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The Vyatka province in 1914-1917: war, power and population

15 O.V. Volobuyev, Ants of VA. The Lenin concept of revolution of 1905-1907 in Russia and the Soviet historiography. M, 1982. Page 141.

16 In the same place. Page 139.
17bovykii V.I. Russia on the eve of great fulfillments. To studying social and economic prerequisites of Great October socialist revolution. M, 1988. Page 4.
18 V.Ya. Laverychev. Military state-monopoly capitalism in Russia. M, 1988. Page 12.

S.V. Kazakoyetsey


After the announcement of Russia of war from Germany the Vyatka province since July 24, 1914 appeared on the provision of extraordinary protection. At first till September 4, 1914, and then this status lasted during war with granting the rights to the Vyatka governor glavnonachalstvuyushchego1.

After expression by the population of faithful feelings, swept on the cities of the Vyatka province, changes in life according to requirements of wartime began a wave. Already on July 31 the Vyatka governor A.G. Chernyavsky received from the Ministry of Internal Affairs an assignment with the requirement as much as possible to save money, to exclude expenses which were not "especially insistent" from budgets, to allocate money for the help to the children who were left without supervision of parents. In all budget items of an expense it was required to observe maximum economiyu2. To the authorities it was imputed a duty not to allow manifestations of discontent because of high cost of products and goods, their shortcoming, to warn disorders in all acceptable ways and most decisively though use of weapons at the same time was considered nezhelatelnym3.

In August it was authorized to mayors to convene extraordinary meetings of City Councils when immediate consideration of the specific questions raised by war was required. At the same time they were exempted from a duty to ask from the governor of permission to their carrying out, was on closing of meetings immediately enough to report about them provedenii4. This compulsory measure gave the chance to local governments quickly to resolve the arising issues.

War forced to toughen measures against the underground revolutionary organizations. On September 23 the chief Vyatka provincial the gendarme -

whom management the colonel G.G. Bitepazh in the appeal to the Vyatka police noted that antigovernment propaganda in wartime is inadmissible. Control of delivery of periodicals in hospital and infirmaries was strengthened, and special attention is paid to the station as "the investment in newspapers of propaganda leaflets for the purpose of bringing their revolutionary contents to the addressee" - wounded and patients voinov5 exactly there was possible.

On June 1, 1915 the governor Chernyavsky published the order according to which any processions, demonstrations and demonstrations, including patriotic, were banned. The exception could be made only for the patriotic processions caused by special circumstances. Any, even minimum resistance of crowd has to be suppressed as soon as possible. The police amplified: auxiliary and superplanned forces of policemen to the cities and large factory settlements were in addition directed. Protection of those enterprises and plants which serviced army and made military products became tougher, in such areas the confidential observation was everywhere entered. The inability to cope with disorders appeared prestupnoy6.

All released thieves-retsedivisty were sent from Vyatka. Infirmaries and hospital of the province which broad opening began from the first days of war were taken under special control. Here the police actively fought against promotion, did not allow escapes from medical institutions of sick and wounded soldiers during walks.

In the years of war to the province sent foreign persons liable for call-up who were settled on the district cities. The local community treated the arriving citizens of the hostile states calmly. But presence of foreigners was fraught with riots. Like Moscow where the threat of An-tinemetsky riots became a reality, in Vyatka it was also impossible to exclude them. On June 15, 1915 Chernyavsky received from the chief of the Vyatka provincial gendarme management the report in which it was claimed that the German subject Kyukhkhe living in Vyatka on Nikolayevskaya Street met the unknown Russian citizen who asked it where that lives, and, having received the answer, told: "Report by Stratonov (Owners of the house in which Kyukhkhe lived. - S.K.) that tonight disorder of Germans will begin with their house, and then pharmacy Berman, Provodnik shop, Boka's pharmacy and others". Not the threat, and preduprezhdeniye7 was an ego.

Orders of police were confidentially made and to horse guards to be grouped at places of possible emergence of disorders, in the city additional forces of police were deployed, and under the guise of exercises the semi-company of the lower ranks had to be in the provincial square where the largest number of inhabitants of Vyatka always gathered. Riots of the German citizens in the city did not happen. Separate skirmishes remained exceptions.

So, at the very beginning of war, August 5, 1914, in 8 vecheraa of cinema "Progress" for two German prisoners of war the huge crowd of militant citizens was coordinated. However competent actions of the Vyatka chief of police of A.B. Rumyantsev was allowed to avoid tragedii8.

Summer of 1915 in the province, especially in Vyatka, there were rumors about riots of Germans. But they were only manifestation of mass moods. By estimates of the Vyatka police, the mood of the population was quiet, and till November, 1915 even remained "raised and overflowed with patriotic feelings". Inhabitants of Vyatka with big attention treated news from the front, experienced progress and failures "quite coolly". The general vector of moods, according to police reports, consisted in desire to finish war to the victorious end, serious discontent with conscriptions was not as the population in the weight realized that needs of armed forces are big, and war - "expensive occupation" 9.

