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Category: History

The appropriating economy



A.A. Igolkin


The economy which people conducted for the first two million years of the history is called appropriating; that the person appropriated took his essence by nature all necessary to him for life.

The appropriating economy existed during paleolith era (ancient Stone Age) and Mesolith (middle Stone Age). During the next era - the Neolithic - there was "neolytic revolution" which essence - in transition to the making economy.

Up to the 20th century some people which in a former way conducted the appropriating economy remained, and the technologies characteristic not only for Mesolith, but also a paleolith were applied. Studying economic and public life of these people allows to judge production, distribution, consumption of the people living in those regions where the appropriating economy was replaced by making long ago to some extent. Finds archeologists give us knowledge of the used tools and technologies, and here to understand nuances of relations of production much more difficult; on many questions the researchers have no uniform point of view. But the problem of their study is facilitated that traditional societies of hunters, collectors and fishers which development proceeded in various environment as for social and economic bases of their existence are in many respects same. Both in Africa, and in Australia, and in South America the tribes which are not included in universal process, almost isolated from other mankind find out much the general in the conditions of housekeeping while technologies, beliefs and cultures can be absolutely various. Certainly, economic receptions of natives of Australia and the Arctic a sea animal hunters have almost nothing in common, but the relations of intraeconomic groups are in many respects similar.

The last several thousands of years on the earth live only the modern person - homo sapiens, and representatives of any region of Earth in principle do not differ in the physical and intellectual capacities from each other; many modern scientists even believe that all 6.5 billion people living on the planet occurred from one general mother. The person of modern type for the first time in the history carried out transition from the economy appropriating to making. All predecessors of the person conducted the economy which is exclusively appropriating.

We know much less about assignment of the benefits of the nature by predecessors of the modern person, but some main lines and stages of development managed to be established.

The appropriating economy has three main forms: collecting, hunting and fishery; the first two appeared the third much earlier.

Hunting and collecting are inherited by the person from the ancestors (if to recognize Ch. Darwin's theory), but even the most ancient people from the very beginning differed in use of instruments of labor. These instruments of labor changed, but the first hundreds of thousands of years - very slowly. It is possible even to tell that the person never had an economy which is completely based on assignment - as always it made some tools which are not in the nature in finished form; let these tools also served for hunting, collecting and fishery. About two million years ago ancient, nowadays "fossil", people began to use the first stone tools: remains of people who as showed archeological finds, were able to split stones are found in the Oldovaysky gorge of East Africa to receive the pointed cutting tool. This person was called "chelovekumely" - homo habilis; living to it similar to the person (but not people) Australopithecuses of stone tools were not able to do, and somehow used the found pieces of stones. Judging by found archeologists bones of large mammals, "the skillful person" used the tools, mainly, for section of hulks, extraction of marrow. Researchers believe that they received the meat getting to people mainly not as a result of hunting and as the remains of production of lions, panthers and other large predators: many jags from stone tools are put over the marks left big teeth of predators.

Approximately besides to the period, as in Africa, so primitive stone tools found in the 1980th years in Yakutia around Diring - Yuryakh belong. From appearance of the first people using stone tools count the beginning of the ancient Stone Age - a paleolith, call an early paleolith "lower". All paleolith lasted since emergence of the most ancient stone tools and until the end of the last freezing (10-12 thousand years ago), and here and there on Earth - further.

About one and a half million years ago or slightly earlier there was "a person straightened" - homo erectus which was more developed than "the skillful person". New people were able not only to split stones, but also to do "cut" - the symmetric almond-shaped tools allowing it is easier to cut carcasses of animals. The scraper separating a skin from meat became one more new tool. To make a scraper, big stone from - spills processed small chips. "The person straightened" lived both in Africa, and in colder Europe and also China and, quite possibly, systematically used fire though on this matter researchers have no general point of view.

Some scientists believe that there was about 800 thousand years ago very first "technological revolution" which essence in emergence of the specialized stone tools characteristic for archeologists -

chesky culture "шелль". New technologies very quickly (by historical standards, of course) extended to large territories, earlier culture - and its physical carriers - disappeared. Succeeded the shellsky period acheulian, with more perfect technology of processing of a stone. The acheulian person was able to separate thin and flat otshchepa from a stone therefore for the first time learned to do straight lines and fine edges cut, but not zigzag as earlier.

Both in shellsky and during an acheulian era the climate was very warm. The culture of angelic type was succeeded by new about 100 thousand years ago - Mousterian. Its arrival coincided with freezing and a strong cold snap. New culture completely forced out acheulian and extended to new territories. The Neanderthal men living on average a paleolith were its carriers. They were lifted to new level in production of stone tools; also hunting methods were improved. The shelter of large mammals to marshy or muddy sites where on helpless mammoths, deer, bears, bisons attacked at a short distance became a basis of hunting.

