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Assessment of the identity of Mahomed in a Muslim theological thought

In the masculine rizvan

M.R. Rizvanov

Assessment of the identity of Mahomed in a Muslim theological thought

In article the problems of the movement of a religious and ideological thought in the period of an initial sermon of Islam, spiritual dissociation in the Arab society when the idea of monotheism and feature of that monotheism to which Mahomed came demanded from it not only a personal uverovaniye, but also active preaching are considered.

The analysis of the Muslim historical and religious legend about acts and Mahomed's (Sunnah) sayings has important value for identification of aktsentuirovanny traits of character and features of his behavior, scientific reconstruction of a socio-political portrait of Prorok. At the same time it is necessary to notice that the known and accepted by authoritative Muslim theologians verbal descriptions of appearance and Mahomed's manners are based on stories by his associates and followers. The message of Ali ibn Taliban Abu to whom early biographers of the prophet and the most influential commentators of the Quran and Sunnah refer is considered the most reliable.

Ibn Hesham with reference to Ali ibn Abu of the Talib gives the following description: "It (Mahomed. - The m of R.) was not high, harmonious and was not short, was of average height; his hair were not really curly and not smooth, accurately brushed; was not full and was not with high cheek-bones, skin of his face was white-pink, and eyes were black; there was it with long eyelashes and shirokokostny, broad-shouldered, with small hair on the breast deprived of vegetation with thick hands and legs, with light step as though he goes down on a slope when he looks back, turns completely; between shovels and on a back the prophecy press, the most generous of people, the most courageous, the most truthful in the speech, the most true, the softest, the most friendly; who will see it, will at once feel to it respect, who will communicate with it, will fall in love with it" 1.

Mahomed's image given by the historian, hadisovedy and the commentator of the Quran of an at-Tabara differs in additional details and details (mind. in 923 g) with reference to the same source: "He was of average height - not high and not low. He had a pinkish-white face, eyes - dark, hair - dense, brilliant, very beautiful. The face was framed by a beard. Long hair fell on shoulders. In color they were black. It had so vigorous gait that it seemed, it with each step from -

1 Ibn Hesham. Biography of the prophet Mahomed. - M, 2002. Prophet's life. - M, 2002. - Page 124-125.



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it ryvatsya from the earth, and at the same time its movements were so easy as if it did not concern it. However in his gait there was no pride inherent in the powers that be. In the person there was so much kindness that it was impossible to take away an eye. Hungry was to look at it enough as they immediately forgot about food. Sufferers forgot at it about the troubles, the fascinated by softness his devil and his speeches. All seeing it were unanimous that they never, neither earlier, nor later, met the person, the conversation with whom would be so pleasant. The nose at him was a straight line, teeth rare. From time to time hair fell at it from the head, sometimes he tied them in two or four bunches" 2.

The are Rahman al-Mubarakfuri belongs to Safi rather complete collection of descriptions of appearance of Mahomed according to a number of his associates and followers: "It had a big mouth, big eyes and dry ankles" (Jabeer ibn Samura); "it was belokozh and is beautiful the person" (Abu - t-Tufayl); "uny there were large hands... on the head and in a beard it it would not be taken also twenty gray hair" (Malik ibn Anas); "his hair reached lobes of ears. his face was round" (it is scarlet - Bar); "between two of his foreteeth there was some distance and when he said, appear, that through clenched teeth it light makes the way" (Ibn is scarlet - Abbas); "it had long eyelashes, its voice was slightly hoarse and pleasant aurally, a neck - long, and a beard - dense, and it had long, curved and accrete eyebrows" 3.