However the population attitude towards prisoners of war and persons liable for call-up from the hostile countries often changed, reflecting behavior of the last. So, strong discontent was caused local community that increase in prices for food was caused including by existence of a large number of foreign citizens, many of which possessed sufficient means for purchase of goods even at the high prices. And in the poorest groups of local community, as a rule, of workers at whom relatives left on war it caused irritation. Besides many foreigners behaved provocatively, went to pleasure institutions. The police noted that inhabitants spoke about them so: "That to feed them with a gift, it is necessary to force them to work something", "As feed a wolf, everything to the forest looks" 10.

Presence of persons liable for call-up foreigners and prisoners of war in the Vyatka province had also positive effect: the universal shortage of working hands and rise in price of works were partially weakened by presence of people of many who could carry out at least a part them. At the same time it was done everything possible that foreign citizens were most remote from local community: the person liable for call-up it was forbidden to happen at locals, and that is at persons liable for call-up under the threat of imprisonment or fortress for three months, arrest for the same term or a penalty up to 3 thousand rubles to 11 Persons liable for call-up of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Turkey it was forbidden to carry on any talk with the lower ranks of garrisons and also with wounded and sick soldiers. Nevertheless persons liable for call-up quite often behaved is free, especially in relation to girls, sought to strike up a conversation, often entered intimate relationship with Russians zhenshchinami12. Up to fall of 1916 the prisoners of war or persons liable for call-up of the enemy states since morning at the raised prices skupatsya food that deprived a part of locals of an opportunity to buy meat, eggs, milk, oil, vegetables at the normal prices. For this reason city upra-

you forbade morning sale in hands of foreigners, and soon began to determine sales volumes for everyone foreign poddannogo13. However dealers in every possible way tried to bypass these bans.

The authorities put for the embodiment in life of the government ban of sale of alcohol a lot of effort. On November 12, 1914 there was an obligatory resolution of the governor under which it was forbidden buying alcohol, wine or other hard liquors for chemical, technical, scientific, educational, pharmaceutical or medical needs to use them as drinks or to be engaged them pereprodazhey14. Sanctions and punishment for violation of these norms were severe. The procedure of a holiday of alcoholic products was strictly regulated: in the Vyatka province it was possible to be engaged in supply and distribution of alcohol-containing drinks only with the permission of the Vyatka chief of police.

In police reports it was noted that "the population heartily welcomed the government directive about the termination of wine trade..., the full prosperity and content by the situation is noticed now, and an opportunity is... to do to the toiler savings for a rainy day" 15. In fact the population did not stop taking alcoholic drinks. So, from reports of town councils it is visible what after the ban of sale of alcoholic products became widespread (including among children!) the use of various substitutes ("distiller's beer") which "crept away both in breadth, and deep into" 16.

Police statistics noted decrease in number of the crimes committed in alcohol intoxication. Nevertheless drunk ratnik and soldiers quite often met on streets of Vyatka. In September, 1914 the police officer of the 2nd part informed the Vyatka chief of police Rumyantsev: "The lower ranks of machine-gun team of the 333rd Glazov regiment daily come to brothel and afford various deboshirstvo here, sing songs, swear foul language, abusive abuse and do not pay any attention to holders of brothels and the policeman on point duty. On the night of September 22, 1914 they cut up a napkin on a table and tore curtains in an outer entrance hall" 17.

Fall of 1914 addressed to the Vyatka governor the letter from the unknown woman came: "I tell you... as the power having that some wine merchant sells cognac though it is forbidden. I am so happy that the husband my (alcoholic) stopped the alcoholism, at the same time and violences in family... children began to recover of sleepless nights... and that - the same booze began again. He is is ugly drunk moreover brings cognac on the house, says where he buys, but does not say at whom. Leaves - it became even worse: cognac is too expensive to drink it as vodka. This ruin! All praise you for your humanity and for your activity. You will render a good deed - not one to me if you make a purchase of alcoholic drinks of absolutely impossible. I ask you on behalf of all women having nescha-

a stya to be married to alcoholics, to take all measures depending on you" 18. On December 20 to the police police officer the letter from the unknown woman in which it was specified that "in brothels drink came and are afraid of nothing because police... all is loaded with presents by bribes. On December 9, 1914 substitute soldiers drank in brothels and spent on drink 87 rubles, then when slept it off, could ask the hostess that she gave them a half of the money which is spent on drink. She gave nothing, told, go anywhere, complain. They went... and even went to police... And the police officer from them took interrogations. And the owner of brothel, Bakuleva, even did not cause, so and rumpled all" 19.

