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Training of officers of the Russian army in the first half of xix of a century

V.N. bibik


Vocational training of officers in Russia in special educational institutions began during creation of regular army, but originally it concerned only special types of military forces. Military schools on training of general officers appear only at the end of the first third of the 18th century. In general the system of military schools developed at the beginning of the 19th century.

Within the 19th century the system of military schools constantly extended. It is possible to allocate two main periods of its development. The first - before reforms of the 60th of the 19th century when cadet cases, accepting pupils at early age, released them already officers. In the second period - post-reform - there was a basic division of military schools on preparatory, that is giving the general education (cadet buildings, the Imperial Military and orphan house), and, actually, military and special (Pazhesky corps, School of Guards subensigns and cavalry cadets, the Noble regiment, yunkersky schools, some all-civil educational institutions and special military colleges: artillery, engineering, topographical and legal) 1. The system of training of officers existed also on the fleet.

In the first decade of the 19th century there was almost double increase in number of divisions of the Russian army, in connection with participation of Russia in the Napoleonic wars that demanded the corresponding replenishment of army by officers. In 1801 the chief of the 1st military school count P.A. Zubov presented the plan of creation of military schools in 17 provinces of the Russian Empire. It was supposed that they will be open at the expense of local noble societies. After consideration of this project by the special commission under the chairmanship of the grand duke Konstantin Pavlovich the emperor Alexander I claimed in 1805. "The plan of military education" according to which it was supposed to develop 10 military colleges in the cities: St. Petersburg, Moscow, Kiev, Smolensk, Voronezh, Tver, Yaroslavl, Nizhny Novgorod, Kazan and Tobolsk and also to found preparatory military schools for noblemen.

As the researcher of officer corps of pre-revolutionary Russia S.V. Volkov notes, the first of such schools was founded in 1801, on means and

according to the petition of the Tula nobility for sons of poor noblemen was also called Aleksandrovsky school. In 1817 under the new charter it was called by the Tula military college and was designed for 50 pupils from the Tula province and 50 svoyekoshtny, that is keeping at own expense, pupils from other provinces. Children at the age of 8-11 years were accepted. Graduates of school were transferred to the 2nd military school, and incapable of military service arrived on civil service with a rank of the XIV class. In 1802 the same school was open in Tambov on 120 pupils, and in 1825 the Orenburg Neplyuevsky military college on 80 pupils including Asians, that is residents of Central Asia in which also east languages were learned was open. The last educational institution released pupils directly on service the lower ranks with the rights on proizvodstvo2.

Since 30 - the 40th of the 19th century the network of military schools significantly extended. In 1830 the Aleksandrovsky case was open for juvenile orphans in Tsarskoye Selo for preparation them to receipt to cadet buildings in this connection the juvenile office at the 1st military school was abolished. Since 1832 the state of the Aleksandrovsky case made 400 pupils at the age of 710 years divided into 4 companies including there was a sea company, and the term of training was calculated for 5 years. Since 1836 the term of training was 3 years. The same year the Tula and Tambov military colleges were transformed to cadet buildings. In 1844 and 1846, with opening of military schools in Oryol and Voronezh, the first two were transformed to not ranged, that is to juvenile companies of these cases. The new provision of 1830 about the Finnish military school defined its state in 90 pupils. There children of 12-17 years were accepted on examination, and the course was calculated for 6 years. In 1845 the staff was increased up to 105 kazennokoshtny and 15th svoyekoshtny cadet, and the course was prolonged up to 7 years. In 1832 the Ural army school, with the curriculum of civil district schools, for training of sons of officers of the Ural Cossack army was founded. In 1826 in Omsk the same School of the Siberian Linear Cossack army opened. The Orenburg Neplyuevsky military college since 1834 in the front relation made the company divided into two offices: European and Asian, with a 6-year course. His graduates were obliged to serve in troops not less than 6 years, and noblemen could be made in officers at once at release. In 1844 the school was transformed to the Orenburg Neplyuevsky military school of dvukheskadronny structure: 70 state

koshtny pupils and 40 svoyekoshtny pupils and 90 sons local kazakov4.

The author agrees with the opinion expressed in the monograph by S.V. Volkov that cadet cases, besides the military, had also charitable value, giving the chance to get an education and the contents to children of the poor and died officers and noblemen. As the number of persons interested to come to cadet buildings constantly increased, over time reception began to be caused by office merits of parents. But mainly accepted orphans and poor, and there were 26 categories by the rights for state education according to which the sequence of reception was defined. In Aleksandrovsky the juvenile and juvenile office of the 1st Moscow military school children of 6-8 years, to other buildings - after ekzamena5 were accepted 9.5-11.5 years.