Orinyaksky culture which, according to archeologists, has no genetic linkages from Mousterian came to change of Mousterian culture of Neanderthal men about 35 thousand years ago in a number of places of Europe (but it is not universal). Kromanyonets, people of modern type were its carriers.

The mystery of appearance of the person of modern type - homo sapiens - is still not solved how far it is not entirely clear and previous very fast - by historical standards - progress of hominids (this word call as "fossil people", and modern). In scientific literature quite wide spacing of estimates of time of the first appearance of the modern person: not earlier than 100 thousand years ago and not later than 35 thousand years, upon transition from the Middle Paleolithic to top. Several thousands of years kromanyonets lived near Neanderthal men. Exact date of disappearance of the last Neanderthal man is also unknown. The possible relations between kromanyonets and Neanderthal men in an art form are shown by the English writer At Golding in the work "Successors".

The tools used by kromanyonets were much more perfect, than at Neanderthal men. Began to do long and short very fine edges of flint. The equipment of an extraction used, in particular, to production of silicon tips for copies became new technology of processing of a stone. The combination of two various materials for production of the difficult tool, for example, of a stone knife with the wooden handle became other invention. For the first time instruments of labor and hunting began to do of animal materials - bones, tusks, veins, sinks.

About 20 thousand years ago there was even more developed culture - solyutreysky; it was also conducted by people of modern type. Approximately at the same time or a bit later, about 15 thousand years ago, arose madlensky to a cult -

ra. Some scientists consider that all three mesolytic cultures some time in Europe existed at the same time; and except them - there were also others. There was a transition to microlitas, i.e. small instruments of labor from a stone. Researchers note that very quickly microlytic equipment widely extended. Apparently it is connected with the fact that such equipment, in particular, allowed to make much more effective tips for arrows. A part of madlensky hunters lived in caves - and we were reached by their wall paintings and also a carving up to bones, other objects of art. In a late paleolith there was a various set of specialized stone tools (cutters, tesla, knives, files, etc.); there were new compound tools (a spear, darts, harpoons with silicon and bone tips); the person began to apply bones and horns to production of artifacts - such as needles, prickers, harpoons, pro-splittings. Technology of processing of a stone changed. There was first jewelry - for example, a beads.

For the last 800 thousand years on Earth there were eight glacial eras alternating rather short much warmer interglacial. About 35 thousand years ago, during era of a late paleolith when the homo sapiens began to dominate on the planet, already several tens of thousands of years the last Ice Age - Vyurmsky lasted therefore in northern latitudes the ensuring heat became one of the major tasks.

It is considered that the coldest the climate became about 20 thousand years ago. The historical call to existence of the person (in any case, in rather northern latitudes) with which people managed to cope was an ego. But soon (again by historical standards) warming began. Most of scientists believe that settling of America by the person happened 20-25 thousand years ago when on the place of the Bering Strait there was an overland bridge.

So, in a late paleolith the people conducted the appropriating economy, much more developed type, than Neanderthal men, not to mention earlier hominids. In total they used more than 20 instruments of labor, including the needles allowing to sew clothes from skins of animals.

Mesolith usually call time with XIII on the VIII millennium BC though some scientists expand this chronological framework a little. Anyway, about the economic relations of an era of Mesolith we know more, than about earlier. Up to the 20th century relic representatives of Mesolith were Bushmen and a hadza in South Africa, vedda on Ceylon, guayak in Paraguay, ognezemelets, an urabunia in Australia; for example, Europeans for the first time learned about ethnic group of a hadz only in 1931, and early studies were conducted among people who conducted the appropriating economy for a long time.

In Mesolith there is no accurate sequence of the archaeological cultures inherent in a paleolith. Its cultures have territorially limited character.

The beginning of Mesolith coincides with final thawing of glaciers. Their thawing caused climate changes, florae and faunae.

The spaces exempted from glaciers became covered by the woods. Influence of the last phase of freezing ceased to affect all territories occupied by the person about 10 thousand years ago. Nevertheless, life then was "cruel, rough and short"; average life expectancy did not exceed 20 years.

During an era of Mesolith that appropriating economy which remains in a number of places of the globe reached our days was finally created.