On the basis of various Muslim sources which, in turn, are based on certificates of contemporaries of Mahomed his descriptions are created by a number Russian and Western European vostokovedov4. At the same time it does not mean that irrefragable answers on all questions in terms of psychology of individual distinctions are received. Moreover, in some works the prejudiced attitude towards Mahomed is traced. For example, A.I. Agronomov, reproaching certain western specialists in Islamic studies with kind, therefore, in his opinion, the wrong attitude towards Mahomed, states own opinion on it differing in extreme anti-historicity and injustice to the personality Proroka: "Mahomed himself understood weakness of the forces, but saw that his followers were not so numerous that they could make strong force and a sword to pave the bloody way to his ambition. Aggressive, injurious spirit of Arabs it encourages Mahomed, and about -

2 Tsit. on: The courier of UNESCO, Sep. - Oct., 1981. - Page 6.
3 Safi are Rahman al-Mubarakfuri. Prorok's life. - M, 2003. - Page 623-637.
4 For example: Nightingales V. Magomet, his life and religious doctrine. - SPb., 1902; Bartold V.V. Soch. T. 6. Works on history of Islam and Arab caliphate. - M, 1966; O.G. Bolshakov. History of the Caliphate. T. 1. - M, 1989; Widengren G. Muhammad, Aposile of God and his Ascension. - Uppsala, 1955; Lings M. Muhammad: his life based on the earliest sources. - L., 1983; RodinsonM. Mohamet. - P., 1961; CookM. Muhammad. - Oxf., 1983; Pa-ret R. Mohammed und der Koran. - Stuttgart, 1957; Watt W.M. Muhammad: Prophet and Statesman. - L., 1961; Washington I. Magomet. - Makhachkala, 1991, etc.


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proclaims war for belief. Wordly interests, revelry of unbridled passions receive domination over religious jealousy and note other life of Mahomed bloodshed, cruelty, suspiciousness, perfidy and injustice" 5.

Modern orientalists are skeptical about the similar antiscientific statements of both the western, and Russian authors. As M.V. Vagabov and N.M. Vagabov write, "emergence of similar concepts is explained, first, by ideological and confessional opposition between the Christian West and the Muslim East; secondly, lack of scientific approach to studying sources of new religion and a role in it

Mahomed's process; thirdly, absence reliable istochni-


k on stories of the beginning of emergence of Islam".

An opportunity to analyze results of direct observation of the person as he behaves in society and in family, among adherents and in an environment of rivals and also in other situations, allows to state sufficiently the reasoned judgments of his personality. A component of such research is also observation of a mimicry, gesticulation and speech intonations as means of check of the validity of statements of the person. In this regard Hadiths contain the actual material, necessary for the researcher. As a result of the comparative analysis of two descriptions of Mahomed given above the generalized type of the person of average height, a dense constitution, with extremities, rather short, than long, light step, a soft, beautiful and expressive face, goodhearted and sociable on temperament appears. According to classification of the German psychologist E. Krechmer, these signs are characteristic of people with piknichesky type of the structure of a body and circular mental predras-


situation from which ingenious leaders, as a rule, turn out.

To designate evidential base of the given situation in Mahomed's relation, it is necessary to address observations of his closest associates and followers who are contained in Hadiths exhausted from them. The associate Proroka Jabeer ibn Abdallakh al-Hazradzhi (607697), gone blind by the end of life, mentions a number of nonverbal means of communication to which Mahomed resorted during the so-called "farewell pilgrimage" (632 g). Mahomed spoke, "having crossed fingers of hands" 8; "raised a forefinger to the sky, and then pointed by it to people and told" 9; forbidding the cousin and the bodyguard al-Fadlu

5 A.I. Agronomov. Jihad: holy war mukhammedan. - M, 2002. - Page 45-46.
6 M.V. Vagabov, N.M. Vagabov. Islam: history and present. - Makhachkala, 2002. - Page 15.
7 E. Krechmer Stroyeniye body and character//Psychology of individual distinctions. Texts. - M, 1982. - Page 219-247.
8 Ibn Hadzhar al-Askalani. Achievement of the goal in understanding sacred texts by which the Islamic law is guided. The lane with the Arab. and lump. E.R. Kuliyeva. - M, 2003. - Page 282.
9 In the same place. - Page 284.



