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FEATURES of ETHNOCULTURAL DEVELOPMENT of KOMI of page. Men of the SHURYSHKARSKY Region of YAMALO-NENETS AUTONOMOUS AREA



OSOBENNOSTI of ETHNOCULTURAL DEVELOPMENT of KOMI by page. Men of the SHURYSHKARSKY REGION of the YAMAL-NENETS AUTONOMOUS OKRUGA1

N.A. Liskevich

The history of formation and feature of ethnocultural development of the Komi of village are considered. Men of the Shuryshkarsky Region of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Area in XX — the beginning of the 21st century. On the basis of the analysis of these books of pokhozyaystvenny accounting of the population, materials of office-work and field collecting dynamics of number of the Komi, gender and age structure, marriage interaction, the choice of nationality of children in mixed marriages, changes in structure of employment are analyzed. Not demand of the sphere of reindeer breeding for modern Komi is noted that defines loss of many components of culture connected with nomadic life including terminology.

Komi of the Northern Trans-Ural region, izhemets, page. Men, ethnocultural development, employment of the Komi, ethnodemographic situation.

According to the All-Russian population census of 2002, in the territory of the Tyumen region 10,555 people of the Komi, i.e. about 3.6% of their total number in the Russian Federation (293,406 people) are registered [Results of the All-Russian census..., 2005. Page 7; All-Russian census...]. Migration processes of the Komi to the Urals are noted throughout centuries, especially after accession of the territory of Siberia to the Moscow state. Early migrants were assimilated, modern Komi are descendants of immigrants of the 19th century. Now one of the largest centers of compact resettlement of the Komi in Siberia is the page. Men of the Shuryshkarsky Region of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Area. The history of formation of the Komi of the population in lower reaches of Ob, including in the village. Men, ethnocultural development, features of sociocultural adaptation not only were considered in works of researchers in the context of studying history of the region and ethnography of indigenous people, but also became a direct subject of study [Zherebtsov, 1982; Kanakas, 1993; Kanakas, Kotov, 1991; Occasion, 2006; Aged men, 1926; Tours, 2002; Filatova, 1994; etc.]. Such interest is explained by the special importance of this compact group in reproduction of the Komi of the population in the territory of the North of Western Siberia that is caused by their considerable number in region scales, maintaining ethnic identity and social activity throughout X1X-XX1 of centuries so far

For identification of features of ethnocultural development of the Komi of page. Men of the Shuryshkarsky Region of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Area were used materials of field researches of 2002 and 2009, data of books of pokhozyaystvenny accounting of the population of the Muzhevsky settlement for 01.01.2009, the materials of office-work of the rural settlement and state farm "Mu-zhevsky" which are stored in regional archive, museum meetings of the regional local history museum, the publication in regional newspaper "Severnaya Panorama" 2 are analyzed. For disclosure of a subject the following tasks were set: illumination of history of formation of group, determination of dynamics of number throughout XIX — the beginnings of the 21st century, characteristic of a modern ethnodemographic situation, including gender and age structure, marriage interaction, the choice of nationality of children in mixed marriages, consideration in a historical context of educational level of the Komi and structure of employment.

The history of formation of settlement group of the Komi in the village. Men. In Berezovsky edge the first Komi immigrants lodged in already existing large settlements (Obdorsk, Beryozovo) or founded settlements near yurtas of aboriginals (Men, Saranpaul); in process of development of lower reaches of Ob and the territory of the Sosvinsko-Lyapinsky basin, Komi-izhemtsy located in settlements where there lived Nenets, the Khanty, Mansi or Russians. When choosing the place

1

The research is conducted with assistance of the Program of basic researches of Presidium of RAS "Historical and cultural heritage and cultural wealth of Russia", the "Ethnocultural Processes at the Komi of Nizhny Novgorod of Priobye in XIX — the Beginning of the 21st Century." project.

