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RESETTLEMENT AND LAND MANAGEMENT IN the TOBOLSK PROVINCE at the beginning of the 20th century.

PERESELENIYE And LAND MANAGEMENT IN the TOBOLSK PROVINCE at the beginning of the 20th century

N.G. Sarapulova

The legislative basics of resettlement and land management on lands of the Tobolsk province at the beginning of the 20th century are covered. Data following the results of the resettlement movement are provided in the province. Work of local authorities on land management of immigrants is lit.

Tobolsk province, resettlement, land management, agronomical help.

Post-reform resettlement to Siberia began in 1865 when the government published special rules about colonization of kabinetsky lands of the Altai Mountain district for supply of mines with labor and also for cultivation of lands for the purpose of production of agricultural products. It was allowed both to be ranked to immigrants as the existing rural societies, and to form new settlements and societies on unoccupied lands [Results of resettlement..., 2003. With 175].

A considerable part of immigrants settled in the Tobolsk province. According to the First General census, from 1868 to 1897 the population of the Tobolsk province increased by 32.3%, and the number of immigrants was 16.4% of all population [The first General census., 1905. Page 9, 39]. Especially strong inflow of immigrants was noted from 1880th. Generally they lodged in the Tyumen and Ishim Counties. In the Tyumen County the immigrants made 17.6% of all population, in Ishim — 18.2%. In the majority it were natives of the Perm, Chernihiv, Penza, Oryol, Poltava and Kursk provinces [In the same place. Page 40]. In total in 1897 213.5 thousand which moved lived in the Tobolsk province [In the same place. Page 38-41].

For improvement of the situation moving in 1893 on the basis of "Provisional rules for formation of resettlement and spare sites near the Siberian railroad" within counties Ishim, Turin, Tyukalinsky and Tarsky the Tobolsk province resettlement and spare sites for future settlers in whose device specially created land and managemental parties [PSZRI, had to be engaged 1905 had to be formed of fund of state lands. Additional to t. 13. Page 9-12]. In 1896 the law of April 27 "About Settling of Taiga Spaces within the Tobolsk, Tomsk, Yenisei and Irkutsk Provinces" a little facilitated a possibility of resettlement: from now on peasants (both the starozhilchesky population, and immigrants) could choose any areas for settling and also pass to other lands. The only condition was to provide to the country chief the statement for the chosen area [the Collection., 1909. Page 28-29].

For simplification of resettlement by the government laws on privileges and loans for moving were issued. So, under the law on March 13, 1896 issue of traveling loans was made there and back followings of immigrants [PSZRI, 1905. Additional to t. 13. Page 24], and in April of the same year issued the law under which issue of loans had to is made also by that who follows to Siberia without official permission and also to resettlement walkers. Under this law moving were exempted from state, territorial and wordly collecting for 10 years since reckoning, and for 4 years the delay from military service was granted [In the same place. Page 24-25].

In 1897 under the law "About a Priseleniye of Immigrants to Starozhilchesky Villages" enlisted under reception contracts could use all privileges [In the same place. Additional to t. 14. Page 36]. In 1899 the circle of privileges for immigrants was expanded. On "Immigrants to Siberia and Steppe Governorate-General" the government provided to rules about grants persons in need not only with traveling loans, but also interest-free loans for economic acquisition and also gratuitously forest material for construction of the house. Traveling loans to Siberia had to be no more than 30 rub, loans for economic arrangement are no more than 100 rub, and loans installed on an addition — no more than 50 rub on family [In the same place. Page 50-51]. Effect of these laws was prolonged in 1902 and 1903 [the Collection., 1909. Page 9-14].

In 1904 the law which ordered rules of resettlement was issued and much more improved matters of immigrants. Persons interested to move sent to the region of the walker interesting them which enlisted the land plots. On the basis of documents on transfer certificates through passage were granted. State lands were provided both in communal, and in household use, the apportionment on juncture was carried out. Privileges remained the same: moving on the lowered tariff, release from state payments and territorial collecting for 5 years (the next 5 years they were raised in a half size), a delay from a compulsory military service for three years. Also grants from the government remained in force: traveling and economic loans, gratuitous delivery of forest material [Code of laws., 1912. Persons. enc. to t. 9. Page 441-446].