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to ibn Abbas to be lost in contemplation of passing by women, twice "hid his face in a hand" 10. In other Hadith exhausted from the cousin Prorok of Abdallakh ibn Abbas (619-686) where the same appears al-Fadl ibn Abbas who was also lost in contemplation of the woman, Mahomed "turned it

the person in other party" 11. Mahomed was in the habit to take for ears under-12

sprouts and young men, in extraordinary situations it is unexpected to cease and to long keep silence. Sometimes he loudly laughed, so, that "its canines" 14 were shown or "his uvula" 15 was visible, i.e. the nadgortannik, and smiled "so broadly that his molars" 16 were shown if asked it tricky questions, then became angry or angry and long waited until any of the closest associates calms ego17.

It was pleasant to Mahomed when he was treated mutton lopatkoy18, in the absence of food did not disdain a locust, leaves of a blackthorn and in flowers aka-tsii19, did not refuse the aromas presented to him as a gift, showed suspiciousness, did not love praise by one person

22 23

another, edifying flock, lowered, raised the voice, the instructions or decisions on any given questions including household repeated several times podryad24. More than 2000 most authentic Hadiths as from the scientific point of view, and, according to authoritative Muslim theologians, - Mahomed ibn Ismail it is scarlet - Buhari (194-256 g x.), Muslima ibn Al-Hadzhzhadzh (204-261 g x.), Abu Dawood of Suleyman ibn Al-Ash'as (202275 g x.), Mahomed ibn Iza of an at-Tirmiza (209-279 g x.), selected for this research, contain a set of the details characterizing Mahomed's behavior in various situations.

The approximate list of these details looks as follows:

>- Mahomed did not like to sleep to an evening prayer and to carry on a talk after it;

>- spoke loudly and distinctly;

>- strictly demanded an appearance on a prayer at the call of the muezzin;

>- after each trip surely came into the mosque and made a prayer;

10 In the same place. - Page 285.
11 In the same place. - Page 194-195.
12 In the same place. - Page 86.
13 In the same place. - Page 87; An-Navavi. Mukhyi-d-din. Gardens of just. Lane and primech. V.M. Nishra. - M, 2002. - Page 134.
14 In the same place. - Page 125.
15 An-Navavi. Decree. soch. - Page 347.
16 In the same place. - Page 800.
17 Ibn Hadzhar al-Askalani. Decree. soch. - Page 131, 147; An-Navavi. Decree. soch. - Page 324.
18 An-Navavi. Decree. soch. - Page 784.
19 In the same place. - Page 261, 772.
20 In the same place. - Page 749.
21 In the same place. - Page 777.
22 In the same place. - Page 749.
23 In the same place. - Page 760.
24 Ibn Hadzhar al-Askalani. Decree. soch. - Page 284, 285; An-Navavi. Decree. soch. - Page 344.


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>- came to seriously ill patients not to Muslims and suggested to accept Islam;

>- reflecting on something, was in the habit to take a stick and to draw on the earth of a figure or to pick sand;

>- opposed illegal acquisitions;

>- liked to make good causes, but often refused their commission, being afraid of imitation from other people;

>- did not approve garrulity, boasting and tendency to verbalization;

>- prepared for military campaigns, observing the most strict privacy;

>- was not superstitious, but trusted in prophetic dreams;

>- suddenly covered it strakh25;

>- took spontaneous actions (removed a ring from a hand of one person and threw out it, claiming that it is a particle infernal ognya26);

>- differed in impressionability, sometimes cried, especially during reading the Quran;

- when cried, made "the sounds similar to the sounds reaching from the [boiling] copper";

- "differed in bigger bashfulness, than the girl sitting for a curtain - 28


>- his body exhaled pleasant aroma;

>- showed tenderness to juvenile children, kissing them;

>- did not raise a hand against women, servants and animals;

>- extremely was negative to a lie and to a pereviraniye of own statements;


>- from time to time showed cruelty and vindictiveness, but patiently took down personal offenses;