For all cases in 1836 the uniform curriculum was entered and the general order of the organization and the device is established. All objects were divided into three courses: a preparatory course lasting one year, the general course - five years and a special course which included the training program lasting three years. Besides military sciences in military schools were taught: Scripture, Russian and literature, German and French languages, mathematics, natural sciences, geography, history, statistics, jurisprudence, calligraphy, drawing and drawing.

From 40th of the 19th century as a part of high school there were one-year artillery and engineering offices where the corresponding disciplines were taught. At first special classes were only at capital cases and were calculated for 2 years. But since 1854 the third class for preparation for transition to artillery and engineering schools and military academy was added. The third special classes were open in Pavlovsky, the 1st and 2nd military schools in St. Petersburg, the 1st and 2nd Moscow and Alexandria Orphan military schools, and in each institution they were divided into three offices - artillery, engineering and of the eneralny headquarters.

During the work the author established that all cadet cases were divided into two groups. Treated the first: the 1st and 2nd cadet, the 1st and 2nd Moscow, Finnish, Pavlovsk, Alexandria Orphan, Novgorod the count Arakcheev, Oryol Bakhtina, Mikhaylovsky Voronezh, Polotsk, Petrovsky Poltava, Aleksandrovsky Brest, Orenburg Neplyuevsky and Siberian and also as well as Pazhesky corps, the Noble regiment, School of Guards subensigns and cavalry cadets directly prepared ofi-

tser. The corps of the second group which had a five-year general course - the Aleksandrovsky juvenile, Tula Aleksandrovsky, Tambov, Vladimir Kiev and juvenile office at the 1st Moscow military school transferred pupils to cases of the first class.

To cadet buildings only children of officers and noblemen, and in Finnish - mainly natives of the Grand duchy Finnish were accepted. The exception was made by the Orenburg and Siberian cadet cases where it was allowed to enlist natives of other estates. Certain provinces were assigned to each case. All cadet cases for 1825 - 1856 gave to the Russian army 17653 officers, and in 1825 - 1850 on military service 14415 more people by officers and 1517 people the lower ranks and on civil service - 963 persons cool ranks and 302 persons were let out


not cool ranks.

According to the established rules existing since 1830 after the examination the Educational committee of military school defined each graduate in any given type of military forces. The best got a referral in guard, the best - second lieutenants in army, especially in 1847 - 1849, or were made in ensigns of artillery and engineering troops, with secondment to the relevant schools and also in 1840 - 1853 to the General Staff of the Russian army for receipt in two years in academy. Other were issued


ensigns in army.

Unsuccessful pupils were issued after the first special class ensigns in linear battalions, and the reached 19 years and incapable of further study after the fourth general class - in internal guards. The seniority at release depended not only on points, but also on the unter-officer ranks received by pupils in the case. For distribution it was necessary to present the certificate on a sufficient state for service of a such type as the service in a cavalry cost additional expenses to a cavalry. Such graduates since 1834 were affiliated for half a year as cadets to the Model cavalry regiment. The graduates incapable for health reasons of military service, went to civil service with ranks X, XII or XIV classes, depending on the got points. Since 1854, ended the third special class by the 1st category, were appointed ensigns in guard or lieutenants in army, besides, they could come to artillery and engineering troops, along with graduates corresponding spetsial-

ny schools. Ended by the 2nd category were appointed second lieutenants in army or ensigns in artillery and engineering troops, by the 3rd category - ensigns in army. Ended only the second special class were issued ensigns in linear battalions. In 1854 the release in artillery and engineering troops from the second special class was allowed temporarily, and since 1856 it began to practice constantly.

The author considers that cadet cases were the main channel on which replenishment of officer corps by persons with military education was carried out. Besides them as it was stated above, there were also some other general educational institutions which were letting out officers. For example, Pazhesky case. This military school was created in 1802 for the persons designated by pages of the Highest imperial yard and consisted of cameras-pazhesky and 3 pazhesky classes. In 1810 its state was designed for 50 pages and 16 cameras pages. The organization of the case was constructed on a sample of military schools. The term of training was 7 years, that is 5 years - the general course and 2 years - a special course. Were studied by pages: The Scripture, Russian and literature, the German and French languages, mathematics, mechanics, physics, statistics, history, geography, statistics, political economy, diplomacy, and from military sciences - fortification, the attack and defense of fortresses, tactics, mine business, artillery and military legal proceedings.

In the first half of the 19th century the Pazhesky case became military educational institution with the high level of education and education of his pets. Many of the former pages caused a stir on fields of battles, reached high military ranks and important state posts.