Since 1906 the government issued a number of laws which was even more facilitated the procedure of resettlement and land management. First, Committee on land management affairs both the provincial and district land management commissions which consisted under the authority of Head department of land management and agriculture (GUZIZ) 1 which tasks included clarification of provision of country land tenure for submission of data into Country bank, improvement of conditions of land use and ways of housekeeping and assistance to immigrants [PSZRI, 1909 were founded. Page 199-201].

Secondly, monetary payments were increased by the maintenance of the land management commissions and rendering the monetary assistance to immigrants and the starozhilchesky population at land management. In 1906 for these needs with the government it was allocated: to the land management commissions — 1 million rubles, the population — 800 thousand [In the same place. Page 7-8, 504], and in 1909 in Siberia was allocated for the land device to 558.5 more thousand rubles [the Collection., 1909. Page 638].

Since 1909 also rural societies of immigrants on drainage of roads, construction of public buildings and vnutrinadelny land surveying could obtain loans. Interest-free loans were issued for 10 or 20 years [In the same place. Page 34-35]. The fund was the same year increased by a construction of churches and schools for immigrants [In the same place. Page 637].

Thirdly, privileges to immigrants were expanded. Since 1906 moved could obtain government loans, without waiting for reckoning [PSZRI, 1909. Page 498]. Special Circular GUZIZ of September 6, 1907 action of a reduced travel rate which since 1898 acted only on the territory of the European part of Russia extended also to the territory of the Trans-Ural region [the Collection., 1909. Page 248].

Rates of the resettlement movement steadily increased in the all-Siberian framework. Prior to the beginning of the 20th century the rates of resettlement remained steadily low, and in the 20th century, after the publication of the laws facilitating process of resettlement and settlement, this process gained mass character. So, the annual number of immigrants made about 10 thousand people in the 1860-1870th, in the 1880th hesitated between 20 and 30 thousand people, in the 1890th lower than 50 thousand people [Silina, did not fall 2004. Page 3]. Till 1885 passed to the Urals about 300 thousand immigrants. From 1885 for 1905 1520.8 thousand people, and for 1906-1910 — 2516.1 thousand [Resettlement., 1911 went to Siberia. Page 2-3], and all from 1865 to 1914 — 5545 thousand persons. There were in Siberia 3694 thousand people

The greatest number of the immigrants installed in the Tobolsk province was recorded in 1907-1911 (tab. 1). These years in the territory of the province 24,729 families located that makes more than 140 thousand persons. After 1911 the reduction of a resettlement stream is observed. This fact, most likely, is connected with a release in 1911 of the law "About Land Management" which guaranteed on the basis of land survey documents an apportionment of lands in a private property to peasants of the European part of Russia [The code of laws., 1912. T. 10. Page 46].

The number of the return immigrants from the Tobolsk province was sharply reduced after 1904 (tab. 1) that is connected, in our opinion, with a release of the law "About Freedom of Resettlement of Rural Inhabitants and Petty Bourgeoises Farmers on State Lands of Asian Russia" which as it was stated above, much more improved matters of moving. So, if from 1900 for 1903 the number of the return immigrants was about 11 thousand people a year, then since 1904 — about 4 thousand people a year (it is counted on: [Results., 1910. Page 55]). Immigrants or back home, or to other Siberian provinces left. So, in 1910 387 left 639 families which left places of settlement home, and 252 — to other places of Siberia [Resettlement., 1911. Page 82], in 1911 from 554 families 332 returned to the place of former accommodation, and 222 — left in others of the Province of Siberia [the Review., 1913. Page 31], in 1913 from 1233 families 464 the others came out home, and — to the territory of the Siberian provinces [the Review., 1915. Page 32]. Here follows otme1

On May 6 and on June 6, 1905 the Ministry of agriculture and state imushchestvo is transformed by decrees to Head department of land management and agriculture [the Arch., 1912. Persons. enc. to t. 9. Page 355; PSZRI, 1908. Page 289].

to tit change of a ratio left in general Siberia and to other Siberian provinces. Apparently from the provided data, since 1913 the majority left the Tobolsk province preferred to remain in Siberia.

