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HISTORY of DOMESTIC CULTURE of the 20th Century. Program of a course for students historians of 3 4 courses



a programma of a course for students historians of 3 - 4 courses the Explanatory note

The course of history of domestic culture of the latest time is calculated on one semester. Course volume - 34 hours.

A subject of training are problems and features of development of multinational culture of Russia in the 20th century. It is aware the educational task to acquire the main directions and trends of development of multinational Russian culture of the 20th century connected with changes in life of society, change of a social and political system, changes of state system of the country is set for students. The gained knowledge is a necessary part of the modern historical education assuming to achieve the objectives to coordinate concrete historical problems with sociological, ethnological, demographic, theological, linguistic, psychological and other problems.

A method of studying the offered material - lecture.

Forms of control are papers, control and term papers.

Introduction

Subject, tasks and course content. Question of a chronological framework and periodization of a course content. Problems and difficulties of functioning of cultures of the Russian people in the course of transition from traditional society to society industrial. Main sources. Features of development of cultures after failures of the bourgeois and liberal reforms of Alexander XX and in days of revolutions of the first decades of the 20th century. Sources and reasons of modern crisis of cultures of the Russian people.

Subject 1. Ethnic, social, confessional and language characteristics of the Russian society since the beginning of the 20th century before World War II

The end of H_H - the beginning of the 20th centuries - a critical era in all spheres of social, political and spiritual life. Ethnic, confessional and language variety of cultural life as objective reality of an era. Different levels of development of cultures of the people of Russia, their various opportunities for development of liberal bourgeois innovations. Influence on these opportunities of number of any given ethnic group, its status,

confessional attachment, the level of development of language and education, a universe picture in ethnic consciousness.

Subject 2. Culture role in transition from traditional society to industrial and specific conditions of this transition in the first half of the 20th century

The main characteristics of industrial society from the sociocultural point of view. Differences in culture role estimates in Marxist approach to the analysis of history and in the theory of modernization. Polyethnicity and polylevel of culture as the main problem and special complexity in the history of the Russian modernization. Revolutions of 1905 — 1907 and their influence on development of ethnic consciousness, institutes and forms of cultural life. "Milestones" as judgment attempt liberally — bourgeois values in the Russian cultural and mental context. Pluralism of opinions and outlooks concerning a role of national cultures during public reforming.

Subject 3. National and cultural programs of the main political parties of Russia. Doctrine of Bolsheviks

National — cultural programs of cadets, Social Revolutionaries, national parties of Poland, the Baltics, Transcaucasia, Turkic political movements. Their main ideas in a foreshortening of the theory of modernization. Relation of these parties to the right of the nations for self-determination.

The analysis of the program of RSDRP (b) is RCP(b) from positions of the theory of modernization. Evolution of views of party leaders. Contradictions between internationalism as means of achievement of cultural uniformity of the Russian society and the right of each people to develop own national culture. A rate of Bolsheviks on economy as a basic prerequisite of development of cultures of the people of Russia. Theoretical ideas of Bolsheviks of ways and methods of construction of socialist culture.

Subject 4. National and cultural policy of Bolsheviks from 1917 to 1929

A question of the October revolution and Civil war in the context of preservation of a traditional source of the power in the country and influence of this source of the power on determination of sense and content of modernization process. The first transformations to the organizations of state leadership culture. Concentration of institutes of culture in hands of the state. Construction is national — government of the leadership in development of cultures. Creation of inorussky public entities of different level, identification of their jurisdiction. Disputes on differentiation of the rights of the center and autonomies in the sphere of culture. Errors of the White movement, its underestimation

importance of a non-russian cultural factor. Federal and autonomous republics as the mechanism of implementation of national programs of modernization depending on cultural opportunities and specifics of any given people. X and the XII congresses of RCP(b) and I.V. Stalin's position on this matter.

