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Istoriya formation and development of an educational system deteysirot in Russia in the 18-21st centuries (on material of the Penza region)



IZVESTIYA

PENZA STATE PEDAGOGICAL UNIVERSITY of V.G. Belinsky GUMANITARNYE NAUKI № 11 (15)2009

IZVESTIA

PENZENSKOGO GOSUDARSTVENNOGO PEDAGOGICHESKOGO UNIVERSITETA imeni V. G. BELINSKOGO HUMANITIES No. 11 (15) 2009

UDC 370.1:663.8

the history of FORMATION AND DEVELOPMENT of the EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM of ORPHAN CHILDREN In RUSSIA In the 18-21st CENTURIES (ON MATERIAL of the PENZA REGION)

© A.G. IVANCHINA

Penza state pedagogical university of V.G. Belinsky

department of National history e-mail:vlasov@spu-penza.ru

A.G. Ivanchina - the History of formation and development of an educational system of orphan children in Russia in the 18-21st century (on material of the Penza region)//PGPU News of V.G. Belinsky. 2009. No. 11(15). Page 105-110. -

In article stages of formation of a system of public education of orphan children in Russia since 18th century are analyzed and finishing with the modern period. Material about fight against homelessness on average in - a volzhya is presented. Process of reforming of institutions for children without parental support is traced. Keywords: orphan children, homeless child, educational system, Orphanage, boarding school, foster home.

Ivanchina A. - History of becoming and development of an educational system of children-orphans in Russia in XVIII-XXI a century (on a material of the Penza edge)//Izv. Penz. Gos. Pedagog. Univ. im. V. G. Belinskogo. 2009.

No. 11 (15). P. 105-110. - In clause are analyzed stages of becoming of system of public education of children-orphans in Russia since XVIII century and finishing the modern period. The material about struggle against homelessness on the average the Volga region is presented. Process of reforming of establishments for children who have remained without care of parents is traced.

Throughout almost all Russian history of one of burning issues which kept the relevance so far the education of orphan children is. It gained the special importance at a boundary of XX-XX1 of centuries in connection with growth of homelessness in the country. According to the government for the beginning of 2002 there were about 1 million 100-130 thousand street children. By estimates of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and State Office of Public Prosecutor their number reaches 2-2.5 million, and by estimates of independent experts - 3-4 million children [1]. The number of homeless children is close to the level of 1920-1930, and a considerable part of children has parents. Therefore the demographic problem is one of the most important directions of the national project which is carried out now in our country. not accidentally under the terms of life of children and old men judge the level of civilization of society.

In Russia till the 18th century care of orphans and the thrown children was traditionally undertaken by church. Contempt of children was most often carried out at monasteries and also at separate church parishes. a certain educational system in the country did not exist. Spiritual institutions generally cared for survival, but not education of orphans.

The first steps in the direction of creation of a public educational system were taken by Pyotr I. In 1712 he issues the decree according to which creation of small children's shelters is included into a duty of monasteries and church parishes, thus shelters are given the official status. weakening of the position and the authority of Russian Orthodox Church in connection with performance of some police functions during the Petrovsky period, europeanization of customs and traditions in Russia, including the beginning of emancipation of women, was led to degradation of morals, to increase in number of illegally born children and murder of babies. In this plan the situation is aggravated in the second half of the 18th century, in Catherine II's reign. Murder of illegitimate babies became a scourge of "Golden Age" of Catherine. According to contemporaries "... incessantly on kitchen gardens, in forests, the rivers, ponds and swamps found dead bodies" [2]. Crimes such were most often committed in Moscow and St. Petersburg, in the province patriarchal traditions and customs still remained.

The idea of establishment in Russia of Educational houses on donations of individuals belonged to the Russian educator, the valid privy councilor Ivan Ivanovich Betsky. He considered,

that creation of data of institutions not only will save life to the thrown children, but also will help to bring up them the citizens useful to the state. It developed a new educational system of children which basis some ideas of the Western European philosophers and educators were: K.A. Helvetius, Zh.Zh. Russo, D. Locke and D. Diderot. Its essence consisted in creation of network of the closed educational institutions, education of children only a positive example, in a protection of children from influence of society. The system included the competitive principle and game methods of education; special attention was paid to education by work, connection of a physical condition of the child with his moral development was emphasized, corporal punishments were condemned. Main objectives of a new educational system of I.I. Betsky are stated in "General establishment about education of both sexes of youth" (March, 1764). They came down to that ".proizvest at first in the way of Education, so to speak, new breed or new fathers and mothers who could children the same direct and thorough rules of education in heart to install what were received by them, and from them children would betray a pack ice to the children, and so following from childbirth in childbirth in next centuries" [3]. It is about formation in Russia of new breed of people, creation of the third estate - the free people who are living by the own labor including intellectual which in the future have to become a support of the power.