Table 1

The number of families of the immigrants installed in the territory of the Tobolsk province

and left during 1900-1914 *

1900 1902 1904 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914

Installed 1559 866 118 1703 4428 4895 5397 4798 5211 3554 4186 3507

The number of % to installed 2058 132 2175 251 104 88 330 19 868 19 948 19 1180 22 639 15 554 12 491 14 1233 35 548 16 left

‘Made on: [Review., 1901. Page 12; Review., 1903. Page 20-21; Resettlement., 1911. Page 31, 74, 77, 82; Results., 1910. Page 54-55; Review., 1913. Page 31; GUTO GAT. T. 580. 334. L. 14, 18].

Increase in a resettlement stream at the territory of the Tobolsk province was in every possible way promoted by state policy on issue of loans and grants. However loans were given only by the person in need (to the discretion of the official of Resettlement management) and as it was specified, "by no means not equally, and only at a rate of really found out requirement" [by PSZRI, 1909. Page 825]. As a result average loans in 1906-1910 were 30-60 rub, and in 19111914 rose up to 80-100 rub [the History of Siberia., 1968. Page 309]. While, according to official figures, on arrangement of one resettlement family 310 rub, and according to the estimates of the local resettlement organizations — not less than 400 rub were required on average [In the same place. Page 304].

In the Tobolsk province the average amount of the monetary state assistance in 1909-1914 was 93 rub [Essays., 1994. Page 127], and in specific cases this figure was even less. For example, in April, 1912 in 9 settlements of the Tobolsk County from 18 families of immigrants of a loan at the rate from 25 to 65 rub received 11 families [GUTO GAT. T. 346. Op. 1. 129. L. 78]. In March of the same year from two volosts of the Tobolsk County the loans on 50 rub were obtained by only 3 resettlement families [In the same place. L. 86]. In May in two settlements the loans on 50 rub were obtained by 10 families, and only 4 families were enlisted in 1912, and the others are arrived earlier [In the same place. L. 95]. In July on all Tobolsk resettlement site of a loan of 65 rub received only 38 families [In the same place. L. 126]. At this time on average in the province the horse cost from 100 to 120 rub, a cow — from 15 to 65 rub, a sheep — from 1.5 to 12 rub, a pig — from 2 to 80 rub depending on breed [The agricultural review., 1915. Page 148-149]. The annual rent of an arable land made from 0.25 to 11.5 rub, and a haymaking — from 0.25 rub to 27.5 rub depending on the county [In the same place. Page 116]. Apparently, on these little money the resettlement family was able to afford the little. In 1916, in connection with reduction of a resettlement stream, the amount of loans increased and was from 100 to 150 rub [GUTO GAT. T. 346. Op. 1. 150. L. 4, 94; GUTO GATO. T. I-49. Op. 1. 10. L. 113-114, 118-120], and in the Yalutorovsk County even — 200250 rub [GUTO GATO. T. I-49. Op. 1. 10. L. 116-118].

The land device of the Siberian peasants began since 1896 on the basis of the law of May 23 of this year "About the Main Bases of the Land Device of the Peasants and Foreigners Installed on State Lands of Provinces Tobolsk, Tomsk, Yenisei and Irkutsk" [the Collection., 1909. Page 354-390] and law of 1898. "Rules about procedure for determining allotments and production of land and managemental works in provinces Tobolsk, Tomsk, Yenisei and Irkutsk" [In the same place. Page 467-471, 487, 560].

on May 23, 1896 allotment of land in property was made by

Under the law without repayment. The allotment was established at a rate of not more than 15 des. on one man, at the same time the homestead lands, gardens and kitchen gardens, pastures and haymakings which were in use at the time of land and managemental works remained. The property rights of the Siberian peasants to their plots were established the same, as at the state peasants of the European Russia. But the following exceptions were made of these rights: first, the right for subsoil remained behind treasury and, secondly, for use of forest plots restrictive rules [The code of laws., remained 1912. Persons. enc. to t. 9. Page 354-355]. As subjects of property by Situation country starozhilchesky societies acted. These settlements of the earth were recognized as the property of society, and each settlement received by-pass records on the delimited plot [In the same place. Page 358-361, 363-365].

In 1901 the law "About Branch to Individuals of State Lands in Siberia for Formation of Privately Owned Farms" allowing withdrawal of state lands in private use was issued. It was decided to allocate in the Tobolsk province for these needs 47 thousand des. lands [PSZRI, 1905. Page 743-744].