2

Department of affairs of archives of Municipality Administration Shuryshkarsky district. Regional local history museum.

residence were considered convenient location of trade ways (water and land), the possibility of use of fishing and pasturable grounds, an important role were played by existence of church in the settlement or nearby. The village Men in the first half of the 19th century was one of the main directions of migrations of the Komi-izhemtsev in lower reaches of Ob. It was on the way of movement of the Komi because of the Urals to Obdorsku, the important trade village where the fair was held in the winter. At movement from page. Men to river. Mustache passed through the Synya River at first between the Synya and Voykar Rivers to east slope of the Urals (90 versts), then the pass through the Urals (40 versts) followed; from there went to river. Mustache when falling the Lemvy River into it (70 versts). The low valleys cutting here the Urals allowed wagon trains to pass without effort the ridge [Zhitkov, 1913. Page 284]. This way had extent in 200 versts, then went to Pechora from which went on the Izhma River to the village Izhma [Dunin-Gorkavich, 1995. Page 274-275].

It is supposed that development by izhemets of the territory of the Lower Priobye began with distribution of seasonal migrations when a part of reindeer breeders, having changed usual routes of kocheviya, began to leave for the summer with deer to the Urals, returning to winter to the region of Izhma [Konakov, Kotov, 1991. Page 49]. Besides, izhemets came in Berezovsky edge since the beginning of the 1820th for the purpose of trade, first of all on Obdorskaya "a winter yarmonka" [GAOO. T. 3. Op. 1. 42. L. 44-44 about.].

It is possible that during the trade trips of the Komi stopped also around arrangement of modern Husbands. It is known that already in the second half of the 1840th in November, after establishment of the winter road, the fair [Yuryev, was held 1852 there. Page 323]. Came to a fair obdorsky and Berezovsky is dealers, also Komi-Zyrians because of the Urals gathered; after holding a fair some of them came back to the Urals, others went to Obdorsk [In the same place. Page 323, 375; Abramov, 1857. Page 441]. This territory was chosen for construction of the Mi-hailo-Arkhangelsk church which was put in 1840 on the left high coast of Small Ob, in three versts Men of the Hummock are higher on a current from ostyatsky yurtas [GUTO GAT. T. 156. Op. 24. 126. L. 70; Voropay, 1901. Page 52]. Together with church also two houses for clergy were built [In the same place]. While it is unknown what the choice of this place who was an initiator of construction of church, since what time the decision on need of its construction was made was connected with.

At once after opening of Mikhailo-Arkhangelsky church in registers of births where data on a baptism, a wedding and burial of inhabitants of arrival were fixed, Komi of a surname began to appear [GUTO GAT. 744. L. 132 about.-136.]. For the first 20 years of existence of church, from 1840 to 1862, 645 cases of participation of the Komi in 266 ceremonies, both for execution of own occasional offices, and as godfathers were recorded at a baptism or guarantors at a wedding [GUTO GAT. T. 156. Op. 20. 743-766/1]. Peaks of migration processes of izhemets in the village. Men fall on the 1860-1870th and the 1910th [the Occasion, 2006. Page 53]. Generally it were natives of settlements of the basin of Izhma — villages Izhma, Mokhcha, Rage, Lasta, Din, Varysh, Oh - hens, Sizyabsk, etc., both the whole families, and certain people. Data of registers of births allowed to restore genealogies of families of the first immigrants of the Komi and to establish that descendants of most of them still live in page. Men [In the same place. Page 50-54, 219-255; PMA, Shuryshkarsky district, 2009].

