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Revolutionary movement and arms trafficking and ammunition in Russia at the beginning of XX in



kalny factors of much higher esthetic rank are capable to be closed with style. So the idea of a space-time distance, feeling of historical prospect, a cultural distance generates a set of original style decisions. The concept of a distance - D. Ligeti, key for "o^apo". Several communications with romanticism music are outlined in a distance. Effect of a distance - favourite both at K. Debussy, and at many post-romantics. In the Symphonic chronicle Kiev of Dmitriyev a chiming clock Kiev-sko-Pecherskoy monasteries which contrast with other stylistic layers of the work is quoted. Figurative, semantic, historical, cultural plans are intentionally divorced to a limit here. The eternity and prekhodyashchest historical events - approximately such circle of the ideas represents a distance in composition. According to A. Schnittke, "the idea of universality of culture and its unity seems very relevant right now, in connection with change of our ideas of time and space" [4, page 61].

Thus, in modern postmodern culture the polystylistics phenomenon which is given rise among avant-gardists of the 20th century appears one of fundamental. In world art culture everywhere there are a combination, comparison of various historical layers, the experience accumulated by last generations of creators is used. This experience takes root into fabric art more often, and in our case - the piece of music, through the quote which becomes one of the fundamental principles of postmodernism.

Bibliography

1. V.P. Rudnev. Dictionary of culture of the 20th century. M, 1997.
2. T manna. Short stories. Doctor Faustus. M, 2004.
3. G. Kovalyov. The symphony is the requiem "Last Witnesses" by Vladimir Magdalits. Krasnodar, 2001.
4. B. Borodin. Three trends in tool art. Yekaterinburg, 2004.
110

UDC 343.2/.7 N-40

Nevsky Sergey Aleksandrovich

doctor of jurisprudence, professor

professor of department of criminal law and process of the Moscow city university of management of the Government of Moscow ph. (861) 290 14 51

Revolutionary movement and arms trafficking and ammunition in Russia at the beginning of the 20th century

In article the condition of arms trafficking and ammunition at the beginning of the 20th century caused by the increased revolutionary movement is considered. Sources of acquisition by revolutionaries of arms, its supply channels to Russia, activities of public authorities for counteraction of illegal import of weapon and ammunition to the Russian Empire are investigated, at the same time the emphasis is placed on the international cooperation of Russia and the governments of the European countries in this sphere. The organization of interaction of Department of police with other law enforcement agencies, the Ministry of Defence, boundary guards is in detail considered. Also regional features of prevention of illegal import of weapon to the Russian Empire are studied.

Researches show that arms trafficking and ammunition during the periods of aggravations of political and social and economic contradictions gains political character as the issue of possession of weapon serves as a certain argument in political disputes. As confirmation of this thesis serve events in Russia during three revolutions and civil war in HHv.

The socio-political situation in the Russian Empire at the beginning of the 20th century caused increase in quantity of weapon and the ammunition which are in illicit trafficking. Use of the armed methods of revolutionary fight caused the necessity of acquisition by revolutionaries of weapon and ammunition abroad.

In 1905-1907 the arms trafficking volume through increased

southern ports of the Russian Empire. According to the data which were available in Department of police, weapon was imported into Russia by the steamships delivering oil to England, Ireland, Dublin, Belfast from where they came back with weapon to the Russian Black Sea ports, mainly, to Batum, Poti and Sukhum [1].

30 May, 1906 chief of the General Staff in the letter P.A. Noted tables pins that "from comparison of the received data on import of weapon, it is possible to make the conclusion that concentration of all cargoes is England" [2].
31 May, 1906 the chief of the General Staff sent to P.A. Tables pins the new letter in which specified: "1. The most part of weapon goes from Hull and from Manchester; in these two points the boxes with weapon or cartridges both acquired in England, and delivered from Ostende and Rotterdam are transported. In the Baltic Sea these cargoes go ordinary by steamships, but from Hull sometimes by the fishing boats coming allegedly to Doggerbank for catching. 2. Almost all weapon goes allegedly to the Baltic region and a vnutrenniya of the province of Russia, to Finland of weapon do not send, believing that it is rather armed: for summer of 1905 it is transported as if 100.000 guns, apart from revolvers and machine guns there. 3. At present on the Thames the steamship, allegedly for Society of the Connected Shipping company, in fact for revolutionaries is under construction; this steamship will do 22 knots. 4. In Genoa there is an office of the plant of Armstrong which produces a large number of weapon for the Russian revolutionaries. This weapon from Italy goes to our ports of the Black Sea" [3]. A similar letter was sent the Minister of Finance V.N. Kokovtsev [4].