However land management works were conducted extremely slowly. So, at meetings of the Tobolsk provincial committee in 1902 it was noted that slow rates of land management have an adverse effect on maintaining country economy: in the Ishim County the strip farming reached 0.5 des. [Works., 1903. Page 319], and in the Tyumen County, land management works were not begun at all [In the same place. Page 421]. To improvement of country economy disturbed a pestropolya and dispersion of plots, and resettlement confused local land use even more. In the first fifth anniversary of the 20th century land management works in the province were conducted on the area of 2.3 million des., however, as it was noted, "completion of works at cash structure of ranks requires 40 years" [In the same place. Page 16-17].

In 1911 land management in the province was conducted already on the area more than 15 million des. that made 45% of all land area which is subject to land and managemental works. From them 4 million des. belonged to the starozhilchesky population, and the others — to immigrants [Resettlement., 1911. Page 69, 434]. Slow rates of land management works forced to resort to the help of private land surveyors. For work in the territory of the province the experts were obliged to present to the manager of resettlement and land management of the proof of the professional compliance and also to post monetary bail. Insubordination threatened laws GUZIZ with penalties which were withdrawn from the mortgage sums [GUTO GAT. T. 346. Op. 1. 110. L. 2-3].

In the territory of the Tobolsk province about 10 such organizations worked. It were generally Omsk organizations: private land surveyor T.I. Lobovikov; "Siberian zemelnotekhnichesky association"; "Bureau of construction, prospecting and geodetic works of the engineer Ya.G. Fot"; "The Ural land and engineering association of Skobeyko and To". Also the organizations from Tomsk worked: "First land and technical bureau"; "Association of boundary and mountain technicians"; "Geodetic company"; St. Petersburg: "St. Petersburg forest management and land and technical association" [In the same place. T. 345. Op. 1. 38. L. 11.15; 39. L. 12; T. 346. Op. 1. 110. L. 8]. The state land survey parties instructed and exercised technical supervision of work of private land surveyors. Forces of these organizations took away and designed about 50 thousand des. lands [In the same place. T. 345. Op. 1. 38. L. 9].

The government estimated importance and complexity of land management policy after formation of the first farm farms when it became clear that allocation in itself does not yield positive results. For assistance to farm farms for the purpose of prevention of application of old ways of land use the government had to resort to services of agronomists.

In the first years of the 20th century in the province the Tobolsk provincial committee on land management was engaged in the agronomical help to the population. District offices of Committee courses and public readings on agronomics were arranged, in the province the dairy instructor [Works., worked 1903. Page 23]. These years in all counties of the Tobolsk province extremely bad condition of cattle breeding was noted — there were no warm rooms for the cattle, there were no veterinarians, there was a need for improvement of breeds of the cattle. Complicated development of livestock production and lack of a travoseyaniye in the province [In the same place. Page 208, 311, 313, 411, 420]. Also poor development of truck farming in counties was noted. For example, in the Tobolsk County from garden cultures the population in small quantities grew up only potatoes for own consumption [GUTO GAT. T. 2. Op. 1. 82. L. 118]. In economically poor Vagaysky district the population grew up vegetables in such small quantity which was not enough even for own consumption [In the same place. L. 706]. And only in the Uvat district of the Tobolsk County the population grew up turnip, carrots, potatoes and radish in enough [In the same place. L. 541].

In 1908 GUZIZ distributed the circular "About Measures to Improvement of Field Husbandry in Country Farms of Individual Possession". Effect of the circular covered at the beginning 26 provinces where farm and otrubny farms received the greatest distribution. The device of indicative farms of the simple organizational plan which main purpose would be the improvement of a system of field husbandry providing acceptable productivity grain and a sufficient forage to the cattle was recommended. For the general leadership in this work at the provincial land management commissions special agronomical meetings which part members of the commissions, territorial justices, inspectors of agriculture and local agronomical staff were were formed. By the end of 1909 the agronomical organizations arose in 27 provinces, and in 1910 — already in 44 [Efremenko, 1996. Page 8-10].

Rather large sums were allocated for development of country farms by the government, and measures for rendering the agronomical help to farm farms were the most important. Allocations from treasury for it in the all-Russian framework increased for 1908-1912 from 5702 thousand up to 21,880 thousand rubles. In 1913 they reached already 29,055 thousand rubles [An explanatory note., 1995. Page 59].

