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On the way to the Russian statehood (The Russian-Chechen relations in U. Laudayev's article "Chechen Tribe")



 © 2003 of S.A. Aylarov

ON the WAY TO the RUSSIAN STATEHOOD (the RUSSIAN-CHECHEN RELATIONS IN U. LAUDAYEV'S ARTICLE "CHECHEN TRIBE")

In the North Caucasian educational literature of the 19th century a specific place is held by extensive historical and ethnographic article Umalata of Laudayev "The Chechen tribe"

[1] not only the scientific advantages, but also difficult, unsuccessful historiographic destiny. Amplitude of estimates is wide: from charges of commitment to colonial and chauvinistic views and national nihilism [2] before recognition of merits of the Chechen educator in studying Russian-Vainakh relations [3]. These "differences" corresponded to certain stages of formation of domestic historical science, its gradual refusal of the become obsolete representations of a "early" Soviet historiography on problems of the Russian-Caucasian communications.

However even at caucasiologists, there is a lot of "founder of the idea of historically long and versatily motivated inclusion of the Chechens and Ingushs in structure of Russia" who made for a research of creativity of U. Laudayev and considering it, - there is no attempt to reveal teoretiko-conceptual principles of the well-known article.

In our opinion, both advantages, and shortcomings of this work will be more certain if to consider it within an educational paradigm without which it is impossible to understand that special vision of a problem of the Russian-Caucasian relations in the light of the theory of the public contract which is characteristic of the liberal thinker.

The first Chechen historian and the ethnographer U. Laudayev was born in 1829 in the family long since adhering to the Russian orientation. The great-grandfather of future scientist Nogay-Mirz from a tayp Cherma was one of the Chechen elders who signed the document on fidelity of Russia in 1781. Umalat's uncle - Arslanuko Chermoyev - was the officer of the Russian army [4].

U. Laudayev got an education, fine for the time, in the Alexandria military school in St. Petersburg. Then there was a military service in Russia and in the North Caucasus. The brilliant brave officer participated in several military campaigns of the Russian army: Hungarian in 1848 - 1849 and the Crimean war for what had war decorations, including an award of Saint Anne of the 3rd degree [5]. It appeared among 802 Chechens and 325 Ingushs - the ordinary riders and 80 officers awarded with the government for participation in 1853 - 1856 in fighting affairs "on the Caucasian theater of war" [6].

From the middle of the 60th U. Laudayev as well as some of number of the advanced officers of mountain origin addresses studying history and the culture of the native land. Its only published work [1] became the certificate. "... From Chechens I the first to Pip in Russian about my homeland, still so poorly known", - these noble words began the full text of the manuscript, a post -

drinking in edition "the Collection...". Some fragments from it were published, and the full text is still not found.

Legends and legends of Chechens, oral family tradition, personal observations of the author - in general all arsenal of the sources revealed by then on the history of Chechnya which the author grouped in the "Notes" which made a half of the published text became principles of article. In nine sections of article U. Laudayev considers the whole range of questions giving rather complete idea of one of the largest North Caucasian ethnic groups. The origin, the territory of dwelling, relationship with Russian and North Caucasian people, social and spiritual culture of Chechens - all this received bright lighting in extensive article.

U. Laudayeva - social structure of the Chechen society, its main social unit - tayp, the Chechen sort is the focus of attention. Origin, resettlement, relationship with the next people and, at last, the Russian-Vainakh relations - specifics of a social order of Chechens, community or dissociation of tayp leave a mark on everything. Mezhgaypovy relations form the basis of original civic consciousness of Chechens therefore he is so attentive by those moments of history of Chechnya when the taypovy isolation is overcome, rudiments of the mezhgaypovy hostel are formed.

For Laudayev a core of political history of Chechnya - formation of the pro-Russian orientation born gradually in indissoluble communication with the idea of ethnic unity of Chechens, with development of civic consciousness in the Chechen society. This slozhsny, multilateral process will also predetermine the historical choice of the people - entry into structure of Russia.