On March 14, 1915 in Vyatka "there took place alcoholism and gambling. For check of this fact policemen and the duty official into place left. They faced three officials of management of the Vyatka presence, district on a compulsory military service, and three more unfamiliar men. The senior official Popov at the same time defiantly stuck to the authority, he was enough for a sleeve and roughly shouted: "You what have the right to come here and to disturb us, to us and the administration allows to play cards on money. You know that Vyatka is on martial law and the administration in it are we!. I still looked at police indulgently, and now I know what needs to be done, you now towards do not come across to me". And in management Popov said: "Your piece of paper here ass podotry"" 20.

In April the peasant O. Golovkova complained to the Vyatka military chief colonel I.N. Vuliyevich of the corporal of the Glazov regiment Andrey Khlebnikov. Having arrived in Vyatka for the amendment of health, that, being drunk, at night strongly beat her and hurt it a nose, broke off two dresses, three pillowcases in the morning and tore off a piece of cloth from a coat and when it went to the policeman, caught up with it and began to beat with a buckle from a belt. In several days he threw a stone into a window at night and got it into a nose, broke lampu21.

In May the lower ranks and the corporal of the 106th substitute infantry battalion in a state of intoxication sang songs and were detained by the policeman. In June employees of psychiatric department, having got drunk, "made violence" and snatched on dushevnobolnogo22.

Vowels of City Council repeatedly specified that all in the city know where it is possible to buy wine and that secret outlets in Vyatka are enough.

Vyatka City Council and mayor of H.A. Pestov, the rich merchant, repeatedly excited petitions before the governor and the Minister of Finance for prohibition of sale of alcohol not only for the period of war, but also for an indefinite term. So, in the telegram addressed to the emperor Nicholas II and a glavkoverkh of the Russian army conducted. on behalf of inhabitants it was said by book by Nikolay Nikolaevich: "... We, local people, unanimously testify to beneficial consequences for the population granted to the people... favor prohibition of sale of wine..." 23.

On March 23, 1915 the Vyatka City Council decided "to plunge on telegraph to feet of its Imperial Majesty of the Sovereign Imperator the vsepoddanneyshy petition for prohibition of trade in wine and beer forever" 24. On May 10 the Vyatka governor specified to the Vyatka mayor that "The sovereign Imperator with own hand deigned to trace "Read with pleasure" about the resolution of the Vyatka City Council concerning measures against alcoholism and for sobriety"" 25.

the Vyatka town council, having agreed with the Nizhny Novgorod justice, in common supported easing of harm from beer by decrease in its fortress to 3% and also the ban of portable trade in beer. Especially they stood up for a total ban of sale of beer in certain areas which circle had to be defined by local authorities. And alcohol had to be released only for chemical, technical, scientific, educational, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and similar needs. In pharmacies all alcohol-containing drugs could be bought only according to recipes of doctors or by certificates of vrachebnykhupravleniye. All this became as was declared in order that "the updated Russia would go on the way of the nice future" 26.

In the years of the war in the Vyatka province the prices practically of all goods and services grew. Sometimes the prices were overstated by dealers artificially, quite often depending on the number of the people in the markets. Quicker than others the prices of white loaf, pork, flour, oil, refined sugar, fish, oats, yachmen27 grew. On some products of the price fluctuated depending on a season including towards decrease (potatoes and separate grades of meat). Increase in prices caused discontent of citizens: many had no means for acquisition of vital products. The ego generated informings, anonymous letters to police. So, in 1914 the unknown in details presented in the letter to the Vyatka chief of police Rumyantsev the list of the goods which are sold by one of dealers with the indication of the prices of them before increase. It finished the letter so: "I hope that you shortly pay attention to this inhuman circumstance, and you will put trade of mister Fominykh according to laws" 28.

Dealers, however, thought only of the profit. So, trading company "3. A. Platunov and N-ki", having considerable stocks of sugar in the district city Suburban, at its sale forced to buy "in loading" the spoiled tea and rotten snuff tobacco "since last century" 29.

First the authorities tried to establish the "firm" prices of vital food. However establishment of "firm" prices for products of local origin (potatoes, rye flour, oats and other) led only to reduction of transportation to the cities and as to the investigation, a bigger price increase. At the same time up to 9 o'clock in the morning any buying up of vital food was forbidden all perekupshchikam30.

Dealers, in return, resisted establishment of the "firm" prices. So, in December, 1915 the dealers of Vyatka appealed to the city -

I will hold down a thought about revision of a dachshund on refined sugar, referring to the fact that in conditions when manufacturers sell it at the high prices, a supply and trade it in the markets of the province simply became unprofitable and even unprofitable. Similar applications arrived also from dealers in bread in March, 1916 31.