Implementation of this program begins with the edition on September 1, 1763 of the Manifesto on establishment of the Imperial Educational house in Moscow on the basis of the general handout. To the Educational house accepted both "illegal", and "lawful" orphans and also children whose parents are poor and sick. Bringing the child it is not obliged to call himself, it only had to report a name of the baby and whether he is baptized. Soon Catherine II and I.I. Betskoy made sure of correctness of the decision: began to find the killed children less often. To the Educational house began to throw newborns from places, sometimes remote from Moscow on 200-300 versts. Only in 1767 the house accepted more than 1000 kids [4 pages 160]. On a sample Moscow in 1770 educational houses in St. Petersburg and in some other cities were open. The grown-up children were trained in the diploma, mathematics, natural history, foreign languages and various crafts; the network of craft workshops and benches where pupils could sell fruits of the work was created. The system of Educational houses in Russia included not only shelters, but also the whole network of the accompanying institutes: maternity hospitals, hospital and loan cash desks. At the Moscow house the school of povivalny art and maternity hospital was created. Educational houses were given the same privileges, as to other educational institutions. It is offered to all public institutions to render them all assistance. I.I. Betskoy insisted on that all graduates of Educational houses and their descendants remained manumissions. Ivan Ivanovich spent large sums for keeping of these uchrezhde-

niya: in the St. Petersburg Educational house due to its own donations were formed widow and safe treasury.

For a contribution to development of education and broad charity in 1772 the Senate at a ceremonial meeting awarded I.I. Betsky with a big gold personalized medal with the inscription "For Love for the Fatherland" which is beaten out in his honor [4, page 161]. On the back medals are represented facades of three buildings - Academies of Arts, Smolny Institute and Educational house which he supervised. However the educational system of orphan children developed by Betsky did not undergo testing by life. Houses did not receive public financing and existed on donations which often were not enough for the contents, did not cope with a big flow of the arriving children, mortality was high, children did not get in full education and an education. The new educational system in many respects had utopian character, did not correspond to a real situation in Russia of that time doing this project impractical.

At a turn of the 18th and 19th centuries the reform of Educational houses begins. Both educational, and educational methods underwent adjustment. Special attention was paid to training of pupils in sciences, the quantity of the studied objects increased, the emphasis was placed on surgical, medical and pharmaceutical sciences. The empress Maria Fiodorovna supervised Educational houses. She took more practical position on education of orphan children and considered that first of all it is necessary to care for needs of specific pupils, for their vocational training. Training became more specialized. Classes for studying medicine, music, for preparation for civil service and teaching activity opened. In the 20th years of the 19th century the education got in the Educational house was equated to a gymnasium course, and pupils had an opportunity to go to the university and on civil service.

In 30-40 years of the 19th century the educational system underwent further changes. In 1837 Nicholas I issued the decree on transformation of all training classes of Educational houses into institute for education of orphans of military and civil subaltern officers. Other pets went to villages and, on reaching majority, became "free plowmen". Though in practice many of them got to serfdom. In 1839 the provision on the children's shelters aiming "to .prizrevat poor children of both sexes without distinction of a rank" [5] is accepted. According to this situation it was offered to carry out religious and moral education, initial professional education in shelters and also to prepare orphans for independent and productive work. Shelters received the status of educational institutions. Pupils studied at practice generally to a profession. The question of receiving initial education was again

put in the seventies the 19th century during bourgeois reforms. At this time the network of educational institutions extends. Shelters were created practically in all provincial and many district cities. control over activity of them was exercised guardianship.

Similar processes in the field of education and education of orphan children were characteristic also of the Penza region. In 1845 in Penza the provincial guardianship of children's shelters was created, the Alec-sandrinsky shelter is open. by the beginning of the XX century at churches and monasteries of edge 11 shelters functioned already: in the cities of Penza, a kerenska, a narovchata, Kuznetsk, Saransk, Ruzaevka, Moksha, Ramzaye, the Lower Shkafta [6].

With coming to power of Bolsheviks care of contents and education of the deserted children was undertaken by the state. The decree of the Council of People's Commissars (CPC) of January 9, 1918 "About the commissions for minors" formed special bodies (the commissions for minors) to which functions of social child care and the device of street children were assigned [7]. Children's shelters were transformed to orphanages and transferred originally to the jurisdiction of bodies of social security, and in 1919 - Narkomata of education (Narkompros).

