semipalatinsk female gymnasium, then took a year course of a special class of the Tomsk Mariinsky female gymnasium. They lived on Butke-evskaya St. (Usov St. now). In 1918 both arrived on historical and philological faculty of TGU. Then Vera gave up study, and Natalya got a job in Scientific library where the last document with a surname mention Holodkovskoy-Spe-ranskoy is dated 21.02.1981 Oriyenta Konstantinovna Skripko, the geologist from TPU, asked the author of this article once: "Write about my uncle, the geologist Speransky". Phone call with her who appeared Vera Aleksandrovna Holodkovskaya's daughter and Alexander Aleksandrovich's niece took place. She briefly told: "My mom is Vera Holodkovskaya". The mention of A.A. Holod-kovskom is in TGU fund in GATO. On November 9, 1924 in TGU the meeting of the commission on development of curricula and programs for telecommunication bias on physical office in 1924/1925 academic year took place. The decision on training on objects was made: 1) elektrometriya, 2) encyclopedia of electricity, 3) radio engineering. There was at this meeting also an engineer of department of electromagnetic oscillations of TGU A.A. Holodkovsky. Next year at Alexander Aleksandrovich, according to O.K. Skripko, the affair with the ballerina of the Leningrad theater began, and in 1926 he left from Tomsk to Leningrad. Relatives assume that he died in besieged Leningrad, but did not find its grave. According to Oriyenta Kohn -

stantinovna, it held the patent for the shining luminescent screen, in those days it was the invention of high level.

Here also the narration about the first Tomsk radio engineerings is ended: teacher elektrotekhni-

LIST OF REFERENCES

1. Ostroumov B.A.V.I. Lenin and Nizhny Novgorod radio laboratory. - L.: Science, 1967. - 468 pages
2. L.V. Zarzhitskaya, V.M. Verkhunov, B.F. Kononkov, A.F. Konon-kov. From radio communication history in the Red Army (1918-1922)//History and methodology of natural sciences. - M.: MSU publishing house, 1975. - Page 153.
3. Yu.M. Lozinsky. The oldest technical faculty of Siberia: History of creation and development. - Tomsk: NTL publishing house, 2000.-428 pages
4. V.Z. Nilov. Pioneers of radio waves of Siberia//Radio. - 1978.-№4. - Page 11-12.

ki V.V. Shirkov, students B.A. Golubkov and A.A. Holodkovsky whom were cast closely in the lot with the Tomsk Institute of Technology. But the history of development of radio and television contains many in Tomsk other nice names.

5. Personal record of the student B.A. Golubkov. TPU archive.
6. The oldest power school of Siberia//Under the editorship of N.A. Vyatkin and V.Ya. Ushakov. - Tomsk: TPU publishing house, 1994.-144 pages
7. A.B. Sapozhnikov's memoirs. (The manuscript is stored at radio physical faculty of TGU).
8. T.V. Staleva. Siberian educator Pyotr Makushin. - M.: Russian yard, 2001. - 288 pages

Arrived 07.10.2008

Dennis Brock
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