>- participated in reconciliation of the people conflicting among themselves;

>- was upset if was refused on the offers or if it in something household was surpassed;

>- when was happy, "his face lit up and became similar to a piece



>- owned polemic art;

>- had the gift of suggestion;

>- when "addressed people with sermons, his eyes reddened, the voice became loud, and he was angry, beginning to resemble the person who warns others about approach of [enemy] army" 31;

>- in the mornings brushed teeth a toothpick;

25 An-Navavi. - Page 119.
26 In the same place. - Page 120.
27 In the same place. - Page 242.
28 In the same place. - Page 338.
29 In the same place. - Page 480, 683.
30 In the same place. - Page 28, 111.
31 In the same place. - Page 109.



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>- did not hide the sufferings when was ill;

>- was scrupulous;

>- demanded respect for himself;

>- did not approve persistence in requests;

>- liked to put on in wide shirts which sleeves reached wrists;

>- it had a shirt of red color and a black turban;

>- expressively gesticulated;

>- had very expressive face which was changed in color during anger;

>- pointed by a hand to a breast, speaking about soul or heart;

>- touched a finger the language, urging to hold it;

>- admonishing patients, touched by an earth forefinger, then raised it to the sky, hinting that all real is created from ashes, and on everything will of Allah, which in heaven;

>- edifying associates and followers, took them for shoulders;

>- pressed "a thumb edge a finger-tip on the right hand" 33, showing as the mountain on Allah's command is scattered in ashes;

>- connected among themselves index and average fingers, speaking about proximity of two phenomena;

>- connected big and index fingers in the form of a circle, meaning an opening;

>- having stopped eating, licked three fingers and did not leave behind unfinished;

>- it was unpretentious in food and in life in general, saying that never "the person of a vessel of the worst, than his own belly" 34 filled;

>- did not blame not pleasant food, but did not touch it;

>- he liked to recline on one side, leaning at the same time a palm against the head.

In general, Mahomed made an impression of the person who lived itself and allowed to live another, appealing to their conscience and punishment in afterlife what his own words given allegedly by the wife Umm Salama testify to: "Really, I - only the person, and you come to me [with the] disputes. Also it can turn out so that someone from you is more convincing in the arguments, the another, and then I will make the decision in its advantage on the basis of a part of the fact that I will hear, however [let knows] that, the I will award what by right belongs to his brother that I allocate it a particle of a [infernal] flame!" At the same time Mahomed's identity is much deeper and

32 In the same place. - Page 303.
33 Jalal ad-Din as-Suiuti. Perfection in Quranic sciences. The lane with the Arab. D.V. Frolova. - M, 2000. - Page 123.
34 In the same place. - Page 267.
35 In the same place. - Page 136-137.


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tselny, and the identity sharply distinguished it from contemporaries both critical mentality, and pragmatical orientation of thinking.

The comparative analysis of two important events which came after Mahomed's resettlement from Mecca to Medina sheds light on logic of the relationships of cause and effect explaining genesis and hierarchy of fundamental motivational structures. Not so much the fact of resettlement, how many that unexpected and timely support from hazragit and ausit which Mahomed immediately used for the purpose of implementation of the religiouspolitical doctrine getting more and more accurate outlines by this moment can be a key position here. In this regard also that circumstance that permission to armed resistance was issued in the form of the divine sanction after its resettlement to Medina is not accidental.

Many features of behavior of Mahomed consisting of separate aktsentuirovanny lines of his character were dictated by fears for own life. One of its such lines which are not challenged by Muslim theologians can consider the tendency to vigils which especially developed in the period of time relating to Hijra. Driving away a dream, Mahomed prayed much and dared to take a nap only shortly before dawn. He laid down so that the sleep remained light, i.e., keeping within on a bed, occupied very inconvenient pose. Perhaps, some certificates of his associates that in the afternoon Prorok quite often fell into drowsiness that is reflected in a number of Hadiths are explained by it. In any case, according to his wife Aisha, complaint is attributed to Mahomed: "Oh, if there was a just person from among my associates who would protect me tonight!" According to the Muslim legend, Said ibn Abu Vakkas who was registered in the top ten of Muslims who the first and began to protect his night rest responded to this wish of the prophet.