A significant amount of weapon was bought by revolutionaries in Belgium. For example, says content of the letter from the Ministry of Internal Affairs addressed to A.P. Izvolsky about it: & #34; According to information received, the revolutionaries living in Belgium are engaged in the strengthened purchase in a large number of weapon of the Liege and other factories for that settlement to Russia, using that the Belgian Government looks mainly from the commercial point of view at an opportunity for his citizens to market weapon of the производства" [5].

Zavedyvayushchy a foreign agency of Department of police of A.M. Garting in the letter addressed to the director of the department of police (No. 286 of September 20/7, 1906) reported that "according to collected data, the Russian revolutionaries really bought the steamship Ajax renamed by them into "Armstrong" in England. This steamship which underwent considerable reorganization in types of expansion of the room for coal has now ability to do flight to the Baltic Sea and back, without coming into passing ports behind coal" [6].

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That revolutionaries acquired the steamship for transportation of the purchased weapon to Russia, tell also other sources. For example, the first quartermaster of the General Staff in the letter addressed to the director of the department of police M.I. Trusevich emphasized: "The fishing steamship acquired by revolutionaries in Hull carries the name General Armstrong, before it was called Ajax. It leaves Hull with a large supply of coal and returns sometimes in two months, and fishes brings very little. There is an assumption that it takes weapon from other steamships in the sea and delivers to the ports of the Baltic Sea" [7].

Active work on purchase of weapon abroad and the organizations of its sending to Russia during the specified period was carried out by Meer Vallakh (M.M. Litvinov). In the message of June 1, 1906 of zavedyvayushchiya in the Caucasus notified by police the Black Sea governor that "one of the chief agents of Central committee of the Russian social democratic Labour Party mentioned in the circular of September 11, 1903 for No. 8404 Meer Vallakh famous in the revolutionary environment under the nickname of Felix went to Marseille recently for sending by sea to the Caucasus of considerable transport of the weapon which was purchased for the sum of 196 thousand rubles which were stolen by social democrats in the Caucasus, and there are instructions that local peasants, being taxed with the corresponding tax, demanded from social democratic Committee for the same sum of weapon which purchase is charged to Marseille to Vallahu" [8].

At the beginning of 1906 under the sign of the Parisian office opened on a fictitious name, M.M. Litvinov was engaged in placement of weapon orders at the European plants. In the summer of 1906 he placed orders for weapon in Brussels, Vienna, Karlsruhe, Hamburg, Berlin, the Hague, Liege. Branches of the Parisian office were created in various cities of Europe, including in Zurich and Liege. In the reference of March 9, 1906 made for the highest ranks of police on the basis of reports of foreign residency it was noted: "Recently in Berlin there was journey from St. Petersburg a famous social democrat Meer Vallakh, he is Litvinov, Felix and Papasha. It is entrusted to it to make immediate purchase in large sizes and, besides, to arrange on the near future delivery of weapon to Russia (revolvers, cartridges, guns, machine guns, etc.). To the aid of it there arrived also a social democrat known under nicknames Herman and Victor, from Helsingfors, the other day there will arrive also famous Pyotr Germogenovich Smidovich, he is Vasily Ivanovich Chervinsky and Matrona. The last is assigned suit in the most suitable port for sending weapon (the name of port will be established by an agency)... Vallakh went from Berlin to Karlsruhe for an appointment with the brother and to visit Bergman's factory where the order of machine guns and a penalty - is executed

bins. Now Vallakh is in Paris which will be the center for management of business of weapon" [9, page 41, 52, 55].

The situation in the sphere of arms trafficking, in particular, illegal import of weapon by revolutionaries in borders of the Russian Empire, caused acceptance of a number of emergency measures.

According to the order of Department of police to the Balkan Peninsula in February, 1905 the valid councilor of state L.A. Ratayev "for the organization there of secret-service observation of settlement to borders of the Empire of explosives and various weapon" was sent [10].

In Western Europe in February, 1906 "it was entrusted to organize observation of settlement in borders of the Empire of weapon and explosives" zavedyvayushchy a foreign agency of Department of police to the collegiate adviser of A.M. Gartingu [11].

Through diplomatic channels the Ministry of Foreign Affairs during the considered period directed to the governments of the foreign European states idea of assistance in suppression of illegal import of weapon and ammunition to the Russian Empire.