Dynamics of number of the Komi of page. Men in XIX — the beginning of the 21st century. In 1897 in the village. Men the biggest lived in Berezovsky the district group of Komi (Zyrians) — 737 people (380 m and 357 zh.) from 904 people that made 36.4% of all Komi of the population of the district [Patkanov, 1911. Page 32-34]. The period since the end

XIX to the middle of the 1920th — the beginnings of the 1930th were marked out century by expansion of borders of the territory of resettlement of the Komi-izhemtsev in Berezovsky edge. Gradual development of the Northern Trans-Ural region, increase of number of the Komi caused increase in number of the made habitable settlements. Along with preservation of the centers of compact accommodation of the Komi the degree of dispersion of their resettlement raises. At the end of the 19th century the settlement group of the Komi in the basin of the river of Nadym and Nyda, in the late twenties — the beginning of the 1930th — in Kazym's pool, in the early thirties — in lower reaches of the Pur River began to be formed. Settlements of the Komi in the pool Kazym and Poore were connected with education reindeer-breeding state farms, for work in them reindeer breeders from Husbands and Obdorsk, and migrants from the region of Komi [PMA, the Beloyarsk district, were attracted 2008 as Komi; Purovsky district, 2009].

On materials of the Subpolar census of 1926-1927, in Berezovsky the area 1482 Komi-izhemtsa (all in the area — 12,760 people), in Obdorsky district — 3350 (all in the area — 16,917 people) [the List., lived 1928. Page 56, 164-165]. In the village. Men by this time the number of Komi (Zyrians) increased to 1174 people, and all in the territory of Muzhevsky village council them 1185 people are marked out [Page 110 in the same place]. In lower reaches of Ob, in particular in the village. Men, the last immigrants giving to drink -

curled in 1929-1930 [Konakov, Kotov, 1991. Page 51]. In the first quarter of the 20th century the migration process in general ended, in the late twenties inflow of new immigrants ran low. The termination of mass migration was connected with radical reconstruction of economy in the course of collective-farm construction and restriction of freedom of travel of the country population.

Throughout the second half of XX — the beginning of the 21st century the Komi's number in the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Area increased from 4867 people in 1959 to 6177 people in 2002 [Results of the All-Russian population census., 2005. Page 19]. In Shuryshkarsky district which center is the page. Men, growth of the Komi of the population is also noted — from 1849 people in 1989 till 2034 persons in 2002 that makes nearly 33% of the total number of the Komi in the district, or about 22% of all Komi living in the territory of the Yamal-Nenets and Khanty-Mansi autonomous areas [In the same place. Page 13, 19, 408].

The Muzhevsky village council was formed on the basis of the resolution of VTsIK of December 10, 1930 as a part of the Ostyako-Vogulsky national district (since 1940 — Khanty-Mansi), in 1937 the area was transferred to the Yamal-Nenets national district [Administrativnoterritorialny division., 2003. Page 213, 241]. According to the electoral passport of the municipal unit Muzhevskoye the rural settlement of 01.09.2008, villages Men, New Kiyevat, Old Kiyevat, Anzhigort, were a part of the territory. Khanty men, village of Vosyakhovo, Voykara, V-Voykary, small Khanty gorta. With formation of Vosyakhovsky village council in 1975 in administrative submission of Muzhevsky s/s there were villages of Anzhigort, New Kiyevat. Khanty men. In October, 2004 according to the law of YaNAO No. 42 "About investment with the status, definition of the administrative center and establishment of borders of municipal units of Shuryshkarsky district" the Muzhevsky village council received the status of the rural municipal entity with the administrative center of page. Men. On national structure for the beginning of 2008 in the Muzhevsky settlement in 2008 the share of Russians made 27.1%, the Komi — 37.5%, the Khanty — 25.5%, Nenets — 2.3%, other — 7.6% [The electoral passport., 2008. Page 10]. According to books of pokhozyaystvenny accounting of the population of Muzhevsky rural administration, for January 1, 2009 in the territory of the settlement 3654 people, including Russians — 988, the Komi — lived 1204 (in the village. Men — 1185 people, in New Kiyevat — 19), the Khanty — 981, Nenets — 74, Mansi — 24, Selkups — 5, other — 247, at 136 people the nationality is not specified (fig. 1).