It is difficult to judge whether similar guardianship weighed Mahomed, constant vigils could not but affect his character, even despite new safe living conditions. The prosecution mania preventing to focus entirely on religious and moral problems of its dogma still prevailed over it. Perhaps, Mahomed considered resettlement to Medina from two points of view which are mutually excluding each other. On the one hand, acting through medinets he found stalwarts, and it, certainly, gave a cause for rejoicing over mekkansky opponents. On the other hand, this resettlement could be regarded and as shameful flight, as the irreconcilable mekkansky nobility emphasized. Therefore Mahomed's Hijra was an ambiguous event, and Prorok clearly imagined it.

In this regard it is possible to assume that as a social and psychological basis of the right of Muslims for use of weapons and conducting military operations declared by the Quran their this duality on - served



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a lozheniye after resettlement to Medina. At the same time it must be kept in mind that many muhajirs were forced to leave not only the dwellings, farm buildings, grape and date plantations, but also other personal estate in Mecca. Moreover, this resettlement caused them sensitive moral damage, having hit the moral principles open to injury and installations hard. To eliminate the arisen imbalance in the spiritual sphere and to belittle the designated moral superiority of mekkanets in the opinion of the supporters, Mahomed proclaimed Allah's lips the new idea - a way of armed struggle: "Is permitted [to battle] to against what battle, for the fact that they are offended. Really, Allah can help them, - to those which are expelled from the houses without the right, unless only for what they said: "Our Lord is Allah". And if not protection of Allah of people by some others, then monasteries, both churches, and the place of a prayer, and the place of worship in which the name of Allah is remembered much would be destroyed" (XX, 39-41).

The essence of this thesis is in what to advocates of new dogma is permitted to resort to weapon only in the defensive purposes, but there was enough this first step for further development of the concept of suppression of dissent by the armed way. Similar interpretation could be derivative of substrate personal motivational structures, i.e. initial aspirations of Mahomed on ensuring physical safety - own, family, the closest associates and the arising Muslim community in general. Not really a lot of time was required in order that initial especially defensive military doctrine to transform to the concept of offensive jihad, i.e. for initiation of military operations concerning political opponents.

Mahomed well understood that military-political influence of mekkanets can be weakened only by undermining their trade and economic power. For this purpose during the period from March to December of 623 g he organized and carried out seven military campaigns out of borders of Medina, and only one of them, namely - a campaign on Safvan (September of 623 g) which, by Muslim tradition, is called as well the first campaign on Badr, had the real soil for acceptance of response by Mahomed: pagans under Karz ibn Jabeer's guidance al-Fikhri stole a part of the Medina herd owing to what Muslims organized a pursuit to beat off is stolen-noye36. Other six campaigns were initiated personally by Mahomed and aimed to prevent passing of mekkansky caravans to Syria and other northern territories. Though they also were unsuccessful, but let know to kurayshita that Mahomed, at favorable combination of circumstances, will be able to exercise control over their caravan paths.

36 Ibn Hesham. Biography of the Prophet Mahomed. The lane with the Arab. N. Gaunullina. - M, 2002. - Page 204.


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Process of transformation of the defensive military doctrine in offensive strategy finally came to the end in January of 624 g when the Muslim group of Abdallakh ibn Jahsh al-Asadi took a mekkansky caravan close an-Nakhly. This event which played the major role in the history of Islam, Mahomed legalized a divine revelation. In essence, events in an-Nakhle were important for Islam incomparably more, than even fight at Badre. Interpreting an incident essence, Mahomed showed enviable resourcefulness of mind, thinly playing upon the most deep heartstrings of the supporters.