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs notified on January 23, 1906 the Minister of Internal Affairs P.N. Durnovo that "representation it is accepted sympathetically in Germany and Norway, namely the German Government published our resolutions prohibiting import of weapon to Russia and, besides, especially warned about them zain-teresovannyya factories and parokhodnyya the companies; portovyya and pogra-nichnyya a germanskiya of the power received order to watch suspicious cargoes and to report about them to our Embassy in Berlin. The Norwegian Government does not meet, similarly, obstacles to publication of the told resolutions, however, acceptance of other measures demands the preliminary agreement between itself of various Norwegian departments" [12]. On February 7, 1906 the Ministry of Foreign Affairs notified P.N. Durnovo again that answers are received from the Belgian, Netherlands, Austro-Hungarian governments: "In Belgium and the Netherlands the prohibition of our Government of import of weapon to the Empire is published at what are warned by the Belgian Government, besides, it is interested-nyya persons about consequences of violation of that prohibition. The Austro-Hungarian Government rejected acceptance of these measures in a type of the fact that sea trade between this country and Russia does not exist, as for overland border, according to Avstro-Vengerskago the Ministries of Foreign Affairs, a strozhayshiya of the instruction are given to the Austrian customs guards in a type of hindrance to export of weapon in borders of Russia" [13].

Considering importance of suppression of illegal import of weapon in Dews -

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this, the Department of police attached great value to secret-service work in this sphere. On March 20, 1908 and on border check-points the circular of Department of police about use of an agency for observation of supply of revolutionaries with weapon was distributed to chiefs of regional security offices, provincial and gendarme police departments of the railroads in border provinces. In the circular it was noted that the confidential agency is "the most certain way of search and detention of transports of weapon both on border, and in edge". In this regard the Department of police suggested "to draw the most close attention to this business, having immediately taken measures to acquisition of the confidential agency which is close standing to the main warehouses supplying revolutionaries with weapon and to depository points in which the weapon which is already installed to Russia concentrates and reporting immediately all received data as to local search bodies, so in Department of Police and in the subject regional security office". Data, "reported on weapon", had to be entered in special diaries in which marks how the received data are used became [14, page 149-150].

In suppression of illegal import of arms the big part was assigned to the ships of the military fleet. On May 19, 1906 the sea minister vice admiral Birilev approved "The instruction to warships about inspection of merchant ships for hindrance of import of weapon and fighting supplies to coast of Russia in the Baltic Sea, in the Finnish, Botnichesky and Riga gulfs". It was specified in paragraph 3 of this Instruction that for "hindrances to secret transportation of the forbidden types of weapon and fighting supplies, vessels of the military of the fleet also can be attracted to service of customs and police protection of the coast, and observation of that everything a prebyvayushchiya torgovyya vessels unloaded only in points of their appointment is assigned to the last at the same time and could not avoid customs examination" [15]. In the Instruction the list of the actions made by warships on suppression of illegal import of weapon and fighting supplies is given: "Depending on the stated main bases, actions of security warships in relation to the suspected merchant ships going to coast of Russia and eya to islands will consist: a) in poll of the suspected vessel, b) in observation of its movement to the port of destination, c) in a stop of the suspicious vessel, d) in its survey and e) in detention of the ships in case of detection on them the weapon forbidden to a supply and fighting supplies" [16].

Necessary measures for suppression of illegal import of weapon and fighting supplies were accepted also in the south of the Russian Empire. For protection of the coast of the Black Sea from import by revolutionaries of weapon from the Kerch Strait on all Caucasian coast to rus-

skoturetsky border the kanonersky boat "Zaporozhets" were appointed; and the mine cruiser "Kazarsky" which, whenever possible, have to put out more often to sea and goes along coast and also be on the way of the steamships going from Constantinople to the main ports of the specified area [17].

Measures for strengthening of army protection of frontier were at the same time taken. At the same time special attention was paid to protection of border of the Russian Empire with the Grand Duchy Finnish, in particular across Lake Ladoga. On December 24, 1905 the commander-in-chief of troops of guard and the St. Petersburg military district declared to the commander of the certain building of boundary guards the highest command taking measures "against penetration into the Empire from Finland of various weapon, fire supplies, explosives and in general the smuggling having political character" [18].