Panorama of cultural life of the period: the first transformations in the school sphere, an educational program, the plan of monumental promotion, "Theatrical October", literary trends and movements, discussions at the beginning of the new economic policy, a smenovekhovstvo, expulsion of the intellectuals in 1922

Disagreements of leaders of Bolsheviks in a question of a role and value of a national factor in socialist transformations. Stalin program "Catch Up with Russia Which Left Forward", evolution of views of V.I. Lenin. Discussions 2 0 about a role of proletarian culture. V.I. Lenin's relation to the theory of proletarian culture and falsification by her I.V. Stalin and N.I. Bukharin in discussions. Protection of V.I. Lenin's position by L.D. Trotsky, a role of his literary works in specification of a role of culture and cultural heritage in future transformation of society.

The relation to the humanities in the 20th: historical destiny, pedagogical, linguistic, ethnological and other sciences. M.N. Pokrovsky and N.Ya. Marr in the context of political struggle and historical events. A role of multiethnic cultural diversity in "a great change". Victory of Stalin unifikatsionny approach to a problem of modernization of Russia.

Subject 5. A Stalin formula of the nation in the context of socialist construction

The nation formula characterizing I.V. Stalin as the politician with traditionalist type of consciousness. Its attitude towards the ideas culturally — national autonomy as essentially other political modernization technology. I.V. Stalin's attitude towards national consciousness as to the mechanism of formation of industrial society.

The statement of a Stalin formula in world outlook, methodological and political contexts of the Russian society. A Stalin formula of culture national in a form and socialist according to contents, as reflection of traditionalist mentality of the author. Impact of these formulas on contents and implementation of development plans for the main directions and institutes of culture: school reform, general compulsory education, statement of a method of socialist realism as main method of all Soviet art and literature. Ideological and esthetic norms.

Achievements and losses in cultural life of the 30th. Interrelation of collectivization and solution of problems of a general compulsory education. "Great buildings" of the first five-years periods, urbanization and industrialization of the country and their influence on process of denationalization and hashing of ethnic structure

population. Concrete results on the example of comparison of these censuses of 1926 and 1939

Spiritual shape of the intellectuals, change in its social structure. Repressions of eminent persons of science, literature, art, schools of sciences and directions. The Russian cultures in emigration; their assessment of a national and cultural situation in the USSR.

Subject 6. Culture in days of the Great Patriotic War

Problems of culture at the beginning of war. Changes of accents in national — cultural policy. Operation of the Russian cultural factor and a conclusion to a proscenium of heroes of the Russian history as a way of use of the Russian national consciousness for fight against the German invaders.

Expulsion of the people of the North Caucasus, Kalmyks, Germans of the Volga region, Crimean Tatars.

Emergence of the Red Army abroad and its influence on assessment of socialist transformations to the USSR. The second wave of emigration. A meeting of two waves of emigration after World War II. An originality of cultural life of the Russian abroad during the post-war period.

Subject 7. Changes in ethnocultural structure of the USSR

after World War II. Main problems of the country

during the post-war period

The comparative analysis of ethnocultural structure of the country according to censuses 1959, 1979, 1989. Problems of post-war restoration in the sphere of culture. Ideological preparation of new cleaning in the country. Resolutions of party concerning literature and art. Revelations of "cosmopolitans" and "pererozhdenets". The organization of pseudoscientific discussions in the country at the end of 40 - the beginning of the 50th

Thaw in cultural life after I.V. Stalin's death. Discrepancy of the period: democratization of cultural life and preservation of ideological installations. Fixation on simultaneous blossoming and rapprochement of national cultures as modification of Stalin traditionalist outlook for culture role.

A statement in an ideological context of an ideologem "the Soviet people — new historical community" as attempt of advance on the way of a unifikatorsky and authoritative way of modernization of the country. Reflection of this ideologem in the directions of scientific research, school education, literature and art.

Subject 8. Reorganization and its influence on position of culture in the conditions of the crash of a totalitarian system and search of a way of further development

Reorganization as attempt of transition to "new thinking" and refusal of the majority of methods of regulation of cultural process in the authoritative way, "from above". Role of national movements and fronts. Events in Fergana, Tbilisi, Nagorno-Karabakh, Vilnius. Destruction of monopoly of the state for culture. Underestimation of a national and cultural factor by M.S. Gorbachev. Acquaintance to emigrant culture. Revision of the historical past of the country.