The point of its psychological strategy was in convincing them of inevitability and predefiniteness of succession of events exactly as it occurred. This psychological collision was developed so that all interested parties could take part in it. It neutralized disapproving estimates of Muslims a sign phrase: "I to you did not order to kill in sacred month". And from kurayshit and the Medina Jews turned sharp charges against them, appealing to initial violation of the religious and moral principles by them that was expressed in compulsion of Muslims to leave Mecca and imposing of the ban on visit of the Kaaba. It looked quite naturally and convincingly. Besides, the essential role was played also by manipulation with the separate key elements of the Arab and Bedouin code of male honor (muruvv) which are skillfully snatched out from the general context: the caused offense surely has to be compensated by the adequate answer or payment of a vira.

Mahomed considered as well predisposition of Arabs to attacks for the purpose of improvement of the financial position. For example, before fight at Badre he urged Muslims to attack the mekkansky caravan missed by it during a campaign on Zu-l-Ushayru (November-December of 623 g) frankly formulating the attack purpose: "Here caravan of kurayshit. In it - their riches. Attack them, and, maybe, by means of Allah you will get them!" 38 Thus, the moral legal framework consecrated with the divine sanction, which allowed it to carry out further expansionist policy for the ideological opponents was prepared.

At the same time the pragmatism of this policy was not caused by the personal mercenary purposes of Mahomed as certain western researchers try to present it, for example P. Kroun at all: "Mahomed's god uplifted breeding eagerness to fight and aspiration to greedy capture in a rank of the highest religious virtues: material interests were the same, as in tribal society... Just because material in-

37 Ibn Hesham. Decree. soch. - Page 206.
38 In the same place. - Page 207.



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Teresa Allah and nomads from tribes coincided, they so zealously obeyed and obeyed it (i.e. Mahomed. - M of R.) to instructions".

With insignificant reservations M. Forvard, generally, sympathizing Mahomed as the great personality holds the similar opinion: "Attacks (magaz) were usual line of life of Arabs. Mahomed needed to feed the followers, and further - to break mekkanets... He learns that life needs to be taken extremely seriously as the stadium where submit or is not present to the one God whose will cannot oppose. Mahomed was sure that the divine will was in that the arising Muslim community prospered even if for

account of other human values".

History an-Nakhla and followed then fight at Badre could be considered as an initial position with which the concept of holy war of Muslims (jihad) began to be formed. However there are no reasoned arguments for a similar statement. This problem was investigated by many specialists in Islamic studies, and various opinions were expressed, up to mutually exclusive. As this subject does not enter a problem of the present research, it is necessary to be limited to designation of some key provisions stated by both western, and east authors.

The academician V.V. Bartold wrote: "Jihad (war for belief) was, first of all, a source of material benefits. The words of the Quran about fight with incorrect and the heavenly bliss expecting been killed in action had to cause such religious enthusiasm without which dazzling successes of Muslim weapon would be inconceivable, but this enthusiasm was later and passed quicker, than the majority writing about Islam" 41 thinks.

The British specialist in Islamic studies U.M. Watt pays attention to the following circumstance: "Jihad purpose. there was not an address of inhabitants to Islam, and submission to their Muslim orders at the status patronized... Thus, jihad led to military expansion of Muslims, but not to the direct address to Islam". M.V. Vagabov and N.M. Vagabov who point that the concept of jihad extended and filled with the new contents after Mahomed's death agree with these conclusions: "If the first Muslims as the Quran testifies, declared jihad and gazavat against the Arab mnogobozhnik, then after Mahomed's death the similar wars for belief were waged against neighboring countries and the people and in otdel-

39 Kroun P. Mekkanskaya trade and emergence of Islam//Prophet Mahomed. Western European texts and comments on them / Sost., lane and comment. M.R. Rizvanova. - Makhachkala, 2004. - Page 43-44.
40 ForvardM. Mahomed. Short biography. Transl. from English A. Garkavy. - M, 2002. - Page 37-38.
41 Bartold V. V. Uraboty on stories of Islam and the Arab caliphate. Soch. t. VI. - Page 400.
42 U.M. Watt. Influence of Islam on medieval Europe. - M, 1976. - Page 25.