In the early twenties in the country the fight on elimination of children's homelessness begins, at this time in the country there are about 2 million children without parental support, and in the territory of the Average and Volga region - more than 100 thousand. The children's commission created in 1921 under the leadership of F.E. Dzerzhinsky headed this work. On places the similar commissions functioned at regional executive committees and city councils. Along with orphanages there were new types of institutions for education of street children - labor communes and colonies where labor, social and political education and general education training of children was carried out. The colony of M. Gorky, commune of F.E. Dzerzhinsky, children's commune of V.S. Yershov and school of F.M. Dostoyevsky were open.

After the end of civil war and during recovery of the national economy in the country there were not enough funds for the maintenance of educational institutions. Quite often the administration of towns where there were orphanages, was not able to place street children and teenagers and to provide them to all necessary: food, clothes and footwear. In particular on average the Volga region in each orphanage calculated on 50-70 people was necessary to place from 100 to 200 children [8]. For assistance to homeless children, and especially to the victims of civil war and hunger, according to the decision of the Second congress of Councils of the USSR in 1924 the fund of V.I. Lenin was organized. The similar organizations were created at the Central Committees (CC) of federal republics, regional executive committees and councils of the large cities. In July, 1924 Prezidi-

the mind of the Central Executive Committee (CEC) of the USSR determined the size of fund in 100 million rubles from which 50 million were brought by the government of the USSR, and other 50 million made voluntary assignments, donations and collecting. Problems of strengthening of material resources of orphanages, improvements of their providing were considered on SP congresses on child care (1918, 1924, 1930).

In the early thirties in connection with the hunger which covered a number of regions of the country there is an increase in number of street children. The operating educational institutions were not able to accept all orphan children. Therefore by the country leaders it was headed for expansion of network of orphanages. It can be tracked on the example of Central Volga area: in 1932 in Samara there were 4 orphanages for 485 children and teenagers, in Penza of 6 institutions for 387 people. In 1933 in Samara there were already 7 orphanages with the contingent of 630 people, and 7 orphanages in Penza with the contingent - 359 people [9].

by

Besides orphanages in the country created other institutions for homeless children - children's receivers for foundlings in whom primary sanitation of children was carried out that was extremely necessary in the conditions of high population morbidity dangerous infectious diseases. Receivers generally at railway stations were placed. According to the decision of the Penza city council at the station Penza-! in 1933 the car receiver calculated on 60 people [10] was equipped. City councils could not cope with a problem of children's homelessness independently, in the solution of this task the militia, departments of national education and health care assisted. They carried out accounting of children, identified them, placed in child care facilities. Orphanages were under authority of several narcomats: Narkomprosa, Narkomzdrava, Narkomsobesa and the Commissions of the Soviet control at SNK USSR which often duplicated work of each other and the children's commissions at city councils that created certain difficulties in management of educational institutions [11].

In the second half of the 30th years, during increase of repressions, in the country there is growth of the contingent of orphanages as children whose both parents were repressed, were defined in orphanages. In the system of the state child care there were changes. Types of orphanages were defined by the resolution of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) of the Central Committee and SNK USSR of May 31, 1935 and responsibility for them of each narcomat was specified, the commissions for minors were liquidated, labor communes and colonies were transferred to the jurisdiction of the People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (PCIA). According to this resolution in the country educational institutions of various types taking into account age features of children and also conditions of their health opened. They were subdivided into preschool and school orphanages for healthy children and children with various physical deviations. Despite importance of a problem of fight against homelessness, fi-

the nansirovaniye of orphanages, as well as in general national education, was carried out by the residual principle. the educational material resources of educational institutions were insufficiently developed. Position of children and teenagers in these institutions left much to be desired. During check of activity of city councils of the Average and Volga region in 1935 it became clear that they were practically not interested in a condition of orphanages and conditions of accommodation of pupils in them. Because of inaction of the City Councils of region of the room, provided to orphans, needed capital repairs, medical care was required for a considerable part of children, the holiday of funds for the maintenance of orphanages was late, pupils only for 50% were provided with clothes and footwear, there were not enough food, many managers of orphanages irrationally used the allotted means. For correction of a situation the bodies of national education and city councils carried out a number of the measures which improved position of children [12].

The land plots were allocated to orphanages, subsidiary farms were created, financing increased that allowed to solve a food problem by the end of the 30th years and to adjust supply of pupils with manufactured goods. By the beginning of the third five-years period over the country there were about 3 thousand orphanages in which more than 340 thousand people were brought up [13]. During the pre-war period of time in the country there was the Soviet educational system of orphan children of which unification, prevalence of social and political forms over others are characteristic. Besides, approximately by 6 times the number of children without parental support was reduced.

