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The Saratov press at the beginning of the 20th century.




The SARATOV PRESS at the beginning of the 20th CENTURY

The periodicals are one of important historical sources on the history of Russia in general, and on the history of the region in particular. However studying history of the Saratov press attracts local historians a little. Most likely, it is connected with lack of literature on this subject. At the same time the State archive of the Saratov region has in the funds rich material on history of the Saratov press of the end XIX - the beginnings of XX

century Studying living conditions of the press is especially important and interesting during this period as then there was a process of formation of long-awaited democratic freedoms.


Viktorovna is the graduate student of department of history of the Fatherland and a kuitura of the Saratov state technical iniversitet

The new rules about time editions adopted in November, 1905 legalized a "attendance" order of the edition of new bodies which provided filing of application of administration about intention to start the edition. Each statement, according to rules, had to contain data on a surname, name, middle name of editors and publishers of the newspaper, the name of the edition, terms of its exit to the public, the subscription price and programs. Programs differed depending on the nature of the edition. It can be considered on the example of programs of the newspapers and magazines which are most often brought subsequently to trial.

The program of the Saratovsky Listok newspaper comprised 20 points: "1) Official department. Orders of the government and local administration. 2) Telegrams. 3) Political review. News of political life. 4) Editorials on the current questions of the Russian public life: legal, economic, municipal and territorial economy, etc. 5) From newspapers and magazines (responses, notes). 6) Chronicle. The facts and rumors from local life. Reports on meetings of City Councils, territorial and other public meetings. Notes. 7) Correspondence from the Saratov province and the areas of the Volga region, neighboring to it, etc. 8) the Judicial chronicle. Reports on affairs in trial chamber, district court, in cameras of magistrates and territorial chiefs. 9) Feuilleton of public life, scientific and literary: stories, stories original and translated, essays, scenes, travel, poems. Reviews. 10) Small feuilleton, trifles. 11) From the past. The stories, articles and messages relating to the Russian old times in general to the Saratov region in particular. 12) From the world of split. Reports on interviews with dissenters, messages and rumors. 13) Theater and music. 14) Bibliography: reviews of new books. 15) Russian news. Internal life of Russia. Newspaper messages. Correspondence. 16) Foreign news. Messages from newspapers. Own correspondence. 17) Mix: Different news, trifles, jokes. All-useful data. The latest opening and so forth 18) Trade chronicle. 19) Help leaf. 20) Objyavleniya1. The program of Saratov Bulletin had similar character. Only the headings "Questions of Readers and Replies of the Editorial Office" and "Illustrations, Drawings, Caricatures both in the Text, and in the form of Special Applications" were added. Special editions had excellent programs. For example, "The Volga and Ural Bulletin of trade and industry" had to comprise data of Exchange committees on the prices of different goods, data on opening and inventions on the factory industry, about Torahs -

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ga, deliveries, etc. Not only programs of periodicals, but also their price differed. The price of time editions varied from 1 river 20 to. up to 6 rubles a year for residents of Saratov, for non-residents the edition was more expensive.

Granted permission for issue of the time edition to everyone. At the same time the person interested to issue the time edition had to the Russian citizens be not younger than 25 years, have the general civil legal capacity and not approach under the conditions specified in Article 7 of the Provision on State Duma elections. As most of persons interested to issue newspapers were oppositional against the government, so, were exposed to court "for criminal actions", they could not take officially the place of the editor or publisher of the periodical. False editors — publishers with reputation of politically reliable faces which in case of prosecution of the newspaper would agree to disappear or serve in prison were widely used. About use by Bolsheviks of false editors in days of the first Russian revolution O. Finko writes in the Article "False Editors" 1.

About use of the false editor in the Saratov province reports tsars - tsynskiypolitsmeystersaratovskomuguber-natoru on December 8, 1906: "Till November of this year while the editor-in-chief of the Tsaritsynskaya Rech newspaper consisted Mr. Miloslavskaya, the husband her Mr. Miloslavsky who was actually editing the newspaper, being afraid to subject the wife to legal liability, still kept; during this time the newspaper was confiscated by me 8 times and 10 times of Mr. Miloslavskaya brought to responsibility for violation of laws on censorship and the press. Since November Mr. Miloslavsky found the switchman of the railroad, Kruglov who is hardly able to sign the surname which employed as the editor-in-chief, itself continuing to edit actually the newspaper, under the guise of her employee — ceased to hesitate any laws and even taking all measures discrediting any legitimate authority by distribution among reading

1 O. Finko. False editors.//

Distribution of the press, 1981, No. 8

the population of the city and the county of obviously false rumors about activity of ranks of police, exciting against the last the population... Except stated, I have reasons to believe that Mr. Miloslavsky is in the closest intercourses with revolutionary elements." 2.