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ny historical conditions gained exclusive value in the world of Islam as performance by Muslims of a sacred heavenly mission" 43.

In spite of the fact that jihad is not one of so-called "five pillars" Islam and even on the fact that Mahomed to saber-rattling preferred glorification to Allah, a number of Muslim authors focused attention of governors on preference of participation in jihad. For example, Abu Yusuf al-Kufi provides Hadith opening Mahomed's relation to military operations in general: "Allah's envoy told: "Is not present for the son Adam of an act more capable to save it from an infernal flame, than Allah's remembrance". He was asked: "Oh, Allah's envoy, even not self-sacrifice on Allah's way?" He answered: "Even not self-sacrifice on Allah's ways, at least you cut with a sword until it breaks, then still would cut until it breaks, then still would cut with it until it breaks" 44. However the same author, commenting on this Hadith, the are Rasheed the following recommended to the Caliph Haruna: "The kind value of jihad is really high, and the award for it is plentiful" 45.

There is no doubt that the jihad ideology covering aggressive policy was formed already without Mahomed's participation and was called for achievement of definite purposes since in the first ayahs of the Quran about permissibility of military operations there is no instruction on their transferring on those who did not offend at the time Mahomed and his supporters, and offenders, as we know, were kurayshita and some other Arab tribes which supported them. Allah's lips Prorok says: "If Allah did not keep some people from others, then both monasteries, and churches, and synagogues, and mosques where the name of Allah is constantly mentioned would be destroyed. Truly, Allah will help those to whom he helps because Allah strong and mighty, will help those which if He approves them on this earth, will make a prayer, will give cleaning alms, will call for good and to hold from the evil" (XX, 40-41). Having pointed to this circumstance, Ibn Hesham notices: "Then Allah sent to him (to Mahomed. - M of R.) following: "Also be at war with them that you did not become refuseniks" (II, 193) that is that the believer did not refuse the religion and that the belief was only in Allah that is that the believer worshipped only Allah and nobody any more" 46.

The logic of events moves to a thought that Mahomed somewhat aspired also to satisfaction of the ambition by punishment for the offenses which are earlier experienced from kurayshit. The fact is that still being in Mecca shortly after announced the prophetical mission, he passed by the Kaaba, and the pagans who were there roughly wore every time and offended it, and it was the reason of impassioned aggressive reaction,

43 VagabovM. Century, N.M. Vagabov. Decree. soch. - Page 102.
44 Abu Yusuf al-Kufi. Kitab is scarlet-haradzh / the Lane with the Arab. A.E. Schmidt. - SPb., 2001. - Page 8.
45 In the same place.
46 Ibn Hesham. Decree. soch. - Page 148.



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strongly frightened mekkanets. This case mentioned by Ibn Hesham is very important for psychological characteristic, statement and the analysis of the motivational structures defining formation of features of his behavior: "It (Mahomed. - The m of R.) stopped and told: Whether "You hear, about people from a sort of kurayshit! I swear to in what hands my soul, from my hand - your death". His words took people unawares, and they were dumbfounded. Even that most of which urged to humiliate it before began to calm him the kindest words which it found in itself(himself), saying: "Leave Abu - l-Kasim (i.e. Mahomed. - M. P), in an amicable way! You never were such aggressive!" 47

When Mahomed called the supporters a misfortune on a mekkansky caravan, they reacted ambiguously. It turned out that "some quickly gathered and came, and others did not come" 48. According to Ibn Hesham, "refuseniks" did not believe that Mahomed is able to carry out a similar act. Modern Muslim apologists consider that Prorok did not force all the followers, and addressed only volunteers whom, according to Ibn Hesham, there were 314 people, mekkanets was three times more. Fight at Badre is represented to one of the strangest in the history of early Islam since any of warring parties had no plan of actions. The illogicalness of a collision is confirmed by the analysis of the known facts, including and that which do not characterize Mahomed as the gifted and successful military leader at all. In this battle it served as rather ideological mastermind, than the commander.