During the Napoleonic wars and growth of need for the prepared officers by the Royal rescript of the emperor Alexander I of March 14, 1807 it was established that the noblemen who reached 16 years instead of definition directly in troops have to be to the St. Petersburg cadet buildings for acquaintance with order of service and preparation for an officer rank. There it was authorized to accept students and other graduates of civil educational institutions. This mission was assumed by the 2nd military school at which the "Volonterny Case" nominated next year by the Noble regiment was created. It consisted of 2 battalions. In 1808 it let out 276 officers. In 1811 according to the order of the Ministry of Defence at it the Noble cavalry squadron on 110 people was created. Originally in the Noble regiment

trained 600 people, in 1813 - 1,700 people, in 1815 - 2,400 people, and on the state of 1816 it was necessary to have 2,000 people, plus 236 people in cavalry eskadrone8. They received only military preparation and the accelerated releases went to troops with an officer rank.

At last, it is necessary to tell that officers were trained also by some educational institutions which were not entering into the Defense Ministry. Officers were let out, in particular, by the well-known Tsarskoye Selo Lyceum founded in 1811 as exclusive educational institution for representatives of noble noble families. In the first quarter of the 19th century it gave 35 officers, and from 1822 to 1843 even gained mainly military character and was transferred from department of the Ministry of national education to the jurisdiction of Council about military colleges, letting out mainly officers. But since 1843 the lyceum of officers did not release any more.

Besides military and engineering shots were prepared: Institute of engineers of means of communication, Mountain and Forest institutes. The mining institute in 1804 was renamed into Mountain military school with the right of production of graduates in officer ranks, then in 1833 it began to be called as Mining institute again, and since 1848 - Institute of the corps of mining engineers, having turned into the closed military school. The institute of engineers of means of communication and Forest institute in 1842 were transferred to the eight-year term of training: 4 general, 3 theoretical and 1 practical classes. The institute of engineers of means of communication in 1849 was transformed to military school. Graduates of these educational institutions were made in officers, but served in the basic in sootvetst-


vuyushchy departments, but not in army.

The author emphasizes that a little softer education was in Pazhesky military school as there young people for court service prepared. In the Charter of this case it was said that "manner with pages has to be polite, easy and without roughness, not only in practice, but also in words as performance of duties has to be not for fear, and for the sake of belief" 10.

besides, for the purpose of a raising of prestige of service of officers in military schools, to officers of the 1st Military school and the 2nd Military school in 1810 were granted by the emperor Alexander I of advantage of one rank before those officers who did military service. Since 1811 these advantages were extended also to officers of the Pazhesky case, and since 1825 on officers of the Military and orphan house and the Moscow Military school.

Thus, the period of the first quarter of the 19th century is eventful, having a direct bearing most on statement of military education and preparation of officer shots in Russia. The most essential trends during this period were: fight of the progressive line with reactionary in preparation of officer shots; building positive in contents and a technique of training and education of the Russian officers; expansion of network of military schools in Russia and others. All this prepared base for further development of the higher military education in the next years.

From the first days of the reign the emperor Nicholas I founded Committee, under the chairmanship of the minister of national education L.P. Shishkov, "To compare and equal all charters of educational institutions of the empire and also to consider and in detail to define all courses of the doctrine for future time, having marked also compositions on which they have to be taught from now on" 11. The same streamlining was demanded also by military schools which until Nicholas I's government had no strict system: they raznovremenno opened, had no accurate programs and curricula. It happened so that in one educational institution only tactics, and in another - only artillery was taught generally. And, it was talked not of specialization, and of those preferences which took place in different military schools.

Before creation in May, 1826. Select committee on consideration of study questions in military schools, the emperor Nicholas I charged to the general aide-de-camp A.A. Zhomini to state the reasons in a subject of teaching military sciences.

In the special note presented to Nicholas I, the general A.A. Zhomini asks a question: whether follows such military sciences how tactics, strategy, military history to teach one and all faces made in officers or only to those which on the abilities, love for military science, can count on command of parts of troops or occupation of the highest positions in the military career?

It resolves this issue in favor of that in all military schools initial knowledge on tactics and strategy were taught at least, "Even in case it threatens to fill regiments with the studied less scientists" 12.

It was possible to reach it as A.A. Zhomini believed, having founded in St. Petersburg the Central strategic school which appointment would be in

reduction to unity of the beginnings and methods of teaching tactics and strategy in all military schools. According to him, elementary teaching these objects needed to be carried out in military schools under the supervision of the chief of the Central school to which the best pupils of these institutions immediately on production them in officers would be admitted. Here for them the two-year course would be obligatory, and the first year would be devoted to theoretical studying military sciences, and the second year - to exclusively practical and written training in the same objects.

