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PROBLEM of RELATIONSHIP of the SOVIET UNION AND the FEDERAL REPUBLIC of GERMANY In 1950-1960.



maksy LEVChENKO

The PROBLEM of RELATIONSHIP of the SOVIET UNION AND the FEDERAL REPUBLIC of GERMANY In 1950-h-1960-h

Article is devoted to the beginning of diplomatic relations between the USSR and Germany. The author disproves the developed stereotype that the Soviet Union is guilty of unleashing of Cold War.

The article is devoted to the beginning of diplomatic relations between the USSR and Germany. The author disproves the existing stereotype about the guilt of the Soviet Union in the beginning of cold war.

"German problem", western and east occupational zones, Christian democrats, "east policy"; German issue, western and eastern occupation zones, Christian Democratic Union, eastern policy.

Maxim Vladimirovich LEVCHENKO — to. and. N, associate professor of the Kama state inzhenernoekonomichesky academy (INEKA), Naberezhnye Chelny

minos2003@mail.ru

In the history of Cold War one of disputable the "east question" touching on an issue of reunion two Germany (the GDR and Germany) and relationship with the countries of the socialist camp is considered. It is considered to be that evil will of the USSR resulted in heat of an international situation. However over time becomes obvious that political actions of the Soviet Union concerning Germany were justified, and decisions had peaceful character. Aggravation of the international situation was promoted by the actions of Germany which had categorical character. The government of conservatives under the leadership of Konrad Adenauer considered that reunion of Germany has to happen with the assistance of only Germans.

Development of "east policy" — took place the 1960th in the 1950th in three stages which coincided with the main milestones of development post-war international otnosheniy1. The first stage should be considered the period from 1949 to 1955. The total absence of any relations between Germany and the USSR and other socialist countries was its distinctive feature. The second stage began on May 5, 1955 with entry into force of the Parisian agreements and lasted till 1961. The third stage of "east policy" began on August 13, 1961 with a construction of the Berlin wall. This period was characterized by Germany adaptation to new realities since carrying out rigid and uncompromising "east policy" became impossible.

Germans read out the main reason for threat strengthening of the Soviet Union from the East. Adenauer's government staked on the USA as on the country capable to protect Germany from communistic danger. Communism, according to K. Adenauer and his supporters, concealed threat for moral principles of the European society leaning on Christian mirovozzreniye2. Therefore they called for unity of all right forces of Europe for creation of a united front against the "Soviet danger" going from the East.

At the same time in the conflict between the East and the West Adenauer saw a special role of Germany: "Who owns Germany, that owns Europe". Adenauer assigned "a divine mission of the rescuer of Europe from the Bolshevism" to Germany.

1 K.A. Markov. East policy of Germany and revanchism. 1949 — 1982: car-ref. yew.... to. and. the N is M., 1983, page 4.
2 A.A. Frenkin. West German conservatives. Who are they? — M, 1990, page 80 — 81.
201 0& 11
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Thus, at the heart of "east policy" of conservatives there were two main ideas. First, resolute opposition to communistic threat from the East. Secondly, entry for this purpose into the union of the western powers. The neutrality in a similar situation would be, according to conservatives, is pernicious for the country. Not having the military power, it would be simply crushed by contradictory military blocks. Besides, for achievement of the foreign policy plans Adenauer needed allies.

Trying to obtain the support of "east policy" from the western partners, conservatives of Germany at the same time tried to solve also two other major problems which had to increase prestige of the country on the world scene. First, to turn Germany into the military and political ally of the USA and other western countries and, secondly, to realize the Western European economic and political integration.

Cooperation with the USA was in every respect favorable to conservatives as in the conditions of Cold War by a main goal of the foreign policy they chose weakening of the USSR and all socialist system. The European continent as here two contradictory public systems — socialism and capitalism most closely adjoined became the main arena of Cold War. And the capitalism outpost role against the socialist countries was assigned to Germany. Therefore the USA made vigorous efforts for involvement of West Germany in an orbit of the policy, hoping to strengthen political, economic and military positions of the block of the western powers with its help.

The government of conservatives publicly announced Germany "the only lawful state organization of the German people", and the federal government — "only competent to act on behalf of the German people" 1. As for the Soviet occupational zone where the GDR, as it was stated was formed, "the government of Germany does not recognize the statement of the Soviet zone

1 Veghandlungen yoe8 Deutschen Bundestages: Stenoggaphische Begichte. — Vopp, 1950, bd.1, 8. 307 — 309.

obligatory for the German people" 2. And the final result of "east policy" had to be expressed by Germany in recovery of the state unity of Germany and return of its historical role of the capital of Germany to Berlin.

Thus, during the period from spring of 1951 to summer of 1952 there was a formation of three axioms of the German "east policy".

1. Implementation of effective "east policy" is possible only in the conditions of uniform actions of the people of free Europe. It meant economic, political and military integration of the Western European states.
2. The central role in security policy has to belong to Germanii3.
3. The Soviet Union because of the vested interests specially delays discussion of controversial European issues. This point was the most important link of "east policy".

Conservatives believed that the Soviet Union, as well as all totalitarian states, respects only force. But as soon as the Soviet Union will understand that its methods do not influence the western neighbors, militarization undermines from within its force, and further expansion on the West is impracticable, then it will be possible to begin with it peace talks. K. Adenauer hoped that turning of the Soviet threat can happen thanks to an internal overstrain of the USSR during arms race and to understanding of this fact by soviet leadership. Similar development of the situation would be most favorable to the Federal Republic of Germany therefore K. Adenauer's government consciously supported climate protection of international tension.

The USSR in return showed a certain flexibility in negotiation process with Germany. The first step was taken in this direction on March 10, 1952 when the Soviet government made the project of principles of the peace treaty with Germany. The Soviet government stated that it does not object that the contract was developed with the assistance of two german2 I. Mitkovka-Kayser. Stages of East policy of Germany (1949 — 1969)//EGI, 1980, page 52.

3 Kabinettspgotokolle, 10.5.1952, 8. 279.

of the sky governments, USSR, USA, England and France.

The government of conservatives declared determination to conduct negotiations with the Soviet Union only if the USSR is unconditional signs of a condition of Germany. In the memoirs Adenauer writes about the fears about possible peace talks with the USSR. Besides the firm position of the chancellor promoted hardening of communications of Germany with the governments of the Western European countries among which anti-Soviet moods were strong too.

The Berlin ultimatum of N.S. Khrushchev about the Western Berlin of November 10, 1958 was the important event which made strong impact on development of "east policy" of K. Adenauer. Khrushchev said in the speech that time of action of the quadrilateral status across Berlin comes to an end, the western powers have to leave borders of the Western Berlin in six-month time.

Construction of the Berlin wall became on August 13, 1961 the last blow to "east policy" of conservatives. Activization of policy of "rejection of communism" by the beginning of the 1960th and the aspiration to put power pressure the Soviet Union for the solution of the Berlin problem on the scenario of Christian democrats was led to serious international crisis.

Thus, widespread idea of aggression of foreign policy of the USSR concerning West Germany can be challenged. All actions of the Soviet Union were directed to settlement of post-war situation in Europe. Christian democrats, as opposed to the Soviet initiative, showed inflexibility of foreign policy, driving it into a rigid ideological framework which complicated process of development of more pragmatic foreign policy concerning the countries of the Soviet bloc. This lesson was considered only years later by the social democratic government of V. Brandt.

Michael Ford
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