In pursuance of instructions of the emperor the St. Petersburg crew of boundary guards since January, 1906 was strengthened by 26 subaltern officers affiliated from West overland crews of the Corps of boundary guards, 340 horse and 438 pedestrian lower ranks from which new posts on the Finnish overland border and on coasts of the Gulf of Finland (within the St. Petersburg province) and Lake Ladoga are created and also railway groups on all lines of the St. Petersburg railway junction are created. Cruiser supervision of a flotilla of the Certain building of boundary guards of the Baltic coast was at the same time strengthened. Vessels of a flotilla during the whole winter bore the strengthened service, despite of weather [19].

Navigation opening significantly changed conditions of protection of the Finnish border, especially across Lake Ladoga. The problem was that boundary guards and customs department could counteract import of weapon only if foreign vessels on which it was transported went within a sea customs strip (space in 3 nautical miles from the Russian coast both on the continent, and on islands where foreign and Russian vessels were subject to boundary supervision), or for any reason came into one of the Russian ports of the Baltic Sea. If transportation of weapon and ammunition was carried out directly to Finland, then taking into account its isolation in the boundary and customs relation, the Russian boundary guards and customs were deprived of an opportunity to counteract this import, had no right to subject to control and examination the freights delivered to Finland through the Baltic Sea and overland border of Finland with the Scandinavian states. Protection of overland border between Lake Ladoga and the Gulf of Finland was recognized as satisfactory the sphere of prevention of the hidden transition

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through it, however protection pooyerezhya the Gulf of Finland and Oyeregov of Lake Ladoga was obviously insufficiently provided in connection with considerable removal from each other of posts of boundary guards. The distance between posts on the coast of the gulf averaged from 7 to 25 versts, on Lake Ladoga - from 11 to 200 and more versts. For settlement of illicit weapon from Finland to Russia Lake Ladoga was recognized as the most available way [20].

Strengthening of boundary protection across Lake Ladoga was caused by several factors among which there is a message of Department of police of May 28, 1906 to the commander of the St. Petersburg crew of boundary guards that reportedly revolutionaries made the decision on settlement of weapon to Russia from Finland through Lake Ladoga as in connection with strengthening of overland border within the St. Petersburg province of attempt to take weapon through border failed. According to Head department of the General Staff, revolutionaries made a deposit to manufacturers of 800 thousand rubles for the made orders for huge consignments of weapon, including machine guns which were planned to be imported into Russia [21] illegally subsequently.

The similar situation demanded additional forces and means for protection of border with Finland, in particular, use of ground forces for strengthening of posts of boundary guards and also the organization of a kreysirovaniye of torpedo boats for the Ladoga oze-R [22].

For discussion of the matter the special interdepartmental meeting "on the issue of strengthening by field troops of protection of border of the Empire with the Grand Duchy Finnish and about establishment on Lake Ladoga of cruiser supervision by Voyennago's vessels of the Fleet" from representatives of various interested departments was created. At a meeting on June 6, 1906 under the chairmanship of the chief of the 1st District of the Certain building of boundary guards of the lieutenant general Akimov after discussion of the project of protection developed by representatives of boundary guards many aspects of possible participation of field troops and the military fleet in protection of border were specified and also was decided to ask Department of customs fees about strengthening of examination of the vessels coming from Finland [23].

Because in ports of the Black and Baltic seas supervision of the taken cargoes was considerably strengthened, revolutionaries began to make attempts of illegal import of weapon and ammunition through northern ports of the Russian Empire. The chief of the General Staff notified by the letter of June 6, 1906 (No. 165) P.A. Stolypin on data acquisition that "weapon cargoes, except a time -

Baltiyskago and Chernago's t of the seas, go as well to Arkhangelsk" [24]. The department of police sent on June 17, 1906 the Arkhangelsk governor a letter (No. 9369) in which it pointed: & #34; On the data received in Department of Police, the revolutionaries who are engaged in secret settlement of weapon to the Empire through the ports of Chernago and Baltiyskago of the seas became in a type of the strengthened supervision in above-mentioned ports, to install weapon as well through the White Sea mainly to Arkhangelsk. Reporting about this, the Department of Police asks your Excellency not to refuse to check above-privedennyya the instruction for secret import of weapon to Arkhangelsk, and equally to take measures under the agreement with customs department and boundary guards to prevention of settlement of the above-stated smuggling [25].