Nevertheless even the opponents in principle of communities supported rendering the agronomical help both to farmers, and other country people therefore the government nevertheless was not able to achieve unconditional allocation of individual owners by zemstvoes in the special group of the population deserving preferable attention from agronomists. As a result in the village the double agronomics — the territorial land management commissions and agronomical organizations GUZIZ which for all the time of reform could not establish equal parallel cooperation was formed. The fact that the government organizations sought to limit the activity only by farm farms was the cause of these disagreements, and territorial — helped the peasants who also remained in communities. In this regard GUZIZ often refused to territorial services material crediting for the agronomical help to community members [Efremenko, 1996. Page 12-13].

In the Tobolsk province the agronomical help to the population began to develop with inflow of immigrants. For agronomical needs the Tobolsk province in 1911 received 224.2 thousand rubles, however it were little money: counting on 100 des. about only 16 kopeks were necessary. At the Tobolsk provincial office GUZIZ the agronomical commission was also created: all province was divided into agronomical areas led by agronomists and subdistricts where there was a position of the consultant for an agricultural part [A.S. Ivanenko, V.E. Ivanenko, 2000. Page 28]. The commission was active: arranged rolling points and indicative kitchen gardens, extended seeds of garden cultures, promoted introduction of farm vehicles.

In the territory of the Tobolsk resettlement district in 1914 more than 20 domestic-owned and foreign firms were engaged in sale of farm vehicles. Foreign firms were presented by "The American international company of zhatvenny cars" (including the plants "Diring", "Osborn", "Mak-Kormik", "Champion i Plan") and the American plants Massey-Garris, Walter-Wood and Adrians Plath [GUTO GAT. T. 3. Op. 1. 8. L. 5]; the Russian — "Association So and To", "The international company", "The Siberian company". In total in the Tobolsk resettlement district these firms had 96 offices of the warehouses [In the same place. L. 6]. In the Tobolsk province the number of warehouses only in two years (1908-1910) increased by 4 [In the same place. L. 33; 9. L. 17]. In 1910 the money turnover of one Ishim warehouse made 52,987 rub [In the same place. 9. L. 25].

From agricultural machinery were in the greatest demand for the population of the Tobolsk province: plows, zhatvenny cars, threshers, mowing machines, winnowers and horse rake (tab. 2). And plows were preferred to be bought handicraft work which cost 2.5 times cheaper.

The government in every possible way promoted increase in purchasing power of agricultural machinery at the population. To debtors of resettlement warehouses with the repayment purpose of a debt loans with a payment delay in 5 years, repayment within 10 years and destruction of a debt on percent [The code of laws., 1912 were issued them. Persons. enc. to t. 9. Page 447-449].

Along with positive consequences of resettlement policy — increase in agrarian culture, expansion of the range of garden cultures, application of the improved grades of seeds and agricultural machinery, would be desirable to note also a number of the negative points connected with activity of local bodies of resettlement and land management.

First, it should be noted the low professional level of land surveyors: many did not know even fundamentals of geodesy. In 1909 in the territory of the Tyumen County 18 technicians, from them the highest salary (i.e. having education and experience) — the 10th persons worked. The others —

it is graduates of the lowest technical schools without experience [GUTO GATO. T. I-48. Op. 1. 15. L. 135, 156]. However and some technicians of the highest salary differed in extremely negligent relation to the duties, bribery and also the incorrect attitude towards the population. For example, topographers of the highest salary A. Fortunatov and Ermachenkov for a binding to the last year's topographical plan just finished suitable figures [In the same place. L. 163]. The operator Egorov in the reports attributed himself the volume of the performed work and also in every possible way evaded from the duties [In the same place. L. 198].

Table 2

Sale of agricultural machinery in the Tobolsk province from agricultural warehouses of Resettlement management, piece *

1908 1910

Manufacturing plows 202 36

handicraft work 3536 3139

Cultivators — 47

Harrows 9 21

Seeders 7 31

Zhatvenny cars 823 764

Threshers 77 338

Mowing machines 861 456

of the Winnower 859 337

Horse rake 855 437

Horse binders — 19

Straw cutters — 106

* Made on: GUTO GAT. T. 3. Op. 1. 8. L. 33-34; 9. L. 17-18.