History finds the Chechen patrimonial societies in mountain gorges of Greater Caucasus Range: "Tribe it... it was formed under snow mountains near sources of the river Argun from where "e, needing the earth, began to disperse in other places" [1, page 3]. The author describes a dissonance of names under which Chechens appear at the different people: "Chechens call themselves nakhchy, Kumyks call them michikish, tavlinets - Bourdelle, Kabardians - shashan, and Russians - Chechens. Why one and that "e the people neighbors is called various names?" Trying to understand this phenomenon, he offers an explanation, typical for the liberal historian: "From this distinction of the names given by neighbors to Chechens it is visible that they were originally the people insignificant and weak because the strong people all neighbors are called as the general name" [1, page 3]. The "Weak people" i.e. which are politically separated, with the civil interests of different components, staying in a pre-state state.

Ethnogenesis of the Chechen people closely contacts formation in mountains of East Caucasus of large patrimonial groups - tayp ("taypan", on U. Laudayev's terminology. - S A.) which part was made by fugitives of inoplemenny mountain societies. The researcher of the public structure developing at Chechens in the XVII-XIX centuries M.A. Mamakayev specified that by 19th century from the 135th the Chechen -

sky tayl of more than 20 were "not radical, formed from representatives of other people, but for a long time strongly been a part of the Chechen society..." [7]. U. Laudayev is inclined even to exaggerate value of this circumstance, explaining with different races origin of childbirth internal conflicts, constant mezhgay-povy fight for the earth.

The terrible land narrowness pushed Chechens from mountain tesnin to corpulent plane lands. Difficult and long process of folding of uniform ethnic and political community considerably accelerated thanks to the strengthened settling by the Chechen societies of the plains of Big and Small Chechnya controlled in the XVI-XVII centuries by the Kabardian and Dagestan feudal lords.

Settling of Ichkeria - the earth "inside, i.e. among mountains", - in this plan shook nothing patrimonial type of settlements. "And then still the tribe it had no general national name and represented a set of the small surnames speaking one language" [1, page 13].

Taypovy "war of all against all" remains in the course of development of plane lands when Chechens meet Russians. The historian does not idealize the Russian-Chechen relations at all, shows their difficult, sometimes dramatic character.

U. Laudayev claims that in the 17th century the plane of Chechnya was occupied by the grebensky Cossacks. This position of U. Laudayev always caused resolute objection of the modern historians considering that it is confirmed by nothing. and insisting for the XVI-XVII centuries as the beginning of development of plane lands by Chechens [8]. Recently this thesis was again updated by A.V. Biryukov writing that the sources given by it "well will be coordinated with the words of the first historian and ethnographer of the Chechen people U. Laudayev specifying that in postpeter's time the Russians gradually left the lands which are nowadays occupied by Chechens, but also having finally left for Terek, "however did not leave the claim on the left earth" [9].

Laudayev quite in detail takes up this question, analyzing the reasons and conditions of leaving. The main reason - continuous attacks of Chechens: "... These unrestrained tribes for the livelihood were engaged in robbery and robbery why they too disturbed Russians in Small Chechnya..." [1, page 8]. Again and again the thought of backwardness of the civil beginnings at Chechens, domination of the uzkopartikulyarny patrimonial beginning as to a basis of sharp conflictness is accented by the historian.

The famous Russian caucasiologists M.M. Bliyev and V.V. Degoyev, characterizing a nabegovy system, noted that the Russian government, having granted to Chechens the right of resettlement for the plain, expected humility of immigrants and the termination of attacks on the Russian border. However participants of attacks not really reckoned with political "calculations" of the government, continuing to develop expansion [10, page 127]. For the purpose of the termination of the Chechen attacks the Russian military authorities sent to an expedition. In 1718 and 1722 under Peter I's decree to Chechnya military forces for "suppression of Chechens" were directed and are sewn up the Russian borders

[11]. In 1758 the expedition to depth of Chechnya which was the same armed execution as well as previous [10, page 127 was for the first time undertaken].