Arkhangelsk governor valid councilor of state

N.N. Kachalov reported on June 29, 1906 in Department of police that according to chiefs of separate departments which staff are engaged in supervision "behind not import of weapon", "cases of settlement of the specified smuggling were not observed till this moment" [26]. At the same time he reported that for research of measures to prevention of secret transportation of weapon and ammunition to the Russian Empire through the Arkhangelsk trade port the Special Meeting in which participated was convened on April 17, 1906: the vice governor collegiate adviser D.D. Grigoriev, the chief of the Arkhangelsk trade port outdoor adviser of K.G. Tolstaya, the chief of the Arkhangelsk provincial gendarme management colonel A.F. Sobolev, the commander of White Sea department of the Certain building of boundary guards colonel V.F. Orlov, the managing director of the Arkhangelsk customs valid councilor of state S.A. Kobylin, the chief 3 navigable distances of the Vologda office of the Vytegra district of means of communication a collegiate asessor V.G. Rybkin, the assistant to the chief of police of Arkhangelsk collegiate secretary V.I. Lapin, the acting as the Arkhangelsk district district police officer collegiate adviser F.G. Volykhin managing office of the Arkhangelsk governor the titular counselor N.A. Makrinov presided the Arkhangelsk governor valid councilor of state N.N. Kachalov.

The meeting came to conclusion that "the most valid measure, mogushcheyu to prevent illicit transportation of weapon, establishment of continuous supervision of each vessel coming from the abroad is from the moment of its approach to the floating lighthouse which is from Arkhangelsk on insistance of 73 versts before the return passing of the vessel by the same lighthouse, at return the abroad" [27]. For implementation of this measure the Meeting defined a number of ways: 1) the room on the floating lighthouse during all navigation period of five surveyors of Arkhangels-

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which customs, one of which had to get on the vessel coming from abroad together with the pilot, and accompany the vessel towards the city before change by his other supervisor or a rank of boundary guards; 2) to found supervision of foreign vessels during their parking at the plants, having assigned it to surveyors of customs department and ranks of White Sea department of the Certain building of boundary guards; 3) to establish thorough observation as behind steamships and piers in city boundaries, and behind all vessels going from the city up Dvina, having charged it to ranks of the Arkhangelsk trade port and a navigable distance; 4) to found supervision of loading of goods at the railway station by customs surveyors; 5) The meeting recognized that one "from the most valid measures for successful opening of illicit weapon" is issue of cash bonuses which can be appointed from the sums realized from sale of confiscations and from penal money according to the existing customs charter. & #34; In case of impossibility to put on sale the confiscated weapon (at detection napr, machine guns, explosive shells, etc.), oznachennyya awards need to be given, in the sum not less than 100 rubles for each capture, from the special credit about which holiday, of 1000 rubles, nowadays to enter with the petition into the Ministry of Internal Affairs" [28].

The weapons and ammunition which are illegally imported into Russia had negative impact on a condition of law and order in the country, created necessary conditions for revolutionary and criminal terror. In one year, since October, 1905, in the Russian Empire 3611 government officials were killed and wounded. By the end of 1907 the number of the government officials killed or crippled by terrorists reached nearly 4500 people and if to it to add 2180 killed and 2530 wounded individuals, then the total number of the victims of 1905-1907 made more than 9000 people [29, page 31].

There was exception and no North Caucasus where a number of acts of terror concerning authorities was also made. For example, in the Kuban region from more than twenty police officers who became the victims of political and criminal terror 15 died only in 1907. At the same time dealt shortly with the most active and conscientious workers [30, page 432].