The facts speaking about corruption of local bodies were quite often opened. In 1914 in the Tyumen County at a razverstaniye of the settlement of Alekseevsky Ponizovskoy the volost on juncture the head of opponents of a razverstaniye whom the authorities, for reduction of its adverse effect on the population, most of all wanted to move on juncture got the best site. The fact of such bribery was opened after writing of the complaint by one of fellows villager to which this site was initially intended [In the same place. T. I-49. Op. 1. 26. L. 89-91]. The topographer Kukhtin working at the territory of the Ishim County was convicted of taking of a bribe from the country chief [In the same place. T. I-8. Op. 1. 16. L. 85, 87].

Secondly, it is necessary to tell about resistance of the starozhilchesky population to the device of immigrants. The local community and also country chiefs and forest wardens slowed down in various ways cutting of resettlement sites [GUTO GAT. T. 580. Op. 1. 61. L. 63-64, 66]. The population did not allocate horse supplies and workers for land and managemental works, and country chiefs simply did not come out to places of the device of immigrants without what further work was impossible [GUTO GATO. T. I-8. Op. 1. 10. L. 34; T. I-48. Op. 1. 15. L. 148].

Immigrants often were not ranked as one rural society and not allocated with the earth without explanation [GUTO GAT. T. 345. Op. 1. 117; T. 346. Op. 1. 129. L. 136137; GUTO GATO. T. I-49. Op. 1. 25b]. Moreover, for the solution of these questions, there was a practice of an allusion of walkers in regional or provincial justices or the cities, sometimes hundreds of miles away. These facts became the reason of special trial GUZIZ which showed that they are based not on a malozemelya, and on conventional attitude of managers of land management [GUTO GAT. T. 346. Op. 1. 129. L. 48].

Here it should be noted that land and managemental works in the province in general were conducted by extremely slow rates owing to various reasons. Among them the fact that first of all the land device was conducted on lands of the starozhilchesky population deserves attention. For example, in the Yalutorovsk County in 1909 for immigrants 540 shower plots could be allocated, but because of the slow device of local community these lands were postponed until 1911-1912 [GUTO GATO. T. I-48. Op. 1. 15. L. 102].

Such maintaining the land device led to the fact that in the province a large number of families of the immigrants expecting settlement crowded. In February, 1908. The Tobolsk governor addressed with the report to the Ministry of Internal Affairs that he in the territory of the province lives

8 thousand unsettled immigrants who need food aid. The governor asked to allocate funds for issue of loans, however both in GUZIZ, and in the Ministry of Internal Affairs was denied the monetary assistance. The Ministry of Internal Affairs motivated the refusal with the fact what could issue loans only to settled population, GUZIZ — that such loans have to be issued from the general Imperial food capital. This question was considered specially at a meeting of Council of ministers. Having considered motivation of refusal of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and GUZIZ, the Council of ministers drew a conclusion that these immigrants have no right for loans and grants at all [the Collection., 1909. Page 36-38].

Also the fact that sites in the remote and woody areas were allocated to immigrants was a consequence of practice of land management in the province. So, in the Tyumen County in 1909 could allocate to immigrants lands only in the boggy and low-populated territory. At first in resettlement settlements there were no roads that also presented great difficulty. For example, to reach the city from the village to Velizhansky district, most often on foot, it was necessary to spend about 1.5 weeks. Most of peasants forcedly preferred to this long road shorter way through swamps, even in the spring on a belt in ice water [GUTO GATO. T. I-48. Op. 1. 15. L. 103]. The Tyumen County in general differed in extremely bad condition of roads [In the same place. 17. L. 3-4].

But most of all complaints caused paperwork and preferential travel loans to immigrants.

In general peasants used travel privilege in the following cases: at return of the walker or resettlement family home; at trips to the former residence for completion of property affairs (once a year on 1 people from family); when following to other Siberian provinces [GUTO GAT. T. 346. Op. 1. 129. L. 67]. For travel privilege special documents where the route of their following was specified had to be issued to the immigrant.

Cases of the wrong writing of destinations as registered according to the peasant were frequent and it was not checked by country chiefs [In the same place. L. 133]. Sometimes, that country chiefs sent immigrants to the train in general without travel documents, saying that documents will give out at the station [In the same place. L. 189]. In either case the person was left without privileges.

