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The organization of service of the Penza city police at the beginning of the 20th century



12. In the same place. T. 103. Op. 1. 1659. L. 21.

13. In the same place. T. 176. Op. 1. 17. NN. 108-110ob.
14. In the same place. T. 176. Op. 1A. 16. L. 227ob.
15. In the same place. T. 103. Op. 2. 14. NN. 1-103;
16. In the same place. 31. NN. 1-70;
17. In the same place. 47. NN. 1-99;
18. In the same place. 61. NN. 2-95;
19. In the same place. 62. NN. 5-52;
20. In the same place. 73. NN. 1-189;
21. In the same place. 83. NN. 1-84ob.;
22. In the same place. 96. NN. 1-63;
23. In the same place. 105. NN. 1-63;
24. In the same place. 120. NN. 1-81.
25. In the same place.

UDC 9(C)28

The ORGANIZATION of SERVICE of the PENZA CITY POLICE at the beginning of the 20th CENTURY

V.Yu. Treasures

Penza state pedagogical university of V.G. Belinsky department of the contemporary history of Russia and study of local lore

Article is devoted to consideration of attempts of city police agencies to adjust system work on prevention and fight against crime at the beginning of the 20th century. The author notes that in the conditions of insufficiency of financing and also in the absence of due mutual understanding between the city police authorities and provincial administration it is impossible to demand from police of Penza of steady increase in quality indicators. At the same time the city police authorities, in our opinion, managed to realize in practice of an action, promoting adjustment of the best, than before, the organizations of fight against the illegal phenomena.

The beginning of the twentieth century in the Penza province was marked by sharp jump of crime rate. For the short period which coincided with the beginning of the first Russian revolution, the number of the crimes committed in the Penza County grew more than twice. If in 1904 they were recorded 52, then in 1905 - 124, in 1907 - 136 [1. L. 80-87; 2. L. 6771; 3. L. 95-102]. In addition, changes happened and in "quality" of the committed crimes - they became more sophisticated and cruel. All this forced the governor and the chief of police to take effective measures on the organization of fight against illegal acts.

In compliance with it, as the main activities the administration of city police allocated:

I. Detailed study of the organization of service by police ranks for the purpose of its simplification and increase in efficiency

II Allocation of a detective part in separate department in the municipal police department

III Acquisition and use of the modern means which are used at search of the persons who committed a crime

IV The organization of the classes promoting increase in office qualification of employees

We will consider efficiency of the realized actions within each of the directions separately.

I. For the purpose of the most effective organization of service the city of Penza at the beginning of the 20th century was divided in the police relation into 4 parts.

The first part occupied the territory of the South of Penza. From South side its border passed across the line dividing the city and the county; from northern - the second part. The border between the first and second part passed in the region of points: forest giving gardening - Garden and Pushkarsky streets - the Deribasovsky order

(for the river Penza) - Strelbishchenskaya Square. This site entered also: school of gardening with forest giving, the area under the name "Ravine", the settlement of "Grafovka", Manzhouli.

The second part began from limits of the first part in the direction of the North and bordered on the one hand by the first part, on another - the third.

The third part began from the second, was to the north of it, and adjoined to the fourth part, terminating in the area "Kitchen gardens", the Fairground and the Syzrano line there - the Vyazma railroad. Here all market squares, forest piers, rag warehouses, paper-mill of Sergeyev entered.

the Fourth part was located between the third part and the territory of the Penza County. Here entered: lines of the Syzrano-Vyazemsky and Moscow and Kazan railroads with stations, adjacent buildings and Penza-2 station and also the area which is for the Sura River and on the lake "Shuist".

Each part of the city was controlled by the team which was under supervision at the chief of police. The team included the police officer with the assistant, district supervisors and policemen. The number of employees of police in each team was approximately identical and could vary in dependence of circumstances (tab. 1).

Table 1.

The regular structure of local police teams of Penza in 1915 [4. NN. 82-83].

part No. district supervisors policemen

I 3 37

II 4 45

III 4 42

IV 3 29

Coordination of actions between groups was carried out the chief of police with assistants.