7%

Mansi / are not specified

1% / 4%

Komi of 32%

Russian

27%

Fig. 1. The national structure of the population of the Muzhevsky rural settlement for 01.01.2009 (%)

Modern gender and age structure of the Komi of page. Men. The number of women as a part of the Komi of the population was 624 people, men — 580. At the same time in age category of 0-15 years of boys and girls there were 132 and 124 people, from 16 to 50 years of the man and the woman respectively made 326 and 333 people, among people 50 years — the 122 and 167 persons are more senior. Thus, the share of children (up to 16 years) made 23% of the total number of the Komi, the population share up to 50 years — 56%, from 50 years and is more senior — 21%. Such type of age structure is characteristic of the stationary (grown old) population, from the number (fig. 2) expressed by a tendency to reduction if among the Komi in the next years the birth rate with the subsequent maintaining ethnic identity at children does not increase. At the same time the share of able-bodied population (from 16 to 54 years at men and 49 years at women) made 59%, a retirement age — about 20%.

On a pyramid two waves of increase in birth rate at the Komi — in the mid-fifties — the beginning of the 1960th and in the mid-eighties — the beginning of the 1990th are obviously traced. Decrease in birth rate falls on the 1940th and the middle of the 1960-1970th; the lower part of a pyramid also displays -

howls the falling of birth rate from the middle of the 1990th continuing and in the 2000th that is characteristic in general of the population of the Russian Federation these years. Reduction been born in these periods is connected with influence of the Great Patriotic War and reflects shifts in age structure; the generation of the middle of the 1990th — the 2000th besides that represents descendants of "children of war", so also appeared in time and after social and economic crises of the 1990th. Besides, change of reproductive behavior of the Komi of whom the high birth rate in XIX — the beginning of the 20th century was characteristic [the Occasion, 2006. Page 67-69, 219-255], can be connected with transformation of a traditional way of life in view of change of structure of employment and reduction of need for children and also growth of number of the mixed marriages leading to change of ethnic identity at children.

□ Men

□ Women

>-25 0 25

number of people

75

Fig. 2. Gender and age structure of the Komi of the population of the Muzhevsky rural settlement for 01.01.2009

Marriage interaction of the Komi of page. Men. Indicators of marriage interaction of the Komi reflect the high level of a metisation — from 361 marriages with participation komi3 only 106 are mono-etnichnymi, 141 — with participation of the Komi and Russians (the Komi Russians — 65, the Russian-Komi — 77), 67 — with participation of the Komi and peoples of the North (the Komi - Nenets — 10, the Komi Khanty — 42, the Komi Mansi — 1, the Komi - Selkup — 1, the Nenets Komi — 2, the Khanty Komi — 11), with participation of the Komi and other — 42, in 5 cases at one of spouses nationality is not specified (fig. 3). In 138 cases mixed marriages were entered by men, in 119 — women.

39%

And One-national marriages of the Komi

29% d Marriages with participation of the Komi and peoples of the North

N Marriages with participation of the Komi and Russians

And Marriages with participation of the Komi and other

□ Marriages with participation of the Komi where at spouses the nationality is not specified

Fig. 3. National structure of marriages with participation of the Komi (%)

The choice of nationality of children in mixed marriages. On materials of household books the nationality 303 people, been born from 1988 to 2008 in mixed was analyzed

3

Not only the registered marriages, but also officially not issued cohabitation, so-called cohabitation were considered.