The newspaper was some kind of way to express opinion not only the correspondent, the author of article, but also a certain part of the population. And it is very frequent, and during the first Russian revolution of 1905-1907 especially, messages such were objectionable to the persons which are in power. So, right after publication of the manifesto on October 17 on the existing system charges of all troubles of the Russian people fell down, appeals to change of a system, to improvement of life, etc. continually appeared. Very accurately the situation was depicted by the Saratov inspector on affairs of the press in "Report": "As soon as the Imperial proclamation on talent to the population of civil liberties was published on October 17, 1905, editors of all Saratov newspapers began to issue issues of the editions without granting them on censorship, being based only on the manifesto and without paying any attention that strengthening and development of the principles proclaimed in the manifesto and bases of civil liberties (including freedom of press) had to happen as it should be legislative that, on the other hand, former laws on censorship and the press continued to work as not cancelled new and that, at last, the Code about punishments remains in full force".

Such phenomenon was observed everywhere, and Saratov in this regard did not represent an exception. Editors and owners of printing houses hurried to interpret the manifesto on freedom of speech (the press in the manifesto it was not mentioned) in the sense of full cancellation of any restrictive laws and administrative orders concerning the press. According to them, the manifesto already established total freedom of the press. At first some editions and printing houses even refused to present the printed works to censorship, motivating the refusal with the same reference to the freedom of press granted by the Manifesto. In the same time in Saratov

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there was a mass of the time editions which were published in both capitals without the permission of acceptable institutions.

"After the announcement of the Manifesto on October 17 the periodic press declared itself a number of criminal violations of the censorship statute and laws criminal. In time from October 17, 1905 to January 1, 1906 — the Saratov inspector writes — criminal prosecutions were excited in 22 cases. From them 21 case by court was dismissed behind not finding of corpus delicti, and in one case the defendant was acquitted by court (the editor of the Volga region newspaper who had legal proceedings in June of N of). The beginning of the current year and in particular its first half were marked by emergence in the light of a large number of periodicals of the harmful, antigovernment direction. So, in Saratov there were one by one new press organs: "Will", "Volga and Ural bulletin", Golosa Derevni, "Life and school", "Wave", "National leaf", "Echo", "Pencil", "Saratov carrier", "Worker", "Mountain leaf", "Saratov newspaper", "Dab", Volga region, etc. All these editions one before another tried to advertize themselves sharpness of judgments and an extreme of political views. These editions had no constant subscribers and were calculated only on retail among public" 1.

Criminal prosecutions of the Saratov press can be broken into several groups. Charges of illegal issue of newspapers concern the first. It is the most rare group of charges. So, the Saratov inspector on affairs of the press the relation of February 7, 1907 accused the editor of the Saratovsky Dnevnik newspaper V.K. Samsonov that it issued issue of the newspaper, having violated "Provisional rules about time editions". In the indictment against Samsonov it appeared that "till February 1, 1907 under a responsible redaktorstvo of the called Samsonov... the daily newspaper "Saratovsky Dnevnik" was issued, the address of the editorial office appears marked "Saratov, Nemetskaya St., Onezorge's house". Definition of the Saratov Trial chamber of February 1, 1907 in a type of initiation against Samsonov criminal

prosecutions on a charge of violation of Provisional rules about time editions, the edition of the called newspaper was suspended, and definition of the act was carried out 3 same February. On February 6 in Samsonov's printing house it was printed and the address of the editorial office of the .ety newspaper managed to disperse...№ 1 new daily newspaper Saratov Bulletin, and... also it appears "Saratov, Nemetskaya St., Onezorge's house"".

In the addition to the decree of November 24, 1905

>, published on March 18, 1906, in Article 9 it appears that "the publisher of the time edition suspended or stopped in court is forbidden to publish, personally or through other person, instead of the suspended or stopped edition, any new time editions, until the resolution, concerning the suspended edition, the adjudication or before the expiration of the term specified in a sentence" 2.