With special sharpness the question of the fate of orphan children rose in days of the Great Patriotic War again. Every day war left homeless and parents all new thousands of children. Due to the occupation of a number of the western territories of the country or threats of occupation 1365 orphanages were evacuated from front-line areas to the back, tens of thousands of children who were deserted or lost communication with family are taken also out. Many of them accommodated in the republics of Central Asia, in the Urals, in Siberia. The important role in the system of measures for mobilization of public authorities and forces of the public on fight against homelessness and neglect was played by the resolution SNK USSR of January 23, 1942 "About the device of the children who were left without parents" [14]. At SNK of federal and autonomous republics, executive committees of local councils the commissions on the device of orphan children were created. They were engaged in accommodation of children, the network of children's receivers distributors was expanded. The resolution led to expansion of network and growth of the contingent of orphanages. Children up to three years went to preschool institutions or were given to families of workers to patronizing. It demanded from the state of new considerable efforts and expenses. Countrywide the number of pupils in orphanages by 1944 increased up to 534 thousand people [15]. The Soviet government, the governments and narkomprosa of federal republics rendered to nurseries

to institutions comprehensive attention. A number of the resolutions adopted by the government of the USSR demonstrates to it: "About improvement of work of orphanages" (September, 1943), "About actions for expansion of network of child care facilities and improvement of medical and consumer services of women and children" (November, 1944), "About orphanages at the industrial enterprises" (September, 1945). In them the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR obliged authorities to ensure regular functioning of employment commissions of the children who were left without parents, to establish control over timeliness of their device and also behind education and living conditions of children [16].

There were not enough means allocated by the state for the maintenance of orphan children. For years of war of allocation for orphanages and actions for child care made in the Russian Federation only 16% of all expenses on national education [17]. The public of the country was connected to the solution of the specified problem. During 1942 and 1943 there was a network of initiative orphanages. To the middle of their 1944 there were about 400, and all of them were financed only collective farms and state farms. At regional departments of national education, public funds were created, collecting things and products in favor of the needing children was carried out. For children of soldiers of the Soviet army and guerrillas since 1943 special orphanages began to be created. By the end of their war was 120, the contingent of pupils made 17200 people [18].

The most effective forms of the device of the deserted children and preventions of homelessness were adoptions, patronage and guardianship. In total over the country at the end of war in families of workers about 350 thousand children were raised. Not to separate children of one family though belonging to various age groups, the state for humane reasons went for creation of orphanages of the mixed type. Pupils of orphanages along with training at comprehensive school had necessary conditions for development of creative abilities, military and physical and vocational training. The children who reached fourteen-year age studied a profession mainly in the system of Manpower reserves and through production apprenticeship. For improvement of material security of orphans and strengthening of educational material resources of educational institutions, improvement of labor training of children subsidiary farms were created, metalwork, joiner's, sewing workshops were equipped. And though the Soviet government, bodies of national education, the public took special care of orphan children, the condition of many orphanages was unsatisfactory. Often local authorities did not show due consideration about pupils, withdrew from control over work of data of institutions which felt need for the most necessary: food, fuel, furniture. For example, in 50 houses of the Penza region which held about 4 thousand children, were not enough sleeping

places - children slept on 2-3 persons on a bed, kitchen and tableware, inhabited and educational rooms were not under repair for a long time, the funds allocated for food did shopping out of time and products of poor quality. A part of children was not captured by professional and labor training [19]. The similar situation is characteristic of most orphanages of the country. The difficult situation of child care facilities was caused by insufficient financing from the state. During the war the main attention and funds central and local authorities first of all went to the military industry - to victorious completion of war and also to recovery of the destroyed national economy in the areas freed from the German occupation. However, despite all difficulties, as a result of the measures taken by the state in the country the mass children's homelessness was not allowed.

In the late fifties - the middle of the 60th years big reorganization of orphanages was carried out to the USSR. In 1956 the resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers "About the organization of boarding schools" is accepted. During implementation of this resolution there was a developed network of general education boarding schools which covered more than one million pupils [20]. Boarding schools were urged to unite educational and educational process; were created on the joint base of orphanages, eight-year schools and auxiliary boarding schools of high schools. The orphanages which had unsatisfactory material resources were closed. The number of orphanages over the country was reduced. In the Penza region - from 50 (1945) to 9 (1969) (1969). 13 orphanages are reorganized into residential care facilities [21]. Boarding schools were considered as the teaching and educational institutions of new type designed to unite training with productive work.