For the 18th century the Russian-Chechen relations, despite political and economic interest in them of both Chechens, and Russia, became complicated because of continuous attacks. U. Laudayev traces this increasing tension: "Having borrowed on the earth plane, Chechens amplify on it and then reject the conditions concluded with Russians, leave their humility owing to what mutual unfriendly actions begin" [1, page 22]. Everywhere the educator emphasizes that attacks become more intensively with resettlement on the plane - "... before living in mountains and reflecting injurious attacks of neighbors, they (Chechens. - S.A.) leave now the houses and are let behind production in others lands" [1, page 20].

However the Russian-Chechen communications were not exhausted only by attacks and military expeditions. The Russian ambit, the Russian cities and the Cossack villages offered the new economic prospects connected with trade, economic cooperation, development of skills of agriculture for Chechens.

Resettlement in the 18th century on fertile plane lands played a crucial role in development of productive forces of the Chechen society, agriculture, cattle breeding and the beginnings of civic consciousness. "Having founded auls on the plane, Chechens immediately used benefits which can be taken from the earth; imitating Russians, they replace mountain a plow with plows, make the correct arable farming and surpass other tribes of the district countries in this industry. Being conformed with conditions of the earth, they got the best economy, bred cattle, horses, sheep and bees and arranged fine gardens" [1, page 22]. About a role of Chechnya as the main supplier of grain culture in East Caucasus was written by many pre-revolutionary researchers, for example K. Samoylov and N. Vrotsky [12]. The last wrote that Chechnya supplied with bread not only the Caucasian neighbors, but it was taken out also to Persia [13, page 271]. On the plane also the cattle breeding, traditional for Chechens, continued to develop.

More and more close ties with the Russian and next Caucasian people, revival of trade and economic relations well affect development of social culture of the Chechen people: "Adopting from neighbors all the best and useful, they (Chechens. - S A.) were improved in customs, customs, the hostel, even their language consisting of natural and imitative sounds becomes harmonious. They in everything surpass the mountain brothers" [1, page 22].

Development of public relations, interferences begins to overcome taypo-vy isolation, forms rudiments of the mezhgaypovy hostel. So, Laudayev notes emergence at resettlement on the plane of the large auls inhabited by members of several dozen tayp. "The most ancient aul on the plane the Chechen-Aul is considered, it preimushchestvovat before others, was extensive, is better built up, had benches (tuken) on which thresholds Armenians, Jews and Kumyks were seen" [1, page 21]. Not accidentally, the name of this first plane aul the Chechen, from which, as

Laudayev considers, "plane Chechens received a concept about public life" - the name of this aul became a national name of the numerous people.

After resettlement on the plane also emergence of an ethnonym "nakhchy" ("nokhchiya") And though the etymology of U. Laudayev coordinating an ethnonym "nakhchy" ("nokhchiya") to the Chechen word "cheese", "cheesemaker" many researchers is considered "flimsy", "not indisputable" [13], but for the first Chechen historian emergence of the general ethnonym, as well as the name "Chechens" - an indicator of ethnic and political consolidation of the people is fixed. "From now on the new period of life of Chechens begins - they are between mountaineers the strong people" [1, page 20].

The subsequent story of the Chechen people for U. Laudayev is a fight of the getting stronger ethnic consciousness, civil, national interests against the patrimonial beginning, uzkopartikulyarny interests. The civil disorder, problematiziruyushchy existence of Chechens as ethnic group concerns the historian educator. "Public zhsizn Chechens represented a sad show at all times, - Laudayev writes,-... Chechens tried only about welfare of own surnames, without caring for the general fatherland" [1, page 23]. He draws a bright picture of lawlessness of taypovy civil strifes. Reasonings on this subject mozhsno to find a set at Laudayev. "Strong surnames of an obizhsala weak; same, revenging them secretly and obviously, only increased disorders and led to new crimes", - or - "the anarchy in full value of this word shown in disputes, fights and bloodsheds of their surnames" [1, page 22.23], etc.

