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About some fundamental sources of a domestic bolotovedeniye



TEORETICHESKIYE of TORFOVEDENIYa BOLOTOVEDENIYA And PROBLEM

UDC 631.481

S.P. Efremov, T.T. Efremova

About SOME FUNDAMENTAL SOURCES of DOMESTIC BOLOTOVEDENIYA

Institute of the wood of V.N. Sukachyov of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Krasnoyarsk

Now the main theoretical concepts explaining development mechanisms the swamp - and torfoobrazovatelny processes, are focused on recognition of an indisputable postulate that swamps, being intrazonal (quasiradical) natural and landscape formations, in the strongest degree experience the controlling influence of climate, is a consequence of what zone, and in mountain conditions - high-rise on - the clear principle of geographical distribution and the system structural and typological organization. The majority of swamps and boggy forests are ecologically heterogeneous systems on warm, to moisture security and levels of relevant fertility of soils. Functionally it is shown through difficult hierarchy of interrelations and relationship between components phyto - pedo-, hydrospheres which morphologically are implemented in the form of the wide range of an ecosystem variety of lesobolotny complexes, structure, structure and efficiency of phytocenosis.

At the beginning of the 18th century when methodological and information prerequisites for isolation of a bolotovedeniye as the "synthetic" direction which was gradually uniting in itself basic fundamentals of many classical sciences - botany, soil science, a hydrology, a lesovedeniye were only acquired, etc., already then it became obvious that it is impossible to approach knowledge of the nature of swamps and their role of global redistribution of organic matter and the deposited energy of the Sun with uzkoprofilirovanny requirements of any one scientific discipline. For the first time M.V. Lomonosov in the capital work "The First Bases of Metallurgy or Ore Affairs" published in 1763 paid attention to it. In the second addition to it called "About layers terrestrial" he discussed origin of peat with special addiction as organogenic geological breed, pushed -

the Vyya in world practice having applied a microscope to the analysis of its material structure.

Vladimir Nikolaevich Sukachyov was the first who came to the conclusion about need of complex biogeotsenologichesky methods of a research of swamps. He perfectly understood value of "archival" properties of peat deposits for reconstruction of former biogeotsenotichesky fields, the forecast of the expected successions and participation of swamps in global processes of a power mass exchange.

It is necessary to highlight that V.N. Sukachyov even at the beginning of the creative activity at once, seriously and, as it turned out, was for the rest of life captured by a "marsh" perspective, he was always and deeply interested in swamps as subject to diverse scientific research.

In 1914 the lectures about swamps, their education, development and properties read by V.N. Sukachyov on the third additional years for forest wardens at Imperial forest institute (subsequently Timber college, St. Petersburg) were published in the special collection [1].

Having critically generalized the ideas of factors of a bolotoobrazo-vaniye and a torfonakopleniye existing by then, V.N. Sukachyov gave the definition of the swamp which gained authoritative recognition and with small variations is used by researchers still [2, page 99]: the swamp is "... a certain type of the earth's surface where factors of a lithosphere, pedospheres, the atmospheres, hydrospheres and biospheres in the interaction create a single whole, one certain landscape.". Approximately in the same semantic key the definition of the swamp given by professor Nikolay Ivanovich Pyavchenko, the close friend, the follower and V.N. Sukachyov's colleague of "the marsh and biogeotsenologichesky shop" is sustained [3, page 14]: "The swamp is the geographical landscape which is naturally arising and developing under

the impact of interaction of factors of the environment and vegetation which is defined by a constant or periodic excess humidity and is shown in hydrophily of a ground vegetable cover, marsh type of soil-forming process and accumulation of peat".