In October, 1829 A.A. Zhomini's note was considered by the special commission appointed by Nicholas I and came to a conclusion that the designed school. has to be not school of the General Staff, but academy, that is establishment which extends the influence and on other parts of army. And Nicholas I personally brought specification that by drawing up the lesson schedule it is necessary to leave one day a week for practical front exercises, "That these classes were not neglected at all, and, on the contrary, are closely connected with theoretical teaching other branches of military art".

The provision on Military academy was published under the name "Charter of Military Academy" on October 4, 1830. In it there were definite purposes of establishment of academy, an order of inclusion in it, the system of training of officers, duties of the faculty and listeners. Besides in the Charter it was said: "For education of officers to service of the General Staff and for bigger distribution of military knowledge, it is established in. St. Petersburg, at


General staff of its imperial majesty, Military academy".

The academy was the main center of training of general commanders and specialists of staff service. Coming to Military academy had to pass examinations from six fields of knowledge: mathematics, languages, military sciences, doctrine, history and geography.

Formation of academy laid the foundation for formation of the corps of general-staff officers. Subaltern officers in a rank not below the lieutenant, not less than 2 years which served in a system and graduated from academy or passed at it examination were ranked as this category. Since 1840 the best of pupils of military schools and the Noble regiment among 30 people were affiliated directly to the General Staff for receipt in 2 years in academy. At first the service in the General Staff did not give any advantages, and the number of entrants of academy was small. From 1832 to 1850 came to academy 410

the people, including 351 officers from troops, and was issued - 271 persons. After introduction of some advantages, for corps of general-staff officers, in 1852 the inflow of officers to academy amplified. In 1852 there were 56 entrants against 9 people in 1851 and secondment of graduates of military schools was otme-


Upon termination of a course the officers were affiliated for a year to model parts for acquaintance with service. The release was made in October every year. The officers who ended by the 1st category received the following rank, by the 2nd category - were issued the same rank, and by the 3rd category - came back to the parts and were not transferred to the General Staff. Army officers were transferred to the General Staff with the same rank, gunners, engineers and guardsmen - with increase in a rank, and Guards officers with seniority in the last rank. In the middle of the 19th century the academy let out annually on average 23 officers. In 1855 it began to be called the Nikolaev academy of the General Staff.

Thus, the author notes that thanks to the taken measures in Russia the first Military academy of ground forces - Academy of the General Staff began to function. This circumstance left the mark and on all system of military education in Russia. The military school of Russia of the first half of the 19th century had rather harmonious theory and practice of training and education of officer shots allowing to arm trainees with necessary knowledge, skills and abilities, to create at them moral, professional and ethical and other merits of the identity of the Russian officer.

Process of preparation of officer personnel of the Russian army in the first half of the 19th century, all system of military professional education was characterized by internal discrepancy: between the theory and practice of preparation; between the purposes of preparation and a possibility of their realization during teaching and educational process; between requirements to preparation of officer shots and its real organization in military schools; between contents and a technique of preparation of officer shots, etc. Not all these contradictions were solvable at that time, but they had significant effect on preparation of officer personnel of the Russian army.

1 See: Complete collection of the legislation. SPb., 1856. T. XXVIII. No. 21228.
2 See: S.V. Volkov. Russian officer corps. M, 1993. Page 103.
3 In the same place. Page 104.
4 RGVIA, f.725, op.48, 264, l.76.
5 Cm: S.V. Volkov. Decree. soch. Page 105.
6 See: M.S. Lalayev. Historical essay of the military schools subordinated to their Head department. From the basis in Russia military school till the outcome of the first 25 anniversary of safe reign of the sovereign emperor Alexander Nikolaevich. 1700-1880 SPb., 1880. Part 1. Page 171.
7 Cm: S.V. Volkov. Decree. soch. Page 106.
8 See: the 1st Complete collection of the legislation. SPb., 1856. T. XXXVI. No. 27998.
9 RGVIA, f.725, op.28, 64, l.92.
10 See: P.A. Gelenkovsky. Education of youth in the past. A historical essay of pedagogical means at education in military schools (during 1700-1856). Prod. 2e. SPb., 1904. Page 86.
11 See: F.V. Grekov. Short historical essay of military schools. 1700-1910 of M., 1910. Page 11.
12 See: GlinoetskiyN.P. Historical essay of the Nikolaev academy of the General Staff. SPb., 1882. Page 12.
13 Charter of Military academy of the General Staff. SPb., 1832. Page 1.
14 RGVIA, f.725, op.48, 634, l.19.
Jane Noreen
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