The following was its main lines:

>- the collective nature of production,

>- leveling assignment, within communities;

>- big dependence of people by nature and from each other;

- consumption restrictions;

>- slow technological process;

>- use of mainly stone tools;

>- lack of an additional product and accumulation only the life-supporting product, as a rule, was made;

>- syncretism of the public relations, "not domination" of the economic relations;

>- low population density and its slow growth;

>- lack of exchange (at late stages - "дарообмен");

>- gender and age division of labor;

>- unevenness of resettlement: though people lived in all territory of the planet, available to settling, in subtropical and tropical regions the population density was higher.

Everywhere people lived small groups which generally it is possible to call primitive communities though their concrete names in different places, naturally differed.

In communities of hunters and collectors of the different zones of the globe conducting such economy in the XVIII-XX centuries on average was till 35-50 people, at settled fishers, "collectors of a harvest" (about them the speech later) and the earliest farmers much more - 100-150. Apparently, approximately same communities were and 10-15 thousand years ago.

Members of community are not blood relatives, they descend from different ancestors and belong to various childbirth.

The primitive community is based on collective ownership on the earth. So, at natives of Australia each community had a certain hunting-collective territory; the set of communities formed the tribe. The family was the smallest unit of community-based organization.

Within communities joint work, collective leveling distribution of its products took place.

The economic relations in community dominated over all other components of a social system, but material interests not

were prevailing. The economic relations were inseparably linked with outlook and social life.

Studying life of the Australian natives, the tribe of a hadz in East Africa and other groups conducting the appropriating economy in X1X-XX of centuries showed that work occupies from two to four them, at most till five o'clock in day. And this time appears enough for satisfaction of requirements, certainly, if the long drought or other natural cataclysms do not put people on the edge of survival. Scientists assume, as ancestors of the people living in Mesolith and a paleolith many thousands years ago gave to collecting, hunting or fishery have more and more than time; especially as the fauna and flora then were much richer, and there were very few people.

At a stage of the appropriating economy at all people the got food was distributed between all members of community absolutely irrespective of, they participated in its getting or not. Sometimes it is called "primitive communism". Distribution took place in three main forms: analysis (when each member of community took from got a certain share), undressed - sharing (when production was divided between members of community), yes-chedelezha (when members of community shared with each other the got food). Anyway, all food irrespective of by whom it was got became the property of community. Analysis was earlier form, than both types of sharing.

There were societies in which all food originally went into the disposal of the people who got it. For example, so was at bushmet, but at the same time from everyone who had food, it was expected that it will give it to others, those who has no food. As a result practically all got food equally was distributed in group.

At analysis, having taken a piece of meat, the person could only eat it, but not dispose of it somehow differently. Distribution was inseparable from consumption. Consumption was controlled by community so that everyone could receive the share. Apparently, control was exercised by not specially allocated "controllers", and force of traditions and standard norms.

It is known that in Australia the distribution of food submits to the strict norms ordering, whom when and how many food has to get how to divide carcass of an animal to whom any given part intends. And at natives of Australia the public distribution possesses products not only collective, but also individual hunting.

In community the exchange was not. With the advent of the minimum excess product there was a possibility of exchange between members of different groups, but it was not exchange of equivalents, goods, but exchange of gifts, yes-roobmen. The gift did not assume and did not demand gratitude in any form; there was no reciprocity as a form of communication of "service for service". The rules defining to properly give, accept a gift and to do a gift reciprocal followed from religious and magic representations. Periodically

organized festivals during which a huge number of products was eaten and drunk. Such holidays it is accepted to call an Indian word a potlatch. The one who could bring more products was highly esteemed. It is possible to tell that "its social status was raised".

Today in food of the population of Earth vegetable food absolutely prevails. Far back in the past vegetable food turned out by collecting and often (but not always) prevailed too. At African products of collecting make a hadz to 80% of a diet; the truth, they collect not only wild-growing fruits, but also and eggs of birds and turtles. Collecting went through two stages: unspecialized, when collected all suitable in food, and specialized when some concrete plant was a collecting subject in certain time.

At a stage of unspecialized collecting the people acquired extensive knowledge of edible, nonpoisonous and poisonous plants; about their properties (including - medical and narcotic); maturing time, conditions of growth and many other.

Unspecialized collecting, as a rule, was complemented with hunting or fishery; in this case division of labor between women and men took place. The collecting yielding more guaranteed results was carried out mainly by women. So, natives of Australia have a tough division of labor between men and women: on average 70% of products of collecting are extracted by women; 98% of products of hunting and 60% of fishery - men. Over time there was a specialized collecting, otherwise it is called "collecting of a harvest". In this case people collect one or several plant species (at different times) yielding a regular, steady, plentiful harvest. They say that "collectors of a harvest" reap, without sowing.