marriages with participation of the Komi, and both data on full families, and those cases when in incomplete families the nationality of children and parents did not coincide were used. In mixed marriages of the Komi of women with prochimi4 in 17 cases at children the nationality on the father, in 5 cases is noted — on mother, in 7 — it is not specified. In marriages with prochimi5 the Komi of men in 18 cases at children the priority is given to the Komi of nationality, in 9 — it is not specified. At 22 people who was born in mixed marriages of the Komi of women with representatives of indigenous ethnic groups of the North in 15 cases the choice of nationality was determined by the father, in 4 cases — by mother, in 3 — it was not specified. In families where the Komi was a father, in 76 considered cases 35 people are noted as the Komi, 39 — representatives of radical nationalities, at 2 — it is not defined. In the Russian-Komi marriages 29 people Komi, 52 — Russians, 2 are written down — not defined, to one (2003) parents specified nationality of the grandmother — the Nenets. The priority is given to the Komi Russians to nationality of the father — 52 cases, mothers — 14, at one nationality is not specified. In spite of the fact that the man's Komi enter mixed marriages more often, than women, and the priority in mixed marriages is in the majority given to nationality of the father (especially it is visible on the example of marriages with other and Russian), nevertheless in general the choice for the Komi of nationality is recorded in 143 cases from 303 considered. From 1990th there is a tendency not to specify nationality of children in mixed marriages, all 23 cases are revealed, from them 2/3 — in marriages with other (tab. 1).

Table 1

The choice of nationality of children in mixed marriages with participation of the Komi

Choice of nationality Marriages

Other - the Komi Komi-other The people of the North Komi Komi - peoples of the North Russians Komi The Komi Russians All

On mother 5 — 4 39 29 14 91

On the father 17 18 15 35 52 52 189

Not specified 7 8 3 2 2 1 23

Characteristic of educational level of the Komi. One of value orientations of the Komi-izhemtsev is the aspiration to increase in educational level. In the 19th century "home schooling" as a result of which they studied Russian and seized skills of reading and the letter practiced in Berezovsky the district among the Komi-izhemtsev. At the end of the 1880th more than a third of adult male population at the Komi of residents of the village. Men owned the diploma though the school appeared in the village only in 1887 [the Occasion, 2006. Page 166]. According to a population census of 1897, among the Komi living in general in Berezovsky the district 354 people (318 men and 36 women) owned the diploma, in percentage terms from the total number of the Komi - the Izhma population of the district the literacy was at men — 29.8%, women have 3.8% [The first general census., 1897. Page 110-113]. For comparison: the literacy among all Komi (Zyrians) of the Tobolsk province (from 7083 people) was 14.6% at men and women have 1.5% [In the same place. Page XXVIII]. In 1890 50 boys and girls studied at school. In 1918 the number of pupils increased in comparison with 1900 almost twice — from 64 to 124 people [the Occasion, 2006. Page 172]. Already since the beginning

XX at schools appear century the qualified teachers who got specialized education, graduates of local schools become teachers. So, at school of page. Men the graduate of local school Pyotr Fedorov Rochev who was born in 1892 in family of the local peasant F.N. Rochev taught [GUTO GAT. T. 700. Op. 1. 20. L. 88]. By 14 years it finished a course at Muzhevsky school and from 1906 to 1913 was the assistant to the teacher, and then and the teacher [The reference book., 1913. Page 17; GUTO GAT. T. 156. Op. 24. 501. L. 42; 511. L. 64; 520. L. 28].

By 1930 in Shuryshkarsky district 4 elementary schools were open, in 1932-1933 at them 598 people, including the Khanty — 33, Zyrians — 200, Nenets — 9, Russians — 338, other — 19 studied [Shulgin, 1987]. In 1933 in Men 2 schools functioned: the first step and seven-year school of trade youth [In the same place].

4
by

considered nationality of the children who were born in marriages of the Komi of women with Bashkirs, Belarusians, the Kalmyk, Germans, Tatars, Ukrainians, Finns and Chuvashs.

Men joined the Komi marriages with Moldavians, Tatars, Udmurts, Ukrainians, Chuvashs, in several cases the nationality of the spouse is not specified.

According to books of pokhozyaystvenny account for 01.01.2009, among modern pensioners (237 people) only 3 people, not having the diploma (1925) and without primary education (1929 and 1931 of river), 22% of inhabitants of the Komi of page are marked out. Men of a retirement age have primary education, incomplete and average — 37%, specialized secondary and average and professional — 26%, incomplete the highest and the highest — 6.4%, at 7% the education is not specified.