V.N. Sukachyov made a lot of things for development of methods of diagnostics of relationship of the forest and the swamp in time and space, including in the territory of Western Siberia as the most boggy and peaty region of Russia. He for the first time paid attention to existence in peat bogs of the so-called "boundary horizon" - strongly decayed peat with a large number of residues of wood lying between less decayed layers with other botanical structures and sporous and pollen ranges: this phenomenon was interpreted as result of klimatogenny influences during the subboreal period of the Holocene when there was a significant warming and the general moistening decreased. During this period on swamps the lesoobrazovatelny process which was followed by deeper transformation of earlier saved up and again formed peat was stimulated. Vladimir Nikolaevich repeatedly noted that in the Holocene the similar large-scale changes pedo-, phytocenotic complexes happened repeatedly both in a hydromorph-nykh, and in automorphic landscapes. Their "starting" mechanisms were klimatogenny factors. But in the best way traces of their influence were fixed in peat deposits. Therefore not the accidentally in-depth, comprehensive investigations of evolution of stratigraphic profiles of peat bogs undertaken by V.N. Sukachyov and his followers stimulated development of paleobotany and paleogeography in the strongest degree, including on the basis of methods of age dating of allopelagic samples of peat, diagnostics of group and fractional composition of organic matter. Subsequently Vladimir Nikolaevich's correctness in a dispute with V.R. Williams that allegedly any meadow by all means has to pass into the swamp was confirmed: there are natural and quite often anthropogenic factors which not only do not assume, but also at all exclude similar succession of events.

It to some of the first bolotoved on the example of a pine ordinary began to deal with issues of ecological plasticity (reactive ability) of species of wood plants in the conditions of a soil hydromorphism, an oxygen hypoxia and deficiency of nitrogen-mineral food. On the advice of Vladimir Nikolaevich many lesoveda and bolotoveda, for example N.N. Kobranov intensively were engaged in ecological forms of a marsh pine and

R.I. Abolin, and the first organized two years' experimental works with crops of seeds of marsh ecotypes of this forest forming breed. It was proved that "... the marsh pine is a physiological kind of an ordinary pine" [4, page 140]. At the same time N.N. Kobranov noted that, despite pochvouluchshitelny actions which, apparently, have to stimulate in hydromorfny habitats growth processes in forest stands the real effect is not given: ". there is cash of such conditions under which return of a pine to an initial gabitus is impossible" [4, page 81].

This conclusion was quite divided also by V.N. Sukachyov as considered that on swamps of a boreal zone the species of wood plants, being typical mezofita, early, especially in oligot-rofny conditions, come into a stage of "biological aging" into force of overwetting and a bad progrevayemost of korneobitayemy layers of the peat soils suppressing growth processes in the most responsible terms of the vegetative period.

V.V. Mazing [5], being based on biogeotsenotiches-which V.N. Sukachyov [6] concepts, offered three directions in interpretation of the concept "structure of a coenosis".

First, structure as structure synonym (quality and quantity characteristic of specific structure, specific populations, environmental-tsenoti-cheskikh associative associations, tsenotip, biomorph, etc.). As in this direction only one party of structure - structure in a broad sense is estimated, V.V. Mazing considers inexpedient to replace the term "structure" with the term "structure". Secondly, structure as building synonym. Bolotovedy-geobotaniki, proceeding from sou-kachevsky understanding of ecological heterogeneity and a spatial raschlenennost of vegetable and soil covers of swamps, rather productively use an analogization of these two terms at the description, diagnostics and studying a mosaic grid of the marsh coenosis which is territorially distributed, as a rule, according to elements of small forms of a soil surface. At last, thirdly, the structure is considered as the system of communications at the heart of which though chains and cycles of food lie, but they are complemented with other, not less significant vectors of straight lines and the mediated relationship of components of a biogeocenosis. In other words, except trophic interactions topichesky and other communications of physical, biochemical, physiological orders matter.

It is natural that various approaches to understanding of structure of a coenosis are implemented at achievement of a specific goal of a research not only morphological, but also functional properties si-

stema in general and its structural elements. V.V. Mazing [5] marks out four fundamental principles of partition spatial and six - for interpretation of functional structure of a biogeotsenotichesky cover. For the territorial level of partition it is expedient to use, first, the diagnosed influences of topogenous and tsenogenny factors; secondly, a ratio of horizontal and vertical extent of the allocated biogeocenoses; thirdly, on the basis of a relative positioning and a configuration of elements it is possible to allocate types a pestilence-fostruktury - radial (centripetal and centrifugal), striate, cellular, treelike, insular, etc. and also complex as reflection of a complex combination of various types of a pattern; fourthly, the nature of placement of system elements in vegetation (the assimilating bodies, underground parts, distribution of phytogenous fields).