The products got by "collectors of a harvest" were long enough stored, either raw, or processed. As typical "collectors of a harvest" are considered North American tribes of Indians of the ojibway and a sia. They specialized in collecting of wild-growing water rice. The harvest took place in August, beginning on in advance appointed day; the rice field was owned by all community, but every year before a harvest the sites were distributed anew. Collected grain was dried in the sun, threshed, winnowed, ground.

Carry to specialized collectors also Papuans of some tribes of New Guinea who of a core of the cut-down cycads palm trees prepared a sago.

According to Herodotus, ancient Egyptians collected a lotus, dried it in the sun, pounded in flour, and then during quite long time ate.

The wandering hunters and collectors had no need in long-term dwellings, large supplies of food, pottery and in many other - all this would only disturb them. Other business - "collectors of a harvest".

Long-term or even constant settled life near places of a harvest is characteristic of communities of "collectors of a harvest".

Also the technology of hunting changed.

In a late paleolith - the beginning of Mesolith hunting by "shelter" when animals were exhausted at first to breaks was widely applied, and then - and in in advance dug lovchy holes with the vryty pointed stakes in them. For intimidation of animals used fire.

During Mesolith era in midlatitudes temperature increased by 6 - 12 degrees in comparison with a temperature minimum of the period of freezing that significantly changed managing conditions. Till an era of Mesolith of people had an opportunity to hunt large animals, including mammoths. Many scientists believe that there was mesolytic revolution 8-12 thousand years ago: the person had "technical capability" to exterminate megafauna (that is large animals) and wholly seized this opportunity. According to researchers, mass destruction of large mammals is connected with emergence of new types of a hunting gun so-called "cultures Clovis", quickly extended in large territories of dwelling of the person.

Along with mammoths, woolly rhinoceroses, cave bears, other large animals disappeared. People had to be engaged in hunting for less large animals that demanded application of new types of a hunting gun and methods of hunting. There were onions and arrows. Meat began to be dried, dried, frozen. Hunting had bigger value for communities of midlatitudes and, especially, the North, than at communities of subtropics and tropics. Also the range of stone tools was wider in the north. Individual hunting with a skradyvaniye (that is imperceptible approach to production) and ambushes gained development.

There was noticeable an impact of the person not only on fauna, but also on flora. So, Australians and tasmaniyets consciously burned out an old grass on the hunting grounds to provide kangaroos whom they hunted with a fresh green grass. At the same time they tried to keep groups of trees or small groves which could serve for animals as the shelter. But burning out of a grass not always managed to be stopped in time, sometimes there were heavy fires covering huge territories. On extensive spaces of Tasmania there was a change of vegetation, the damp woods gave way to bushes and open savannas; the nature of the soil, climate changed. Thus, long before emergence of agriculture and cattle breeding the people actively influenced the environment, changed it, created a new, anthropogenic landscape. For the first time because of human activity in a number of forest regions of the world (not only in Australia and Tasmania) the first signs of deforestation appeared.

In Northern Europe approximately in 200 years after retreat of a glacier the hunting for a reindeer was the main livelihood. It gave all necessary for life: food, clothes, raw materials for izgotovle-

niya of tools and weapon. In 200 years in the same regions continued to hunt a reindeer and also smaller animals. In Shtelmoor, near Hamburg, found fragments of the onions, most ancient in Europe, and staffs of arrows. In Northern Europe during this period essentially new technology of processing of a stone - "a dot retouch", i.e. a consecutive vykroshivaniye of particles of a stone, and then and drilling appears.

The importance in economy of northern tribes was occupied by fishing which was conducted by means of harpoons, arrows, a jail, networks, fish-traps. Approximately in the IX millennium B.C. inhabitants of Northern Europe began to do dolbleny boats with oars. The remains of the fishing net, most ancient in the world, were found in the peat bog near Vyborg. This network of fibers of willow bark was made and supplied with the floats and stone sinkers made of bark.

In the middle of the VIII millennium BC in Northern Europe began to cut trees by means of the stone (silicon) axe. The used in Mesolith onions with arrows, throwing spears, harpoons, networks for catching of fishes allowed to hunt inaccessible earlier small animals and a feathery game, in large numbers to catch fish. The population continued to grow though we also do not know what it was during that era.

With rather high degree of reliability it is established that in 10 Ltd companies of BC the technologies of the appropriating economy existing then did not allow to support existence on the planet more than 10 million persons. Most of researchers believe that the population was less, estimates fluctuate from 1 to 10 million people. The population grew in areas where "epoch-making innovations" appeared, most quicker. An excess part of this population moved to new places where groups of the people who had more primitive technologies of hunting lived. Apparently, there were "mesolytic wars" of newcomers to natives that also demanded improvement of weapon.