Among the population men have from 19 to 55 years and 50 years at women at whom education (598 people) is specified, at 10% — below an average, 45% — an average, 30% — special, 15% — the highest and incomplete the highest. At the same time it should be noted higher educational level among women: the higher and incomplete higher education was got by 65 women (men — 24), an average — 96 women (men — 173).

Among youth get an education in the highest and average special educational institutions 68 people of 1984-1990 of river, i.e. about 39% of all population of this age category (176 people), and 2 people of 1991. From them 44 people study in higher educational institutions (27 zh. and 17 m), 23 — in special (13 zh. and 10 m), at 3 people the place of study are not specified. Kirov where 12 people study, and Tyumen (17 people) became the main centers of receiving the higher education, also study in the cities of St. Petersburg (4 people), Salekhard (3 people), Tobolsk (3 people), Tomsk (2 people), Khanty-Mansiysk (2 people) and Mozhaisk (1 people). Vocational education is got generally in pedagogical and zooveterinary colleges of Salekhard (19 people).

Features of employment of the Komi. The ethnocultural specifics of the Komi-izhemtsev were traditionally connected with krupnotabunny tundra reindeer breeding and were expressed in a combination nomadic reindeer-breeding and settled economic and cultural complexes. The livestock of deer at Komi Berezovsky of the district increased rapidly. By data A.A. Dunina-Gorkavich, in 1892 739 families of the Komi had 207,000 heads, i.e. on average about 280 deer were the share of one family [1995. Page 115]. In 1926 in the village. Men only two Komi of the reindeer breeder had a livestock of deer more than two thousand, seven reindeer breeders — from one to two thousand, six — to one thousand deer [Startsev, 1926. Page 47].

The settled economic and cultural complex of the Komi in XIX — the beginning of the 20th century was based on complex housekeeping, its main industries were trade, fishery, carrying. Strict differentiation of economic specialization was not: settled izhemets could have the deer, giving them on a pasture, the Komi reindeer breeders made buying up of furs and did business in the tundra among the nomadic native population, sold the products at fairs. The role of fishery and izvozny crafts increased in the last quarter of the 19th century. Wide circulation of seasonal works in the form of participation in work of hired fishing artels was specifics of the Komi of economy. At the end of the 19th century in economy of the Komi-izhemtsev the agriculture role increases a little, the professional craft begins to develop.

Global events of the 1920th significantly influenced processes of ethnocultural development of all people of the state. Policy of collectivization in agriculture and collective-farm construction of the beginning of the 1930th changed structure and content of labor employment of the Komi of the population. In 1930 in the village. Men on the basis of "Northern simplest productive association" the Komi inhabitants formed collective farm "Lenin's Way" [Material No. 1..., 1946. L. 1]. The peasants who had individual farms to the accession to collective farm handed over in public use of pets (deer, cows, horses), agricultural stock [Farnosova, 2006. Page 178]. Further the collective farm consistently passes to higher form of collective-farm economy and in 1940 adopts the charter of agricultural artel. At the end of 1946 in collective farm 187 farms making 435 people, from them men — 166 people, women — 269 people, including teenagers of both sexes of 16 years — 97 people, consisting in 187 farms were joint [Material No. 1..., 1946. L. 8]. Nearly 90% of collective farmers made the Komi [In the same place. Page 14-24].

Collective farm, and later artel had reindeer-breeding specialization, 69 people worked in cervine herds which contained 9259 heads [In the same place. Page 46, 50]. In the late forties 8 reindeer-breeding crews were in collective farm, in 1951 one more was created, due to reduction working at fisheries sector [Djyachkova, 1991. Page 3]. Over the years the livestock of deer and in private use of collective farmers increased: if in 1945 personal deer was 708, then in two years their number grew to 2458 heads [In the same place]. The main way of their increase was an awarding of reindeer breeders for good work by deer in quantity up to 65 heads [In the same place].