With interpretation of functional structure of systems the situation is much zaputanny. The biogeocenosis is a difficult ball of relationship which "unwinding" can be made in various ways, divides approaches to which V.V. Mazing [5] into six research positions: 1) relationship between organisms and Wednesday; 2) relationship between individuals of one look; 3) relationship between individuals of different, but ecologically close types;

4) relationship between different types;
5) relationship between different biomorphs; 6) relationship between different trophic levels.

The short analysis shows that in the methodological relation the problem of the structural organization of marsh ecosystems cannot be solved in one-alternative execution. There are various approaches to its analysis, but anyway the completeness of coverage of a subject (object) will be relative owing to natural complexity of interrelations between system elements as, however, multiple quantitative and qualitative properties of elements. Nevertheless in a bolotovedeniye the considerable classification potential allowing to realize to some extent system approach to the analysis of structure and a typological range of marsh ecosystems is saved up [7, 8, etc.].

As N.I. Pyavchenko [9] considers, in a domestic bolotovedeniye the priority in attempt to develop classification of marsh biogeocenoses belongs to R.I. Abolin - one of bright colleagues of V.N. Sukachyov. It published three theoretically significant works which did not lose the relevance still neither on fundamental nature, nor on originality of the ideas which played noticeable

a role in development of a classical bolotovedeniye [10,

11, 12].

To R.I. Abolin's works on typification of conditions of emergence, development, morphological diagnostics and differentiation of swamps and boggy forests the great value was attached by E.A. Galkina [13, 14, 15] who offered the so-called landscape classification of the excess humidified territories which became classical in a bolotovedeniye. An elementary landscape part of the swamp is the microlandscape - the uniform site of the swamp and a peat deposit equivalent on volume to R.I. Abolin's epimorfa and a biogeocenosis

V.N. Sukachyova, and R.I. Abolin's epiformation - V.D. Lopatin's facies [16, 17]. Marsh microlandscapes of E.A. Galkina which received further at her the status of fatsias can have the simple, mosaic, spotty and complex building; to each option there corresponds the structural organization for a complex of signs.

The second, larger unit in E.A. Galkina's classification - a mesolandscape (or later - the natural boundary) within which 4 groups of mesolandscapes according to phases of their development - eutrophic, mezotrofny are allocated, oligotrofny and miksotrofny. In turn, phases consist of the stages displaying narrower fluctuations of signs of mesolandscapes. She considers type of a marsh mesolandscape as one of long stages of its development.

Third, the largest unit of classification - a marsh macrolandscape (or the system of natural boundaries). It represents the merged mesolandscapes (natural boundaries) which come under mutual influence, first of all, in contact strips. The landscape classification of swamps offered E.A. Galkina, being classical both in a form, and according to contents, nevertheless has the shortcomings to which I.D. Bogdanovskaya-Giyenef [18, 19] paid attention and in detail sorted them.

Briefly we will stop on the analysis of classification of forest swamps (boggy and marsh woods)

N.I. Pyavchenko [3, 9].

In a generalized view the classification of forest swamps of N.I. Pyavchenko looks as follows. In a biogeotsenotichesky cover of the biosphere stands apart marsh biogeochorus which breaks up to simple and difficult marsh biogeosystems. Within the last four types of marsh massifs are allocated: And - eutrophic (low-lying), B - mezotrofny (transitional), In - oligotrofny (riding), - heterotrophic (polytypic). Each of types of marsh massifs has geomorphological options: And - the closed hollows, flowing dens, starichny, inundated; B - the closed hollows, waste hollows, flat

slopes, lakeside; In - the closed hollows, waste hollows, gentle slopes, flat; - waste hollows, lakeside, underfoot slopes, gentle slopes. For types of marsh massifs in general and their geomorphological options the following groups of types of biogeocenoses (fatsias) are peculiar: 1) geomorphological options in system A - a) uliginose, b) uliginose and forest, c) forest; 2) geomorphological options of system B -

a) uliginose, b) uliginose and forest, c) forest; 3) geomorphological options of system B - a) uliginose,

b) uliginose and forest, c) forest; 4) geomorphological options of system G - a) uliginose, b) uliginose kustar-nichkovaya, c) kustarnichkovo-lichen.

Further in classification types of biogeocenoses (marsh fatsias) which sequence for brevity we will represent on compatibility of the digital indexes stated above are subdivided.