The collapse of the USSR on the national and cultural bases.

Transformation of the Russian Federation: emergence of real ethnocultural territorial subjects of the federation and judgment of a role of national cultures in it. Two camps: Westerners (reformers) and pochvennik (conservatives) as reflection of search of sense and content of modernization of Russia in new historical conditions.

Sources and literature Sources

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N.A. N.A. Sudba Russia. M, 1990.

N.A. N.A. Sources and meaning of the Russian communism. M,

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Milestones. From depth. M, 1991.

Power and art intellectuals: Documents of RCP(b) of the Central Committee - the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks), Cheka - OGPU - People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs about cultural policy of 1917

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M.S. Gorbachev. New thinking for our country and the whole world. M, 1987.

Jews and Russian revolution: Materials and researches. M.; Jerusalem, 1999.

Cultural life in the USSR, 1917 - 1927: Chronicle. M, 1975.

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Cultural construction in the USSR, 1917 - 1927: Collection of documents and materials. M, 1983.

National education in the USSR, 1917 - 1973: Collection of documents. M, 1974.

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Yu. Afanasyev. Historicism against eclecticism. M of 1990.

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M, 1991.

F. Brodel. Material civilization, economy and capitalism. In 3 TM, 1992.

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N. Vert. History of the Soviet state, 1900 — 1991. M,

1994.

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1996.

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M.'s heller, Nekrich A. Utopiya in power. In 3 books by M., 1995.

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L. L. Estestvoznaniye, philosophy and science about human behavior in the Soviet Union. M, 1991.

Günter H. Art vanguard and socialist realism//literature Questions. 1992. No. 3.

Günter H. Iron harmony: State as totalitarian work of art//literature Questions. 1992. No. 1.

Daymont M. Jews, god and history. B. m, 1994.

L.M. L.M. Istoriya of studying Soviet culture. M, 1985.

Other is not given. M, 1988.

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О& Connor T. Anatoly Lunacharsky and the Soviet policy in the field of culture. M, 1992.

F. Korolev. Essays on the history of the Soviet school and pedagogics, 1917 - 1920. M, 1958.

T.Yu. T.Yu. Power and culture: Historical experience of the management it is national — cultural construction. M, 1993.

T.Yu. T.Yu. Modernization of Russia: National — cultural aspect. M, 1998.

G. Le Bon. Psychology of the people and masses. SPb., 1995.

P.N. Milyukov. Essays on the history of the Russian culture. In 3 TM, 1994.

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A.N. Yakovlev. Preface. Collapse. Epilog. M, 1992.

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Literature additional

Groys B. Rozhdeniye of socialist realism from spirit of the Russian vanguard//literature Questions. 1992. No. 1.

N. Kondi, Padunov of V. Makulakultur or secondary processing of culture//literature Questions. 1991. No. 1.

Rumpled To. The torn-off thread of country culture and the cultural revolution//the New world. 1988. No. 8.

T.F. Pavlova. The Russian foreign historical archive in Prague//history Questions. 1988. No. 8.

F.A. Hayeyk, van. Harmful self-confidence: socialism errors. M, 1991.

Thematic plan

No. Name of a subject Number of hours

1. Introduction 2
2. Ethnic, social, confessional, language characteristics of the Russian society since the beginning of the 20th century before World War II 4
3. Culture role in the course of transition from traditional society to industrial and specific conditions of this transition in Russia in the first half of the 20th century 4
4. National and cultural programs of the main political parties of Russia. Doctrine of Bolsheviks 4
5. National and cultural policy of Bolsheviks from 1917 to 1929 4
6. A Stalin formula of the nation in the context of socialist construction 4
7. Culture in days of the Great Patriotic War 4
8. Changes in ethnocultural structure of the USSR after World War II. The main problems of the country during the post-war period 4
9. Reorganization and its influence on position of culture in the conditions of the crash of a totalitarian system and search of a way of further development 4

Total: 34

Author-originator T.Yu. Krasovitskaya

Cheryl Dennis
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