For U. Laudayev the main reason of a civil disorder - a legal situation, slozhsivshayasya after resettlement of taypovy communities on the plane owing to new civil mezhsgaypovy interaction dominated. The adat as legal norm of a taypovy (patrimonial) system "e did not answer new reality. In the absence of the political force which is above the sea of patrimonial units, decisions of judicial institutes of a patrimonial system to execution were not obligatory. Only force of the state could turn into an unconditional imperative of behavior of the judgment.

However the Chechen people should gain this truth still. The hope for the stabilizing external political factor was once laid - the Kumyk and Avarian princes were invited for management to establish public order. "When princes in the line of duty began to say the power, the Chechens who did not get used to it did not execute conditions with princes. The surname stood up for guilty a fellow member and as princes had no means to force them to obedience, left from where came" [1, page 26].

Meanwhile the social tension increased and increased in unprecedented scales: "In Chechnya only one right - the right strong began to dominate" [1, page 26].

The aspiration to find a panacea from a nightmare of mezherodovy fight dictated adoption of new religion - Islam. Now hopes were laid on strict Sharia, Islamic legal proceedings and Muslim traditions of management.

U. Laudayev dated adoption of Islam by Chechens from the Dagestan tribes of the 18th century [1, page 28]. Other researchers considered that it occurred before (the XIV-XV centuries) [14, page 101], but the first Chechen historian meant not initial sources of Islam, but time of its wide circulation.

However the imminent need for self-organization faced unpreparedness of ordinary community members to submission to cruel regulations of Islam and Sharia. The absolute power of the despotic state - here the guarantor of performance of standards of the Muslim legislation. In Chechnya, however, there were no earliest forms of the political organization yet. "Chechens were not at all such people who are necessary for Sharia; being pious only in external execution of ceremonies of Moslem, they did not comprehend its internal advantages and had no besides the national governor, and therefore with Sharia at them the same as is once about adatom followed: what the country expected all the best from, in practice gave opposite - disorders increased" [14, page 101].

Moreover, perception by society, "captured by social contradictions and a nabegovy system" Islamic dogmas where the main thing is a condition of continuous hostility between Muslims and incorrect - put Chechens in "an unprecedented interethnic situation" [10, page 131]. If before adoption of Islam the Chechens were considered "is more peaceful than the neighbors", then now the situation changes. "The Quran installs in them irreconcilable hostility to gentiles; the soplemenny galga which remained in paganism as well as some Ossetians, become their religious enemies. So friendly, Russians and Chechens begin actions unfriendly against each other" [1, page 29 - 30].

The Caucasian war, its tragic experience prepared the last historical choice of the people - in favor of Russia, the Russian state. Familiarizing with the Russian statehood is treated as the public contract thanks to which wild freedom of Chechens turns into civil liberty. The constitutional state undertakes to protect everything, than the mountaineer, his life, freedom owns. "Long since free Chechens enjoy freedom only now, - U. Laudayev writes. - They are a hundred times happier now, than in former free time when they had to sleep up in arms for an otognaniye of the night thief as a wolf turning near their houses for kidnapping of a bull, a cow or a ram. Nowadays they do not resemble those nude and hungry crowds which twelve years ago, the ruined naibam, shy were under protection of Russians any more" [1, page 31].

The main functions of the state - to manage justice, to guarantee safety of people, safety of their life, freedom and property - only the Russian statehood was capable to provide in the Caucasus.

The Russian management reckoned with political and legal traditions of mountaineers, combining local forms of political culture with the European. "Now establishment of a makhkam (national court) makes more correct, than before, legal proceedings, and at vigilant supervision of the Russian chiefs it can satisfy to national needs" [1, page 30].

The Russian statehood guarantees also development of civic consciousness, work, trade, new requirements in the Chechen people. "The scattered small auls and the farm are connected together and make the correct big auls called already "шахар" (city) with the administration and court. Markets where Russians and Chechens strike a bargain gather in many places, bargaining to a mslsd themselves and where Chechens favourably sell the works" [1, page 31], - U. Laudayev, the first historian of the Chechen civil society, developing directly from production and communication of public organization which forms basis of the state at all times writes... [15].