Types of biogeocenoses (facies): Aa - gipnovy, hvoshchevy, reed; Ab - sedge and birch, reed and alder; Av - fir-tree, birch; Oh - sedge and sphagnum, sheykhtseriyevo-sphagnum; Bb - sphagnum and birch, sphagnum and fir-tree; Bv - pine and birch, fir-tree and pine; Wa is sheykhtseriyevy, pushitsevy; Wb - pine and sphagnum; Vv - shrubby and pine; Hectare - an aapa; GB - aapa-hilly, polygonal; Gv - ploskobugristy, krupnobugristy.

We will note that in Siberia types of lesobolotny biogeocenoses (at the level of fatsias) in many slucha-

yakh have the replacing or supplementing options which did not enter N.I. classification by Pyavchen-co which is more adapted on the lowest units to the European part of Russia. For example, in Western Siberia instead of the reed and alder lesobolotny facies can be included reed ivnyakovaya and trostnikovoberezovy; in addition to sphagnum and fir-tree and fir-tree and pine fatsias it is expedient to specify elovokedrovy, pine and cedar, cedar and fir the facies, etc. It is important that regional specifications rather logically are entered in the theoretical concept and the practical purposes of biogeotsenologi-chesky classification of N.I. Pyavchenko.

In conclusion we will note that assessment of the structural organization of lesobolotny ecosystems in connection with a problem of their typification and assessment of biospheric functions is not limited to consideration of the listed approaches [20, 21] at all. We undertook the real digression once again to address fundamental sources of a modern bolotovedeniye and to see in them gloss of the little-known or unrealized ideas which did not lose the scientific value up to that moment. Being the rethought and complemented latest materials, they are again demanded for many years ahead, maybe, with other substantial filling and for more focused purposes.

Came to edition 24.03.2008

Literature

1. V.N. Sukachyov. About the boundary horizon of peat bogs in connection with a question of fluctuation of climate in postglacial time//Soil science. 1914. T. 16. No. 1-2. Page 47-74.
2. V.N. Sukachyov. Swamps and their education, development and properties. In prince: Chosen works. L., 1972. T. 2. S. 97-188.
3. N.I. Pyavchenko. Forest bolotovedeniye. M, 1963. 191 pages
4. N.N. Kobranov. To a question of origin of a marsh pine//News Forest Inta. SPb. 1912. Issue 23 (department of neofitsa.). Page 79-156.
5. V.V. Mazing. What is structure of a biogeocenosis. In prince: Biogeocenology problems. M, 1973. S. 148-157.
6. V.N. Sukachyov. Basic concepts of a forest biogeocenology. In prince: Bases of a forest biogeocenology. M, 1964. Page 5-49.
7. Boch M.S., Mazing V.V. Ecosystems of swamps of the USSR. L., 1979. 188 pages
8. S.V. Vasilyev. Forest and marsh landscapes of Western Siberia. Tomsk, 2007. 275 pages
9. N.I. Pyavchenko. About the principles of biogeotsenologichesky classification of swamps. In prince: Biogeocenology problems. M, 1973. Page 174-189.
10. R.I. Abolin. Experience of epigenologichesky classification of swamps//Bolotovedeniye. 1914. Issue 3. S. 1-55.
11. R.I. Abolin. To a question of classification of swamps of Northwest area. In prince: Materials on skilled to meliorative business. M,
1928. Page 3-55.
12. R.I. Abolin. Geobotanical and soil description of the Leno-Vilyuysky plain. Works of the Commission of AN on study Yakut ASSR, 1929. Issue 10. Page 1-372.
13. E.A. Galkina. Marsh landscapes and principles of their classification. In prince: The collection of the works the BIN of Academy of Sciences of the USSR performed in Leningrad for 3 years of the Great Patriotic War (1941-1943). M.-L., 1946. Page 139-156.
14. E.A. Galkina. Marsh landscapes of Karelia and principles of their classification. In prince: Peat bogs of Karelia. Petrozavodsk, 1959.

S. 3-48.

15. E.A. Galkina. Methods of use of aerial photographs for typification and mapping of marsh massifs. In prince: Swamps and boggy lands of Karelia. Petrozavodsk, 1964. Page 5-24.
16. V.D. Lopatin. Essay of vegetation of the Smooth swamp (Tosnensky District of the Leningrad Region). Wuchang. zap. I LIE (sulfurs. geogr. sciences), 1949. No. 5. Page 152-174.