All variety of activity of city police in each of parts was reduced to two main directions:

The first of them was execution of watch on the city (a zastupleniye in dresses).

Daily the order of the chief of police on city police appointed daily details. The person on duty on the city the police officer of one of parts took up. dresses were appointed to the major city institutions, such as post and cable office or office of National bank; and also to places of mass gatherings - in theater, circus, on the market square. Depending on importance degree, dresses could be usual, double or threefold (depending on the number of at a time appointed policemen) - proceeding from degree of importance of a supervised object or an action. Houses of the governor and the vice governor to which dresses were appointed not only from among governors of a town, but also from the staff of District police department were especially carefully protected.

Long time the authorities were faced by a question: what to do in case of mass dismissals from police service, similar to the incident in 1910 when about 30% left 149 employees almost at a time, owing to different circumstances, and remained it was necessary besides fundamental obligations also to take up in dresses almost every other day [5. 12. NN. 1-135]. As a result, from among policemen of the third part the separate group in number of 27 people to which the zastupleniye in dresses was assigned was created. These managed to achieve also bigger efficiency of dresses since to the person "from a plow" access to group was ordered [6. 56. NN. 82-83].

Extremely low discipline of employees which was expressed, in particular, in the negligent relation to the duties was one more of burning issues, inherent all Penza police. It recognized also the police administration which was often mentioning in the orders that "observation of police of protection of the city, especially at night, it is impossible to recognize as satisfactory". Throughout existence of city police the methods of fight for quality of service were not original. Once in a night the person on duty on the city or its assistant had to check presence of policemen on the posts assigned to them, at the same time was not considered shameful to avoid check implementation, having referred to employment. As a result, the discipline was loosened so that the governor in 1911 noticed to the chief of police that he should most stop on the street of the policemen who are after watch "in the drunk and torn to pieces look" and to send them under arrest [7. 16. L. 220].

As a result, by 1915 the system of the measures promoting the due organization of control of service in dresses was developed and introduced in practice. Now on each post of policemen the notebook with duty regulations in which decrees -

was created

it vatsya No. of a post and the sign of the policeman. Verifications of orders had to be made 1 every two days by district supervisors, once a week - police officers, 1 every two weeks - assistants to police officers. Besides, mutual control of police policemen and policemen was established. For example, the policeman who is on watch was obliged two times in a night (till midnight and after) to make a mark about visit in the book which is on a post at the policeman located within the site and vice versa. The checks which are carried out by the administration from now on had no formal character. Checking it was obliged to find out knowledge the point-policeman of official duties, to examine a condition of weapon, to ask on the contingent of the population living in this area, etc. All revealed remarks had to register in the book which is on a post [8. 56. NN. 116-116ob].

The organization of educational work with the staff of city police was separately thought over. To all Penza in 1911 the case when the policeman on one of streets made a remark to decently dressed citizen walking with a dog without muzzle quietly thundered listened to strong language in the address, and released it back home, having repeatedly made a remark. The similar cases which were not a rarity obviously did not promote growth of prestigiousness of a police profession [9. 16. L. 227ob]. For policemen began to lead subsequently weekly discussions during which it was inspired that the rank of police is the authority, and has to on this basis steadily try to obtain the respectful attitude towards itself. Advised the same who the untidy look, action or inaction, casts a shadow on police to leave service [10. 17. L. 31ob.].

Thus, it is possible to note that only in the 1910th years of the power managed to develop and introduce the system of the measures promoting improvement of quality of service of dresses in practice.

As the second direction it is possible to consider control of everyday life of the city for the purpose of safety, prevention of rise in crime and preservation of the existing order.

Data of the State Archive of the Penza Region allow to draw a conclusion that the daily service of ranks of city police for 80% consisted of performance of the orders on police which do not have relations to protection of public order. It is possible to carry to them: orders about timely cleaning of streets, export of cesspool barrels, etc.