It would seem, judges acted strictly under the law. Samsonov really violated rules. But subsequently in the analysis of testimonies of the witnesses who are connected to this case it becomes clear, as the Saratov inspector on affairs of the press broke this law: witness Stanevich

— the district supervisor of the 1st site, showed that "in the evening on February 5 in a part the order was received from the Saratov inspector on affairs of the press that to 6 o'clock in the morning of the next day to it 1 No. of Saratov Bulletin was sent, and the inspector sent the printing form signed, but not filled with the text about seizure of the time edition, rather further orders the Inspector reported that they will be given them when obtaining No. No. of the newspaper in the morning on February 6. The next day at 5 hours 20 minutes to it, the witness, by phone the Inspector gave the order to go to Saratov Bulletin newspaper editorial office and to confiscate No. No. ready for a napechataniye, and the printing form sent by the Inspector the day before about seizure it, the witness, did not manage to fill and went with that to edition. Having been in edition, he confiscated 4000 copies of Bulletin No. 1" 3.

2 Legislation on the press. SPb, 1906, Page 13
3 GASO. F.8. Op.1. 624, L.32
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After collecting numerous references and testimonies of other witnesses Samsonov was found not guilty. The Volsk newspaper "Volzhanin" reports about illegal confiscation of newspapers of this sort: "The autocratic government thinks to escape what will confiscate from time to time newspapers which do not please the becoming obsolete system. By provisional rules about the press the acceptable department is obliged to present to trial chamber of data on each confiscation; and the chamber claims or cancels confiscation. But since term during which censorship is obliged to execute it, it is not specified (of course, providently!) — that newspapers will be confiscated without any law, at a personal discretion... Edition of "the 20th century" complains that newspapers are selected daily, and it cannot even inform the subscribers on the reason of non-receipt of the newspaper.

There are also funny things. According to "The Russian word": On June 8, (1906), at night, in Golosa printing house the police were and declared confiscation of yet not appeared issue of the newspaper. On the statement of the member of the editorial office that the newspaper did not appear yet that number in acceptable department is not provided that is investigative about any confiscation out of the question, the police officer answered that it has an instruction. The editorial office demanded this instruction, and it turned out that the instruction about confiscation of issue of the Golos newspaper of June 8 was marked on June 7, i.e. beforehand". This issue of the newspaper was arrested, but soon criminal prosecution against the editor-publisher of this newspaper was stopped" 1.

Other group of charges — charges of writing articles of antigovernmental contents. Such articles were considered as criminal, and the editions printing articles of this sort were arrested. Under this article the arrests on periodicals were imposed in every second case.

According to Provisional rules about the time editions Otd. VIII, Article 5, the item "in" is punished the person guilty "in distribution by means of the time edition of obviously false data on activity of government management or the official, army or military unit of the data exciting in the population hostile

to them the relation." 2. Apparently, a framework of this article is quite indistinct because here it is not specified that it is possible to consider obviously false data: reflection of reality which the government carefully hid, or. "case of the editor of the Saratov newspaper Trudovik G.A. Isupov accused of publication of article of antigovernmental contents" 3 can be an example of it. On January 24, 1907 the Saratov inspector on affairs of the press petitioned for criminal prosecution of the editor of the called newspaper of Isupov to which three articles printed in Trudovik newspaper No. 3 were incriminated. For a napechataniye of articles "One More Freedom" and "Community and Law on November 9" he was found not guilty. And here under the heading "Black Hundreds and Chernosotenny Sheets" Isupov should or pay the sum of 100 rubles for a note, or, at insolvency,

— arrest at prison for 10 days. In a note Isupov "obviously in a false manner attributes to the Holy synod an anafematstvovaniye, contrary to the Gospel, all dissatisfied with the real government. "The holy ruling synod, having forgotten Evangelical precepts — it is said in this note — gives all to an anathema who is dissatisfied with the real government. Holy Synod Fathers openly entered protection of the government, that government which brought to the country so much grief and sufferings. And here that who wants to get to the country rest and happiness who wants to save the country from all horrors of the government. to these people the Synod releases an anathema" 4.

So, on the example of the Saratov press it is visible that freedom of speech declared by the royal Manifesto of October 17, 1905 was arranged a lot of restrictions and retaliatory sanctions. Nevertheless it allowed the printed word, though not at the top of the voice and short time to stimulate oppositional moods in the Russian society and by that to accelerate process of liberation of Russia from autocratic despotism.

2 Complete collection of laws of the Russian Empire. SOBR.3, T.25. SPb., 1908
3 GASO. F.1. Op.1. 570
4 In the same place. L. 2 — 2 about.
Nancy Spencer
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