V.K. Bakhnov. Soil formation - one of the leading biospheric mechanisms

17. V.D. Lopatin. Smooth swamp (peat deposit and marsh facies). Wuchang. zap. I LIE (sulfurs. geogr. sciences). 1954. No. 9. Page 95-181.
18. I.D. Bogdanovskaya-Giyenef. About classification of marsh massifs//Vestn. I LIE. 1949. No. 7. Page 55-61.
19. I.D. Bogdanovskaya-Giyenef. Regularities of formation of sphagnum swamps of riding type (on the example of the Polistovo-Lovatsky marsh system). L., 1969. 185 pages
20. S.P. Efremov. Ecological conditionality of a morphogenesis of a pine ordinary. In prince: Problems of a forest biogeocenology. Novosibirsk, 1980. Page 140-155.
21. S.P. Efremov, T.T. Efremova. Typological ranges and carbon pool of lesobolotny ecosystems of Western Siberia//Lesovedeniye. 2007. No. 6. Page 80-92.

UDC 631.434:574

V.K. Bakhnov

SOIL FORMATION - ONE OF the LEADING BIOSPHERIC MECHANISMS

Institute of soil science and agrochemistry of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Novosibirsk

The biosphere is a cover of the globe in which life in the form of a plentiful variety of the organisms inhabiting the hydrosphere, the lower layers of the atmosphere and the top part of a lithosphere of sushi developed. In the basis the biosphere is a product of interaction of live and lifeless matter. Thanks to activity of plants the biosphere comes down the accumulator of the energy arriving from the Sun to Earth.

Creation of complete theory of the biosphere belongs to V.I. Vernadsky. The central link in its concept about the biosphere - idea of live substance which he considered the most powerful geochemical and power factor, the leading force of planetary development. "Life, live substance, - Vernadsky [1] wrote, - kind of itself creates to himself area of life. It is characteristic organization of our planet" (page 242). V.I. Vernadsky's statement about a role of live substance forms the basis of our ideas of the history of formation of the biosphere of Earth and one of the leading biospheric mechanisms - soil formations [2, 3].

Evolution of soil-forming process is closely connected with the main milestones of development of the biosphere which were directed to consecutive development by organisms, first of all green plants, all spheres of a terrestrial cover. This main way was taken as a basis of division of history of the biosphere for three periods: hydrozemny, at-mozemny and litozemny. To every period there corresponded emergence on Earth of a certain form of soil formation: to hydroterrestrial - underwater, atmozemny - marsh, litozemny - overland.

The profound knowledge of fundamentals of the Dokuchaievsk soil science allowed V.I. Vernadsky to the first to find similarity between such bioinert systems as soils of sushi and ground deposits of water systems. In 1936 he wrote: "Silt... is a natural body at which exists deep

analogy to the soil. These are underwater soils where the hydrosphere takes the place of the atmosphere" [4, page 11]. The late similarity of deposits of reservoirs to soils of sushi was noted by many famous scientists [5, 6, 7, 8, etc.]. According to V.V. Plotnikov [9], ground substrate of ancient water ecosystems can be considered a prototype of the first soil on Earth, natural model of the soil in her modern understanding.

The basis of the solution of a soil and evolutionary problem is formed by the central idea of the doctrine of V.I. Vernadsky that live substance is the chemically extremely active "the operating weight" defining and subordinating to itself many planetary processes. Life creates the conditions favorable for the existence in the environment. This idea found reflection in publications of some subsequent researchers. In the course of evolution, S.S. Schwartz [10] noted, there were an involvement in circulation of the biosphere of new potential environments of life, increase in stability of a biogeotsenotichesky earth's mantle and creation of prerequisites for emergence of new ecological niches. Emergence of new ecological niches was reached also by creation by organisms of substrate - the soil which became their habitat [11].

Soil formation influenced development of a biota not only directly through the soil as the habitat of organisms, but also by change of the external environment which was made with the participation of soil formation. It would be impossible to create the oxygen-containing atmosphere of Earth without participation of soil formation in this process.

The amount of oxygen in the atmosphere stoichiometric corresponds to the amount of carbon brought out of circulation for a long time [12,

13, 14]. Therefore, not only its formation, but also utilization of a part organic uglero-are necessary for accumulation of oxygen in the atmosphere
Aaron Castillo
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