In collective farm the dairy livestock production was allocated, horse breeding, much attention was paid to field husbandry development, also in the village the welfare sphere developed. At the beginning

1940 in collective farm bred cattle, organized a dairy farm, developed horse breeding. In 1946 in collective farm there were 70 cows and 114 horses [Material No. 1., 1946. Page 46]. Generally horses were used for carrying, at economic works and on hunting. The special difficulty was presented by field husbandry development. Potatoes, swede, turnip were cultivated generally, the share of grain was insignificant [Shulgin, 1990. Page 2]. In 1946 the acreage of potatoes was 30 hectares, vegetables — 0.5, barley — 1.5, forages and root crops — 4 hectares [In the same place]. For an arable land were allocated the right and left side of Small Ob in a radius up to 2 km. And though from 1970th, field husbandry begins to die away, still one of islands has the name Potato.

Izvozny trade was presented by transportation of mail, passengers and cargoes on a trading station. Through the area there passed the winter highway Tobolsk — Salekhard on which transported mail and passengers. For the collective farms located on a path, carrying yielded a powerful part of revenue. [Shulgin, 1990. Page 2]. The trade economy was an important source of income generation in collective farm. All got fish gave up in a raw state on the only Kushevatsky fish factory in the area and its pickling points. Fishing was made mainly by seines and networks. Hunting for a fur animal gave 21.9% of revenues of all collective farms of the area. Traded mainly a squirrel, an ermine, a fox, a polar fox, from birds — a partridge. [In the same place]. Since the end of the 1940th in Men fur farming began to develop. This industry was highly profitable and in 1948 brought income in a type of revolving fund about 100 thousand rubles [Djyachkova, 1991. Page 3]. In October, 1961 the state farm Muzhevsky was organized, reindeer breeding and fur farming remained its main specializations. Now the agricultural enterprise Muzhevskoye specializes in the traditional industries — reindeer breeding, livestock production, fisheries sector. Auxiliary production — construction, rendering transport services develops.

Expansion of opportunities for employment, change of vital needs, increase in education level, obtaining vysokovalifitsirovanny specialties completely changed structure of employment among the Komi. In the 1940th categories of peasants and workers were distinguished, employees began to appear. Though among women there were housewives, the majority also worked in collective farm [Farnosova, 2006. Page 178]. Modern inhabitants of the Komi of page. Men are engaged in the basic in the urbanized spheres of economy not connected with agriculture. Women work with the most part in spheres of formation, health care, trade, culture, management, are in public service; men — in spheres of transport, housing and communal services, education, management and civil service. Less than 20 people are engaged in agriculture, and they or employees of administrative and managerial department, or are connected with working specialties. A reindeer breeder in 2009 was only one representative of the Komi. 19 women and 39 men were an unemployed for 01.01.2009, according to household books, at 3/4 secondary and incomplete secondary education is noted. Almost at 100 people the place of work was not specified.

Modern page. Men is the central estate of state farm and also the center of Shuryshkarsky district, has the developed infrastructure. Cardinally the cultural and architectural appearance of the village where special buildings for church (2000), the museum (2006), school (2004), regional TV and radio broadcasting, the newspaper (2007) are built changes, new apartment houses, individual cottages are built.

In the village. Men at the beginning of the 20th century the planning of streets was not allocated, houses were built without a certain plan, focused in different directions, log huts were constructed "very badly and anyhow" [Kozlov, 1903. Page 396]. Such chaotic location of buildings is considered typical for more ancient settlements of the Komi [Zherebtsov, 1971. Page 30]. The territory near church, in small settlements was considered as the center of large settlements — near the house of the head. In the village. Men at the beginning of the 20th century of the house did of timber, in the form of a cage — "simple log huts" [Kozlov, 1903. Page 397]. The felling was put or on the driven wooden racks (is more often from a larch), or on the logs — "slopes" put horizontally on the earth that the house "did not go" when the soil peremerzat [PMA, Shuryshkarsky district, 1992]. In Men near houses did not arrange "neither the yards, nor gardens" [Kozlov, 1903. Page 397]. The estate included various farm buildings which were separated from inhabited and were on boondocks.