A number of scientists believes that at the beginning of Mesolith there was nostratichesky parent language from which Indo-European, Dravidian, Altai, Ural-Yukaghir, kartvelsky, Eskimo-Aleutian languages were allocated later.

Over time there was a fur farming; domestication of animals which began about 10 - 15 thousand years ago became one of the most important achievements of Mesolith. The tamed wild animals were gradually turned into house. Domestitsirovanny animals were more reliable source of food, than wild which quantity around human settlements was reduced. Excavation demonstrates that before other animals the dog, and approximately in the IX-VIII millennium - a sheep, a goat and a pig was cultivated BC.

In Mesolith of people continued to accumulate knowledge of the world and to acquire new skills. To survive to the increased number of people, it was necessary to know more and more about habits of animals, features of a food supply, properties of plants and minerals. There was an experience of treatment of injuries, the first surgeries - were performed that demanded production of surgical instruments (from a stone).

Several thousands of decades passed from the first attempts of cultivation of plants before emergence, and then prevalence of agriculture. These processes accelerated if the appropriating economy experienced crisis. Such crisis could be connected with sharp change of an environment, demographic shifts, negative consequences of human activity (for example, destruction of animals), outside influence, from more developed societies. Apparently, long before emergence of agriculture the people knew that the seeds thrown into the earth under certain conditions sprout. But the needs be engaged in agriculture could not to be. For example, natives of Australia, even before colonization built canals given in several hundreds of meters, were able to look after plants, but did not pass to their systematic deliberate cultivation. There was enough food, let and poor, and so.

In the X-IX millennium B.C. inhabitants of future Palestine and Jordan were settled fishers and hunters. By means of silicon zhatvenny knives they began to reap regularly a crop of wild-growing cereals - an emmer and barley, and then - by some of the first - and began to do crops which at first played a supporting role. Growth of the population which lacked production from impoverished fauna and the flora limited on the efficiency pushed to it. Absolutely irrespective of inhabitants of the Middle East in Indochina (in the north of Thailand), judging by finds of archeologists, the millet, soy, rice began to be cultivated approximately in the VIII millennia B.C. Then, and again independently, began to grow up rice in China.

A bit later crisis of the appropriating economy happened in Europe, as a result of ecological shocks.

As archeological finds, ancient inhabitants of the modern northeast of Mexico show four thousand years, since VIII-VII millennium BC, experimented with cultivation of plants, and by the III millennium BC the products of agriculture made a quarter of all consumed products; that is the economy was generally appropriating, but already with noticeable elements making. Pumpkin became the first cultivated plant here, then began to grow up the beans which became the main agricultural food product, and still later - corn. In parallel caught turtles, together exhausted rabbits, fir-trees of lizards, grasshoppers, hunted wild deer and the American pigs.

The fate of the tribes conducting appropriating economy developed further differently. At relative abundance of food the hunters, collectors and fishers do not feel the need for transition to the making economy. So, Australians up to XX in did not pass to the making economy because their appropriating economy did not endure crisis.

Settled fishers and a sea animal hunters (Aleuts, Koryaks, coastal Chukchi and Eskimos, Nivkhs and some other) conducted the appropriating economy in especially favorable conditions allowing to receive a certain surplus of food and to reserve it for the future. At them arose rather large

settled settlements, noticeable property and social stratification. The efficiency of such appropriating economy was very high.

But in the Middle East 10 thousand years ago the increased population could not receive enough products by maintaining the appropriating economy any more; a bit later the same situation developed in Indochina, China, India, Europe, Mesoamerica, other regions of the world. And the answer to a historical call was found.

Thus, in late Mesolith the unevenness of historical development of certain regions, much faster, than earlier, change of technological ways began to be shown obviously.

Elements of the appropriating economy remained and much later, in the conditions of domination of the making economy. So, ancestors of east Slavs passed to the making economy not later than the V millennium BC. However through thousands of years after that in Russia - in Russia the woods, the rivers and lakes meant a lot of things as a source of food; people ate the caught fish, picked mushrooms and berries, wild honey, were engaged in hunting. Remained up to the 20th century - and the relations of a daroobmen, in their science began to call retsiprokny. The Dozemledelchesky community was transformed to zs\gledelchssky. having kept a lot of things in human relations.

Control questions

1. What is the appropriating economy?
2. What main lines of the appropriating economy?
3. What is "primitive communism"?
4. What stages of development did pass collecting?
5. What role of community during an era of the appropriating economy?
6. What is "mesolytic revolution"?
7. What differences of the appropriating economy in different regions of the world you know?


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