The exception can be considered two groups of the orders concerning the main problems of Penza. It: establishing effective fight against beggary and supervision of realization of alcoholic products in city institutions.

Every year, since the spring and finishing late fall, city streets steadily were filled improbable even for those times with the number of beggars, both actually Penza, and residents of the province. Favourite places for them were:

church church porches, floor spaces and also main city streets (especially Moskovskaya St.). The Penza beggars, besides, differed in excessive importunity, and, often, not just asked, and demanded alms more likely, accompanying refusal from citizens with offensive abuse [11. 30. L. 260]. Such situation proceeded from year to year, and local policemen so got used to a similar situation that in general ceased to pay attention to beggars. By 1900th years their quantity reached such sizes that drew close attention to a situation

the provincial authorities which gave the order to enhance attention to this problem from the city police authorities. However, up to revolution of 1917, any of the events held by city police did not crown and could not be crowned with success. In our opinion, the reason for that is in the most primitive approach to this problem consisting in fight not with the reason, and with the investigation. For the 1910th years, for example, only catching of beggars and their expulsion out of the city by the group which is specially created for this purpose was carried out [12. L. 276; 13. L. 5].

Table 2.

The number of the passportless faces detained in Penza in 1914 [11; 49. NN. 1-302].

January and in March April May June July August September October November December

23 30 33 39 17 30 9 10 7 27 5 12

But similar measures, naturally, could not solve a problem, and here local authorities did not find time develop the effective program for fight against beggary, having dumped everything on police which were forced to enter obviously losing fight against the phenomenon continuing to take place regardless of efforts of her employees.

the Problem of the household alcoholism getting everything new supporters in Penza delivered to

police before need to exercise more and more strict control of observance of rules of legal sale of alcohol and also to strengthen work on identification of places of underground sale of alcohol-containing products. From the beginning of World War I, in connection with introduction of "Prohibition", demand for alcohol sharply grew. It is necessary to pay tribute to police - practically each holder illegal onsale came to light and exposed to a penalty. In 1914 67 people, in 1915 - 106, in 1916 - 101 were made for illegal trade in wines and denatured alcohol responsible [14. NN. 3-4, 10-11ob., 35-37, 68-69, 97-98;

15. Ll.1-2, 14-15, 48-49, 100-101]. It is visible that, despite the increasing distribution of illicit trafficking in alcohol, actions of city police differed in high efficiency.

Thus, it is possible to consider that only in the 1910th years the management of city police in general managed to adjust the organization of police service in the city answering to inquiries of time and allowing to prevent effectively illegal acts and also to fight with them.

II According to the law of July 6, 1908, since August as a part of city police the detective office which was carrying out search and inquiry was allocated on it is general to criminal cases. Ideally, the law had to allow to create group of the employees who were engaged in exclusively specified functions. In practice there was the following situation.

Undoubtedly, activity of staff of office deserves all praises that is confirmed by the following data (tab. 3).

table 3.

The number of the crimes committed in Penza in 1913-1916 with the indication of percent of solvability

[16. NN. 7-8, 11-13; 17. NN. 2-28, 29-64, 65-101].

Date It is made crimes From them disclosed solvability %

1913 721 447 62
1914 751 584 77.8
1915 947 742 78
1916 1143 767 67

The percent of solvability is high even to modern measures. At the same time it is necessary to consider that for daily search activity as a part of office there were no more than 6 people together with the chief, the others kept watch on the city, carried correspondence, trained guard dogs, etc. about that loading which dropped out on the staff of office, tells the number of cases,

the revealed each of them, for example, within a month (tab. 4).

At the same time the vast majority of the crimes was solved "without delay" (tab. 5). The responsible attitude of staff of detective office to official duties is obvious.

However the small number of the state often did not allow to carry out effectively search meropriya-

Table 4.

The number of the crimes solved by the staff of detective office in 1915 [18. NN. 43ob.-44.].

Surname of the employee May, 1915 September, 1915

It is made crimes From them opened Made crimes From them opened

Ksenofontov 8 12

Nenashevich 57 21 81 30

Sergiyevich 11 13

Table 5.