Fig. 4. The house of the Komi in the village. Men on Respubliki St., 48. the 1930th. Photo N.A. Liskevich, 2009

Fig. S. The house of the Komi in the village. Men on Gagarin St., 2. the 1940th. Photo N.A. Liskevich, 2009

Now in Men there is almost no traditional construction left, only two houses of 1930th and 1940th remained — on Respubliki St., 48, and Gagarin St., 2 (fig. 4, b). One of sights of the village and the centers of cultural life is the museum "Komi Log Hut" which building is built in traditions of the North Russian architecture (fig. 6). In the museum the traditional interior of a log hut of the Komi is recreated, events which are attended both adults, and children are regularly held. As keepers of ethnocultural traditions representatives of the senior generation who own skills of traditional crafts generally act, well know language, still wear traditional clothes. The Izhma dialect of the Komi of language well remains at the household level, since the end of the 1990th there were regular TV also broadcasts on the Komi language, at school in an optional form the native language began to be taught. In 1997 there was an abc-book for the Komi - the Izhma dialect, developed by the local expert, the teacher of Ovgortsky school N.D. Rocheva [Rochev, 1997]. For preservation of promotion of culture of the Komi-izhemtsev, regular connection between the groups of the population, carriers of the Izhma dialect living in different regions of the North and the Izhma region of Komi Republic is established amateur art collectives leave, there is an exchange of scientific and popular literature, newspaper publications, various delegations. Komi inhabitants

page. Men take active part in activity of regional social movement "Izvatas" which deals with issues of association of the Komi-izhemtsev, revival of cultural values, stories, traditions of the people.

Fig. 6. The museum "Komi Log Hut" in the village. Men. Photo N.A. Liskevich, 2009

Thus, by the beginning of the 21st century, nearly two centuries later after the beginning of migration processes of ancestors of modern Komi of residents of the village. Men, at them remain and reproduced ethnic identity, the native language, elements of traditional culture. From 1970th the change of reproductive installations is noted that by the beginning of the 21st century led to a population postareniye when shares of children and the population are more senior than 50 years almost approached. The Polietnichny structure of the population and leveling of ethnocultural differences led to increase in number of interethnic marriages, their quantity reaches more than 2/3 from all marriages with participation of the Komi, and the nationality of the Komi is chosen by slightly less than a half of the children who were born in the mixed families. At the Komi who are traditionally focused on education rather high educational level is noted; among experts it is revealed much less the unemployed and the unemployed in comparison with people with secondary and incomplete secondary education. By 2000 the structure of employment of the Komi cardinally changed, the sphere of reindeer breeding did not become demanded almost. It defines loss of many components of culture connected with nomadic life including terminology.

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Tyumen, IPOS Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science

The article considers history of evolution and details of ethnocultural development of the Komi from the settlement of Mouzhi in Shuryshkarsk District, Yamal-Nenets autonomous area in the XXth — early XXstI century. Basing on the analysis of the books regarding item household registration of the population, together with materials of business correspondence and collection of field data, subject to consideration being dynamics of the Komi number, sex-and-age structure, marriage interaction, choice of children’s nationality in mixed marriages, changes in the structure of occupation. The author marks no demand in the sphere of reindeer breeding for the contemporary Komi, indicating loss of many cultural components associated with nomadic life, including terminology.

Komi of north High Urals basin, Izhemets, settlement of Mouzhi, ethnocultural development, Komi occupation, ethnodemographic situation.

Kapulainen Anja
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