On the way to Badr, in the town of Irk az-Zubya, Muslims met the bedouin who upset Mahomed with a humiliating question. One of his supporters roughly answered the nomad, and it upset Prorok even more: he defiantly turned away from them, sent two spies forward and continued a way. Further it becomes clear that Mahomed badly was guided by areas and in dislocation of Bedouin tribes. In the valley Zafiran informed him that the mekkansky caravan, thanks to quickness and anticipatory measures taken by Abu-Sufjan ibn Harbom was removed on safe distance and that from Mecca towards to Muslims the big group of pagans led by Abu Dzhakhl ibn Hesham goes. Mahomed, probably, did not expect such turn of events, and initial confidence in own forces was considerably shaken. He urgently called "Council of War" on which muhajirs confirmed the readiness to battle, and ansara swore that they will follow it everywhere. The similar devotion inspired Prorok and neutralized his doubts in the relation of a result of the forthcoming battle.

Despite this, in Mahomed's actions the known share of uneasiness provoked by excessive intellectual tension was traced.

47 In the same place. - Page 80.
48 In the same place. - Page 207.


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He was disturbed that nomadic Arabs reluctantly made contact and cooperation with it. In this regard and he became extremely circumspect, suspecting bedouins of conspiracy with mekkanets. So, in the neighborhood of Badra he decided to carry out investigation which result was very unfavourable conclusion: neighboring inhabitants knew everything about movements of Muslims and mekkanets, and at the same time it was difficult to define a real position of bedouins. Judging from the fact that Abu-Sufjan ibn Harbu was succeeded to bring the caravan out of blow of Muslims, it is possible to assume: the situation developed not in favor of Mahomed. Therefore, communicating with nomads, he showed reserve and care. "We from an oasis", - he answered a question of one passer startsa49.

In the known biographies of Prorok this episode is just retold, but not commented and not analyzed. The minimum effectiveness of inquiries, it seems, demonstrates that Mahomed overestimated the authority, and he understood it owing to what the decision to find more reliable source of information on the opponent was made. Ali ibn Abu the Talib with big group of Muslims who soon brought two captives was sent to investigation. While Mahomed prayed, his associates tried to incline a beating them to the necessary indications. Prorok condemned their actions in the presence of captives and by that won over them. This psychological reception of "carrot and stick" allowed it to find out about necessary data and to take anticipatory measures in respect of mekkanets. But Mahomed's orders were not absolutely adequate to current situation. Its appreciable errors were corrected by the associate Hubab ibn Al-Munzir who said that "the military cunning" of Prorok can turn back big military failure and offered own plan of reconnaissance of Muslim group which essence he consisted in destruction of wells of Badra except for one reservoir which will be controlled by Mahomed. Other rational offer proceeded from Said ibn Muaz who supported a construction of the command post and ensuring reliable protection of Mahomed and also providing for it a safe way of retreat in case of the unsuccessful result of battle.

The personal contribution of Prorok to a victory consisted in the following: he tried to bring split in ranks of mekkanets by means of authoritative mekkanets of Utby ibn Rabiya whose son was a Muslim, but this attempt was not crowned with success; he organized an indicative review of the army during which strongly stuck with an arrow into a stomach to one soldier who expressed discontent with it, and Prorok in reply bared his stomach and potseloval50, blessing it on fight; he entered the tent at the command post, prayed, lay down to take a nap then declared that in the forthcoming battle angels led by Jibril will be on the side of Muslims; it once again about -

49 Ibn Hesham. Decree. soch. - Page 210.
50 In the same place. - Page 217.



M.R. Rizvanov

it ratitsya to the army with the encouraging speech, urging "to stain with the hands with blood of the opponent" 51, but forbade to kill on pain of punishment any of some kind of - to the ban Hashim; he made a magic ceremony, having thrown in

Kristin Roberts
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