Time intervals of solvability of crimes in Penza in January - February, 1914 [19. NN. 2-5.].

Month 1-3 days 3-7 days 7-14 days 14-30 days More than 30 days

January 35 5 6 4 2

February 31 4 2 2 9

Tia. The chief of office in 1913 wrote, in particular, about need more than twice to expand staff. In the city, according to it, it was necessary to establish watch: in a pawnshop and in the tolkuchy market - for supervision of sale of stolen things; in National bank, Treasury and post offices - for prevention of often repeating pocket thefts and frauds of swindlers whose victims were villagers arriving behind receiving money; to the station - for observation and detention of the going on tour criminals and also for prevention of thefts from trains [20. NN. 108-110ob.]. The requirement remained unaddressed. There was a paradoxical situation, in general characteristic of the province of the considered period; when department, with obvious progress in work and existence of offers which success of realization would result in that state of affairs in which all mighty of this world was interested appeared on boondocks of financial estimates.

to

In this situation to police officers could be helped by use with search work of the special means which are available for that period. At the beginning of the 20th century at the municipal police department of Penza the anthropometrical station already worked [21. L.2.].

In 1911 were at the disposal of detective office: two couples of handcuffs, the camera and two sets for dactyloscopy [22. NN. 2-3.]. However that the Department of police in the circulars demanded to send detailed registration cards only to the most dangerous criminals, and criminals of "local value" were known in the face practically to each policeman, dactyloscopy and photography did not find wide circulation. Such situation was characteristic, apparently, and in general of Russia since, for example, in the first half of the year 1914 in the all-Russian search there were 978 people of whom 22 photographs and one card with fingerprints were the share [23. NN. 1-1010].

Bigger "popularity" noted use sluzhebno - investigation dogs. The relevant nursery was open at detective office in 1911, an initiator to what was not who other as

the governor A.P. Liliyenfeld-Toal who founded and headed the Penza office of the Russian society of promotion of application of dogs on police and guard service. In 1913 at the disposal of police there were already 3 sentry and 3 police dogs who are perfectly trained in the craft. Use of police dogs, especially in the absence of visible proofs on the crime scene, brought considerable benefit. however over time was the big expediency of their use in rural areas, is recognized as t.e where traffic not really intensively; and in 1915 the nursery moved in. Ancient settlement [24. NN. 39-117; 25. NN. 267-274; 26. NN. 1-27, 136, 163].

there was at the disposal of the municipal police department also phone, however, often used by employees for negotiating "in an inappropriate and incorrect form" what numerous remarks about it of the chief of police confirm [27. L. 355; 28. L. 138].

Thus, it is necessary to recognize that at the beginning of the 20th century the Penza police were fully equipped with the special means which are available for that period at the disposal of the Russian police

III Did not forget local authorities and about the organization of the classes with staff promoting increase in office qualification.

Among employees the "Penza police leaf" appearing once a week every Tuesday which contained texts of educational conversations with police ranks regularly extended; and also the "Bulletin of police" in an available form explaining the most difficult moments of the administrative and criminal legislation [29. NN. 28-31ob].

Annually a number of employees went to created in 1911. Educational team for training of horse and police policemen where improved skills of firing and developed physical training [30. NN. 2-3].

As the general conclusion it is possible to tell the following. deterioration in a criminal situation at the beginning of the 20th century put the Penza authorities before need, without serious financial injections, produ-

mother and to realize the system of the actions aimed at more effective fight against crime. In our opinion, in that field of activity which concerned actually city police it quite worked well. and it does not matter the police administration that his employees often had to fight against consequences of those social diseases by which emergence the Russian society is obliged to the Russian autocracy decaying in the eyes.