The authorities tried to slow down increase in prices by creation of special spare funds in the cities of products of prime necessity and also firewood. Since the beginning of war firewood in Vyatka considerably rose in price whereas dealers in them began to reduce their length from 12 to 8 vershoks. For this reason the town council since the beginning of war established the "firm" prices of all types of firewood, and at reduction of their length demanded to reduce the price. Wholesale trade in firewood was forbidden. These measures were taken throughout all military vremeni32.

In the conditions of high cost the citizens more often wrote applications on drop in prices on goods and about increase in a salary and the salary. So, in June, 1917 the employees of city Oryol power plant asked from town council to increase salaries by 35-80%, motivating a request with "extreme high cost and impossibility to live on such pathetic pennies". In September about the same employees of the Oryol city fire brigade asked, indicating the need of increase in a salary for 50% in view of them "financial position at which at the true high cost of life, it is positively impossible to exist". In October the teachers of the Oryol schools wrote the administration: "30 — 40 rubles received by us a month are not enough for the most necessary because of what most obediently we ask the inspector of national schools that he petitioned before the Oryol City Council for delivery of increases for the period of high cost" 33.

Some were simply not able to provide families. So, on February 7, 1917 the widow Matrona Trapeznikova, mother of seven children aged from 1 year up to 12 years living for 12 rub a month asked to accept in the opened shelters of two of her girls and two malchikov34.

Thus, in the years of World War I in the conditions of fast inflation the standard of living of the population steadily fell, there were difficulties in supply of the cities with food, other social problems became aggravated. In the mass of the population the discontent began to extend quickly. In this situation the provincial authorities toughened police control, resorted to the edition of the numerous restrictive regulating orders, however the efficiency of these measures was low.

1 State Archive of the Kirov Region (SAKR). T. 721. Op. 1. 1180. JI. 115.
2 GAKO. T. 631. Op. 1. D. 481. L. 20-20ob.
3 GAKO. T. 721. Op. 1. D. 1307. L. 4, 78.
4 GAKO. T. 631. Op. 1. D. 481. L. 2.
5 GAKO. T. 721. Op. 1. D. 1202. L. 290.
6 GAKO. T. 721. Op. 1. 1257. L. 34-34ob.
7 In the same place. L. 4.
8 Vyatka speech. 1914. 8 buses
9 GAKO. T. 721. Op. 1. 1257. L. 50ob. - 52ob.
10 GAKO. T. 721. Op. 1. 1203. L. 62-64ob.; GAKO. T. 721. Op. 1. D. 1257. L. 50.
11 GAKO. T. 721. Op. 1. 1255. L. 54.
12 GAKO. T. 721. Op. 1. 1255. L. 230; GAKO. T. 721. Op. 1. D. 1190. L. 1040-1043ob.
13 GAKO. T. 863. Op. 1. D. 21. L. 90-90ob.
14 GAKO. T. 721. Op. 1. D. 1180. L. 703.
15 GAKO. T. 632. Op. 1. D. 303. L, 4-4ob.
16 GAKO. T. 862. Op. 1. D. 2833. L. 186.
17 GAKO. T. 721. Op. 1. D. 1188. L. 116-116ob.
18 In the same place. L. 266-268.
19 In the same place. L. 1122-1123ob.
20 GAKO. T. 721. Op. 1. 1190. L. 387
21 In the same place. L.513-513ob.
22 In the same place. L. 587-587ob., 771-771ob.
23 GAKO. T. 628. Op. 6. D. 652. L. 2-5, 10-11, 17-19.
24 GAKO. T. 631. Op. 1. D. 481. L. 40; GAKO. T. 721. Op. 1. 1180. L. 661.
25 GAKO. F.628. Op.6. 652. L.24, 34.
26 GAKO. T. 823. Op. 2. D. 102. L. 14-15.
27 GAKO. T. 628. Op. 6. D. 655. L. 49-50.
28 GAKO. T. 721. Op. 1. D. 1188. L. 332-332ob.
29 GAKO. T. 862. Op. 1. D. 2833. L. 189-189ob.
30 GAKO. T. 628. Op. 6. D. 641. L. 50-51ob., 97-98ob.
31 GAKO. T. 628. Op. 6. D. 641. L. 251; 655. L. 11-12ob.
32 GAKO. T. 863. Op. 1. D. 21. L. 9; T. 628. Op. 6. 641. L. 1-2, 14-15, 27-30ob., 107-
107ob.; 655. L. 7.
33 GAKO. T. 863. Op. 1. D. 20a. L. 38, 151; 27. L. 45.
34 GAKO. T. 863. Op. 1. D. 20a. L. 24.

N.G. Kulinich


After establishment of the Soviet power all negative in behavior of people, not corresponding to idealized model of "the advanced communistic person", appeared "past remnants". Alcoholism was recognized as one of most malicious "remnants". The Soviet power was not an instigator of this fight. The negative relation to consumption of alcohol in the Russian culture long since the neighbourhood -

John Mack
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