Even in 1916, against the background of reduction of a resettlement stream in the province, preferential travel documents for baggage of immigrants were badly processed. There were sending cases on a reduced resettlement rate of other cargo that also was the cause for special circular GUZIZ [In the same place. 150. L. 188-189].

Because of postponement of affairs (sometimes about one year) on sending documents to state chamber for reckoning in the place of new settlement, peasants were left in general without documents and could not use preferential loans or the credits [In the same place. 129. L. 180; T. 345. Op. 1. 117. L. 21].

Besides, in the territory of the province many speculators who promised peasants to elicit at local officials on settlement special privileges or the best land plots acted, demanding money for the services. There was also a practice of the artificial increased transfer of the earth for one person who resold sites to walkers and self-willed immigrants that led to ruin of peasants and a complaint on local bodies. Cases of taxation of immigrants taxes during a grace period were frequent [In the same place. T. 346. Op. 1. 129. L. 55-56, 143].

All this testifies to big gaps in work of the provincial bodies responsible for resettlement and land management.

Summing up the results, it is necessary to tell that at the beginning of the 20th century the government sought to provide legislatively the qualitative organization of the help to immigrants in the sphere of crediting, land use, taxation. In these measures the cardinal change of former prohibitive practice with resettlement process is traced. According to official statistics, more than 230 million rubles [Shchagin, were allocated 2002 for needs of immigrants in 1906-1915. Page 77]. However the main responsibility was imposed on local authorities, in view of obvious dispassionateness from this process of the central governing bodies in the sphere of price control, implementation of policy of government procurement.

At the same time in a number of counties, due conditions at the device of immigrants were not created that initiated their homecoming. On average this indicator in Tobolsk

provinces equaled 20% (tab. 1). To a large extent it was characteristic of zones of compact accommodation of the starozhilchesky population which intentionally forced out the arriving immigrants in view of emergence of real threat malozemelya. If at the initial stage of resettlement the old residents were interested in reception of new settlers who were used in the farms as hired workers during harvesting, then in the next years the opposition from rural society which opposed to reduction of the allotments is traced.



GUTO GAT. T. 346. Op. 1. D. 110, 129, 150; T. 345. Op. 1. 38, 39, 117; T. 3. Op. 1. 8, D. 9; T. 2. Op. 1.

82; T. 580. Op. 1. 61, 334.

GUTO GATO. T. I-49. Op. 1. 25b; T. I-8. Op. 1. 10, 16; T. I-48. Op. 1. 15, 17; T. I-49. Op. 1. 26. Resettlement results to the Altai district, 1884-1912//the Siberian resettlements: Documents and materials. Novosibirsk, 2003. Issue 1. Page 175-190.

An explanatory note to the report of the state control on execution of the state painting and financial estimates for 1913//Russia, 1913: Statistiko-documentalny reference book. SPb., 1995. Page 58-61.

Complete collection of laws of the Russian Empire. SOBR. the third. T. 23. 1903. Otd-niye the first. No. 22360-23838 and Additions. SPb., 1905. 1167 pages

Complete collection of laws of the Russian Empire. SOBR. the third. T. 25. 1905. Otd-niye the first. No. 25605-27172 and Additions. SPb., 1908. 966 pages

Complete collection of laws of the Russian Empire. SOBR. the third. T. 26. 1906. Otd-niye the first. No. 27173-28753 and Additions. SPb., 1909.

The collection of laws and orders on resettlement matter and the land device in provinces and areas of Asian Russia (till August 1, 1909). SPb., 1909. 698 pages

Code of laws of the Russian Empire. Full text of all 16 volumes: In 5 kN. Prod. neofitsa. SPb., 1912. Special annex to t. 9. 472 pages; T. 10. 385 pages


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Tyumen, IPOS Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science

The article considers the legislation basis regarding migration and land-tenure regulations on the lands of Tobolsk guberniya in the early XXth century. The author cites data on summarizing of the migration movement in the Guberniya. Subject to description being activities of the local power authorities as to the land-tenure regulations of the migrants.

Tobolsk guberniya, migration, land-tenure regulations, agricultural help.

Walter Flores
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