LIST OF REFERENCES

1. GAPO. F.103. Op. 1. 1124. NN. 80-87.
2. In the same place. 1182. NN. 67-71.
3. In the same place. 1285. NN. 95-102.
4. In the same place. T. 176. Op. 1. 56. NN. 82-83.
5. In the same place. 12. NN. 1-135.
6. In the same place. 56. NN. 82-83.
7. In the same place. 16. L. 220.
8. In the same place. 56. NN. 116-116ob.
9. In the same place. 16. L. 227ob.
10. 10. In the same place. 17. L. 31ob.
11. In the same place. 30. L. 260.
12. In the same place. 16. L. 276.
13. T. 103. Op. 2. 62. L. 5.
14. In the same place. 49. NN. 1-302
15. In the same place. 63. NN. 3-4, 10-11ob., 35-37, 68-69, 97-98.
16. In the same place. 73. Ll.1-2, 14-15, 48-49, 100-101.
17. In the same place. 41. NN. 7-8, 11-13.
18. In the same place. 49. NN. 2-28, 29-64, 65-101.
19. In the same place. 49. NN. 43ob.-44. Note: the police supervisor Ksenofontov at the same time was a trainer of office and search dogs of nursery at office.
20. In the same place. NN. 2-5.
21. In the same place. 17. NN. 108-110ob.
22. In the same place. T. 6. Op. 1. 7035. L.2.
23. In the same place. T. 176. Op. 1. 20. NN. 2-3.
24. 24. In the same place. 45. NN. 1-1010.
25. In the same place. T. 103. Op. 2. 1822. NN. 39-117;
26. In the same place. 1845. NN. 267-274.
27. In the same place. T. 176. Op. 1. 17. NN. 1-27, 136, 163.
28. In the same place. 16. L. 355.
29. In the same place. Of 40 L. 138.
30. In the same place. 17. NN. 28-31ob.

UDC 942.085

CONCEPT "BATTLE OF ENGLAND" And ITS STUDY OF the DOMESTIC HISTORIOGRAPHY

A.V. KOMPLEEV

Penza state pedagogical university of V.G. Belinsky department of modern and contemporary history

In article the process of study in domestic historical science of a problem of the concept "battle of England" is exposed to the analysis. On the basis of studying works of the Soviet and Russian historians touching on this issue, the author draws a conclusion that in a domestic historiography there were two approaches to interpretation of the concept "battle of England". Supporters of the first approach consider this term as military-political opposition of England and Germany during the period from June, 1940 to June, 1941. Supporters of the second approach narrow its value and equate the concept "battle of England" to the Anglo-German air operations of 1940-1941

A specific place in the general course of World War II is held by the period after military defeat and capitulation of France (on June 22, 1940) before attack of Germany on the Soviet Union (on June 22, 1941). At this stage of war by the only opponent of Hitler in Western Europe continuing to wage war England was. Having been left without serious allies on the continent, she appeared on the verge of defeat. The leadership of Nazi Germany aspired political and military means to bring England out of war prior to aggression against the USSR. the German armed forces planned and prepared landing operation to the British Isles (operation "Sea Lion"), carried out large-scale air approach against England. Nazi politicians put constant pressure upon the English leaders, taking the so-called "peace initiatives" meaning the actual capitulation for England.

This time became one of the most heartrending experiences for England in World War II. In an Anglo-American historiography this period is often called "fight for England" (Battle of Britain). The lane -

vy this expression was used by the prime minister of Great Britain U. Churchill. On June 18, 1940, acting in parliament, he said: "Fight which the general Veygan [commander-in-chief of armed forces of France] called the battle of France is finished. I believe that now the battle of England will begin... All rage and power of the enemy will fall upon us soon. Let's address therefore performance of the debt and we will keep so that if the British Empire and its British Commonwealth of Nations is fated to exist one thousand more years, people told: "It was their most nice hour"" [24, Page 322; 28, Page 113].

The concept "battle of England" became widespread also in domestic historical science. the interest of the Soviet and Russian historians in this period of war is explained first of all by the aspiration to fight back attempts of the English historiography to present a victory in "fight for England" as a decisive event of World War II. First of all the problem of a role and value of "fight for England" in the general course of war and also a question of influence of preparation of Germany for aggression against the USSR on refusal from came under the spotlight of domestic historians

David George David
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