In May, 1959 the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR adopted the resolution "About Measures for Development of Boarding Schools in 1959-1965". In it the question of end by 1965 of reorganization of orphanages in schools boarding schools and increase in the contingent of pupils by 14 times is raised. Special attention was paid on strengthening of educational material resources of these institutions: construction of educational, residential and subsidiary buildings and also apartments for teachers and tutors was provided [22, page 254]. In the country, new state standards of food of children, supply with fuel of child care facilities were introduced, rules of continuous medical care were established. Tutors and pedagogical personnel on norms of supply were equated to workers of the industry, transport and communication. In the resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR "About measures of further improvement of work of high comprehensive school" functions and appointment of residential care facilities (1966) are accurately defined: "rendering the state help to children, remained without

cares of parents, and to children from large families" [22, page 256]. Boarding schools received the pedagogical status as institutions of national education.

In the system of orphanages and boarding schools in the 70th - the 80th years began to be shown negative points: level of uchebnomaterialny base inappropriate to that time, penetration into the organization of life of children of a formalism, conventionalism. During the considered time period the number of children without parental support increased in the country. Among them the real orphans there were 10-12%, over 70% of children raised in orphanages and boarding schools had the close relatives or parents deprived of the parental rights or were left mothers after the birth. For correction of current situation the government adopts a number of resolutions (1977, 1984, 1985, 1987) in which significant increase in maintenance costs of orphans, decrease in fullness of classes and educational groups up to 25 people is provided. The pupils of orphanages who were left without parents after the termination of eight classes of comprehensive school were accepted in average educational institutions out of the competition. At the same time the educational institution was obliged to provide to pupils the hostel, to support them on full state providing on the norms established for orphanages. At the direction of orphan children in educational institutions and clothes, footwear, bedding were given for work by it. At boarding schools almost funds for food of children were increased by 30% [23.] Income gained from work of pupils in workshops and subsidiary farms of residential care facilities remained at their order and went for improvement of food, consumer and cultural services of children, for expansion of production base besides the state allocations.

In orphanages and boarding schools a lot of work on improvement of teaching and educational process was carried out. There were certain forms and methods of pedagogical work with pupils by preparation of homeworks, holding educational actions and the organization of leisure, in the course of medical and improving activity. In residential care the Komsomol and trade-union organizations of nearby factories and the plants, students, chiefs, members of the boards of trustees were involved in educational work. In a number of pedagogical higher education institutions of the country the specialization in training for work in orphanages and boarding schools is entered.

In the late eighties - the beginning of the 90th years deterioration in financial position of residential care facilities is observed, the amount of public financing is reduced that was caused by system crisis which struck our country. In this hard time at the initiative of Children's fund the transition to new model of orphanages - family begins. By the beginning of reforming family houses ime-

foxes in 90 countries of the world. The main objective of these houses consisted in approach of conditions of education of orphan children and children without parental support, to house which allow to carry out more successfully harmonious development of the child and to prepare it in process of growing for independent life. Education of the child, especially younger age, out of family leaves a mark on its psychological, physical and social development. To pupils of orphanages happens very difficult to adapt in a real situation, to start an own full-fledged family.

Family houses in our country begin to function since 1988, in 1989 they began to be called as "foster homes". Public organizations and bodies of national education which carry out selection of parents tutors take active part in creation of these houses. Time which adoptive parents find for education of children is set off in their general and uninterrupted length of service when assigning pensions, grants and in length of service in the specialty. To each family which took on education of children there is medico-advisory, a psychologo - diagnostic and financial support. On keeping of the child who is in a foster home or under guardianship, by data for 2008, the state monthly paid 4 thousand rubles, besides 4 thousand rubles are in addition allocated to trustees and adoptive parents for the organization of summer holiday of children [24]. The first foster home in the Penza region was started in 1989 in the village Kur-ganovka of the Kamensk district. Then there were foster homes in Tamale, Sursk, the village of Lyubyatine of the Penza district and in Zarechny. Now in the region in 476 foster homes 719 adopted children are raised [25]. Reduction of number of orphan children and children without parental support, and the number of orphanages became result of the policy pursued in the country in recent years. According to the Ministry of Education of the Penza region from 2004 for 2008 in the area three orphanages ceased to function, and the contingent of children's home children was reduced from 766 to 221 persons [25]. Tendencies to reduction of residential care facilities began to be shown in scales of the whole country.

Formation and development of an educational system of orphan children took place a long and difficult way which was followed by a number of difficulties and came to the end with creation of a public educational system of children in Russia. But this problem in the country is up to the end not solved.

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George Greene
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