Bibliography

1. The state archive of Krasnodar Krai (further - GAKK). T. 468. Op. 1. 21. L. 24.
2. The state archive of the Russian Federation (further - HECTARE of the Russian Federation). T. 102. Special department. 1905. Op. 233. 450. A.T. l I. Part 1. L. 68 (hereinafter when citing historical documents their style and spelling are kept).
3. GARF. T. 102. Special department. 1905. Op. 233. 450.la. T. I. Part 1. L. 69, 69 about.
4. GARF. T. 102. Special department. 1905. Op. 233. 450.la. T. I. Part 1. L. 71, 71 about.
5. HECTARE of the Russian Federation. T. 102. Special department. 1905. Op. 233. 450. A.T. l I. Part 2. L.
182.
6. HECTARE of the Russian Federation. T. 102. Special department. 1905. Op. 233. 450. A.T. l I. Part 2. L.
241.
7. GARF. T. 102. Special department. 1905. 450.l of A.T. 1. L. 204.
8. GAKK. T. 468. Op. 1. 21. L. 90.
9. Sheynis 3. Maxim Maksimovich Litvinov: revolutionary, diplomat, person. M, 1989.
10. HECTARE of the Russian Federation. T. 102. Special department. 1905. Op. 233. 450. A.T. l I. Part 1. L.
1.
11. HECTARE of the Russian Federation. T. 102. Special department. 1905. Op. 233. 450. la.T.1. Part 1. L. 95, 106.
12. HECTARE of the Russian Federation. T. 102. Special department. 1905. Op. 233. 450. A.T. l I. Part 1. L. 42, 42 about.
13. HECTARE of the Russian Federation. T. 102. Special department. 1905. Op. 233. 450. A.T. l I. Part 1. L. 45, 45 about.
14. Secret-service work of political police of the Russian Empire. Sb. documents. 1880-1917. Sost. E.I. Scherbakova. M, 2006.
15. GAKK. T. 468. Op. 1. 21. L. 50.
16. GAKK. T. 468. Op. 1. 21. L. 51.
17. The copy from a confidential response of the headquarters of the Black Sea Fleet and ports of the Black Sea to the headquarters of the Caucasian military district of June 28, 1906 No. 903//GAKK. T. 468. Op. 1. 21. L. 31.
18. GARF. T. 102. Special department. 1905. 450. l And. T. 1. L. 192, 192 about.
19. HECTARE of the Russian Federation. T. 102. Special department. 1905. 450. la.T.1. L. 192 about.
20. GARF. T. 102. Special department. 1905. 450.l of A.T. 1. L. 192ob, 193.
21. HECTARE of the Russian Federation. T. 102. Special department. 1905. 450. la.T.1. L. 193 about.
22. HECTARE of the Russian Federation. T. 102. Special department. 1905. 450. la.T.1. L. 193 about.
23. HECTARE of the Russian Federation. T. 102. Special department. 1905. 450. A.T. l I. L. 194.
24. GARF. T. 102. Special department. 1905. 450. A.T. l I. Part 1. L. 75.
25. GARF. T. 102. Special department. 1905. 450. A.T. l I. Part 1. L. 92.
26. HECTARE of the Russian Federation. T. 102. Special department. 1905. 450. la.T.1. L. 168 about.
27. GARF. T. 102. Special department. 1905. 450. l And. T. 1. L. 179, 179 about.
28. GARF. T. 102. Special department. 1905. 450. l And. T. 1. L. 179 about, 180.
29. Geyfmana. Revolutionary terror in Russia, 1894-1917//Transl. from English E. Dorman. M, 1997.
30. Essays of history of law enforcement agencies of Kuban (1793-1917) / Under the editorship of V.N. Ratushnyak. Krasnodar, 2002.
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of UDC 343.3/.7 A-67

Kirill Fedorovich Anishchenko

graduate student of the Krasnodar university Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation Sochi, Makarenko St., 34, apartment 6 ph. (918) 407 14 16

Terrorism in Russia XIX - the beginnings of the 20th century

In article the political terrorism of times of the first Russian revolution and the next years and also terrorism of the second half of the 19th century in Russia and, in particular, in the Kuban region is analyzed. Their distinctive features are detected.

The analysis of historical literature shows that throughout several millennia the terrorist methods were used by various states, religious groups, the political organizations and criminal communities.

Emergence of terrorism in Russia as mass phenomenon should be connected with activization of revolutionary movement in the second half of the 19th century. The famous researcher of terrorism A. Geyfman noted that "since the April, 1866 memorable suddenly thundered shot of Dmitry Karakozov who was unsuccessfully attempting upon Alexander II's life and till July of the 1918th when Lenin and Sverdlov authorized execution of family of Nicholas II, and then proclaimed the general policy of class "red terror", - half a century of the Russian history was painted in bloody color of revolutionary terrorism" [1, page 5].

Violence, according to S.U. Dikayev, becomes an axiom of political struggle when it has no alternatives. The choice of terrorist methods for implementation of political struggle became result of prosecutions of the government which made promotion in the people of the ideas of socialism extremely difficult and even impossible [2, page 125].

N.A. Morozov wrote programs of "National will" under the name "Terrorist Fight" (1880) in the option: "Terrorist fight will immediately stop as soon as socialists win to themselves the actual freedom of thought, words and the valid safety of the personality from violence, - these necessary conditions for a wide sermon of the socialist ideas" [Tsit. on: 3, page 105].

Cory Anderson
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