Only in a unification with Russia the Chechen people could overcome patrimonial and intercommunal dissociation, develop in the nation, and out of the nation, out of statehood for the educator there is no development.

Entry into structure of Russia is a result of internal, natural development of the Chechen society. In U. Laudayev's concept the Chechen people act as the independent subject of the history who consciously chose once a way of unity with the Russian people.

Literature

1. U. Laudayev. Chechen tribe//Collection of information about the Caucasian mountaineers. Issue 6. Tiflis, 1872. Page 1-62.
2. See: The Pokrovsk N.M. Myuridizm at vlassh//the Historian Marxist. 1934. T. 2. Page 30, 35; L.S. Kostoyeva. Ideological currents in a social and political thought of Chechnya and Ingushetia of the second half of the 19th century: Avtoref. yew.... edging. philosopher, sciences. Rostov N / D, 1971. Page 9; YandarovAD Sufizm and ideology of the national liberation movement (From the history of development of the public ideas in Chechen-Ingushetia in 20 - the 70th of the 19th century). Alma-Ata, 1975. Page 6.
3. See: Gritsenko N.P. Umalat Laudayev is the first Chechen ethnographer and the historian//Arkheolo-go-etnografichesky the collection. Grozny, 1966. T. 7. Page 103 - 110; TurkaevH.B. Historical fate of literatures of Chechens and Ingushs. Grozny, 1978. Page 81 - 85; V.B. Vinogradov, Tekhiyeva H.Sh. Umalat Laudayev is the first Chechen ethnographer and the historian. Grozny, 1986; H.Sh. Tekhiyeva. To studying activity of U. Laudayev - the first Chechen ethnographer//Archeology and study of local lore - to higher education institution and school: Theses of reports. Grozny, 1985. Page 68 - 69; It. U. Laudayev's data on economic classes of Chechens//Archeology and questions of economic and economic history of the North Caucasus. Grozny, 1987. Page 136 - 143.
4. V.B. Vinogradov, TehievaH. Ukaz Highway. soch. Page 3.
5. SanakoevML. Chechens and participating Ingushs of the Russo-Turkish war of 1877 - 1878//Questions of history of Chechen-Ingushetia. Grozny. 1976. T. 10. Page 221.
6. CGA RSO-A, F-53, it 1, 1750, square 3.10 - 16.
7. MamakaevMa. Chechen tayp during its decomposition. Grozny, 1973. Page 23.
8. See: A.I. Shamilev. In gorges of Argun, Forgangi and on the plane of Chechen-Ingushetia//ChINIIIYaLE News. Grozny, 1969. T. 8. Issue 1. Page 237.
9. A.V. Biryukov. The Russian-Chechen relations in XVIII - the middle of XIX//history Questions. 1998. No. 2. Page 46.
10. BlievMM., DegoevV.V. Caucasian war. M, 1994. Page 127.
11. S. Bronevsky. The latest geographical and historical news of the Caucasus. M, 1823. T. II. Page 173.
12. K. Samoylov. Notes about Chechnya//the Pantheon. 1985. T. 23. Page 58; N. Vrotsky Chechnya as grain oasis//Collection of data on the Tersky region. Vladikavkaz, 1878. Issue 1. Page 270 - 271.
13. I.Yu. Aliroyev. Language, history and culture of Vainakhs. Grozny, 1990. Page 14; H.Sh. Tekhiyeva. Decree soch. Page 137.
14. L.I. Shamshev. Ways of penetration of Islam to Chechens and Ingushs//Articles and materials on stories of the people of Chechen-Ingushetia. Grozny, 1963. Page 101.
15. K. Marx and F. Engels. German ideology//Soch. 2 prod. T. 3. Page 35.

North Osepshnsky state university On October 30, 2002

Norma Jimenez
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