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All-Russian academic and research conference "Chechens in Community of the People of Russia" (Grozny, December, 2008)

vserossiysky academic and research conference "Chechens in Community of the People of Russia" (Grozny, December, 2008)

The conference was devoted to the 420 anniversary of establishment of good neighbourhood between the Russian and Chechen people. As her organizers with assistance of the Government of the Chechen Republic the Academy of Sciences of ChR, Complex research institute RAS, the Chechen state university, the Chechen state teacher's college and the Grozny state oil institute acted.

Over 100 participants from 18 cities of the Russian Federation and Azerbaijan in any given form discussed at a forum issues of history difficult and in many respects contradictory development of the Russian-Caucasian and Russian-Chechen relations throughout the last five centuries.

At a plenary session the President of AN of ChR, the prof. Sh. A Ga-purov submitted the report "Early stages of the Russian-Chechen political relationship (HU1-HUP of centuries)", joint with the Chairman of the parliament of ChR, D. B. Abdurakhmanov. Authors noted that the tsarism during the specified period "did not set a task of gain or conquest of Chechnya: but strategic importance of Chechnya for further advance into the North Caucasus, on fight against Turkey and the Crimea by the Moscow government was realized already then".

Certainly, the Russian-Chechen agreements of HU1 of century on citizenship of mountaineers of Russia had in many respects formal character, but at all this they paved the way for future statement of Russia in the North Caucasus, were used in its fight against Iran and Turkey, gradually strengthened the Russian positions in the Caucasus, authors of the report emphasized in conclusion of the performance.

Also the report of the prof. M.H. Bagayev (Grozny) was devoted to sources of the Russian-Chechen good neighbourhood.

On the eve of and in the years of Russian-Ottoman war (1735-1739) the prof. D.S. Kidir-niyazov (Makhachkala) devoted to features of manifestation of the Caucasian policy of shah Iran, Russia and Turkey the performance.

Further work of a conference was continued on sections. On the first of them (head D.S. Kidirniyazov), the Caucasus studies problems, questions of a historiography and a source study and also the place and a role of the Caucasus in geopolitical plans of various powers in HU1-HH of centuries were considered

In the report "The Caucasian war of historiographies, or to a question of the main historiographic traditions of interpretation of the Caucasian war of H1H of century" R.R. Gashimov noted that the Caucasian war which ended in 1864 continues as war of historiographies and today. And it proceeds since that moment as three interested parties of the Caucasian war (participants and "the European community" gave three directions, three steady traditions of interpretation of this war in historical science. All of them continue to exist, compete and influence at each other throughout one and a half centuries.

The interesting analysis of various methodological approaches to studying the Caucasus was submitted by the director of Institute of humanitarian researches AN ChR, the prof. S.S. Magamadov and the prof. of SFU V.V. Chernous "the History of the Caucasus: search of an adequate paradigm of a research".

Features and prospects of historical and modern geopolitics of the Caucasus were covered in G.R. Azizova's performances (Derbent), H.D. Gasymov (Baku), I.G. Ibragimov (Makhachkala), I.I. Ibragimova (Izberbash), D.S. Kidirniyazova (Makhachkala), Sh. And Magaramova (Makhachkala).

On the second section "Russia and the people of the Caucasus: political, economic and cultural relationship in HUG-HGH of century"

(head M.H. Bagayev) difficult, diverse and long development of the checheno-Russian relationship was considered.

T.S. Magomadova (Grozny) in the report "Chechnya in policy of Russia in the North Caucasus in HU1-HUP of centuries" emphasized that process of folding of the Russian-Caucasian unity from the first steps was extremely difficult. There were supporters of Russia, but there was also a real opposition which was a serious obstacle in penetration of Russia to the Caucasus. But already with HU1 of century the union with Russia becomes, according to the speaker, the leading idea of the foreign policy concept of a part of the Caucasian political formations.

Political and economic and cultural religiously to interaction of the Caucasus and Russia the middle of HU1 - there began HUS of century very interesting report of J.I. Meskhidze (St. Petersburg) was devoted. Having regarded the Caucasus in the context of international policy of that period, the author then analyzed North Caucasian-Russian, Georgian-Russian and Azerbaijani-Russian diplomatic and political relationship. Much attention was paid to the cultural and religious sphere of the Russian-Caucasian interaction.

Speakers emphasized that owing to intensive Russian-Caucasian and Russian-Chechen communications processes of mutual enrichment in economic life, the family and household sphere, especially in the cultural and spiritual sphere (M.H. Bagayev, B.B.-A developed. Abdulvakhabova, Z.I. Khasbulatova, T.S. Magomadova, M.P. Akh-madova (Grozny), M.A. - A. Batchayeva (Karachayevsk)). Russia opened for itself and mastered the primitive and original culture of Chechens, got a new incentive to enrichment of the Russian culture, statement of current philosophical problems and ideological artly their decision, - speakers said.

The prof. Sh.B. Akhmadov (Grozny) directed the third section "People's Liberation Fight of the People of the Caucasus in HUSh-H1H of Centuries. In reports and speeches of the Grozny historians: Highway And Ga-purova, S.S. Magamadova, S.R. Tepsuyeva, B.B. Zakriyeva, And. - K.M. Iz-rayilova, etc., an assessment was given to various stages of policy of Russia in Chechnya and in the Caucasus in general, in HUS and H1H of centuries. Special attention was paid to the reasons and the nature of the Caucasian war.

Speaking about the movement of mountaineers under the leadership of the Sheikh Mansour, Sh.B. Akhmadov and L.S. Miserbiyeva (Grozny) emphasized that Mansour managed to connect national fight against religious. Behind its religious slogans anti-colonial appeals against the tsarist government were clearly visible. Discussion of this problem received an additional boost after M.M. Magomedhanov's report "An age of Russia (to studying national liberation fight of mountaineers of Dagestan and Chechnya in the second quarter of H1H of century). He noted that some modern researchers are inclined to characterize this fight as the religious movement. However even serious Russian researchers of H1H of century did not consider the "myuridizm" which is often understood as "religionism" as the prime cause of liberation movement of mountaineers.

In the started discussion the participants with alarm spoke about the continuing attempts of search of nonexistent historical roots of Wahhabism, identification of the tarikatsky doctrine H1H of century, the imam Shamil and his myurid with Wahhabism and Wahhabites. Here the ideas of M.M. Bliyev and his pupils who as M.M. Magomedhanov noted, characterize the Caucasian war in terms of "a nabegovy system" were subjected to sharp criticism again, declare it "so-called", accuse of it mountaineers, habitually call them "predators and thieves".

Work of the fourth section "The people of the Caucasus as a part of the Russian state (1860 - 1917). Caucasus and Russian obshchest-

a vennost" (the head Yu.U. Dadaev (Makhachkala), it was aimed at clarification of features of development mainly of the Russian-Caucasian cultural relations during the specified period. Analyzing these relations, V.Yu. Gadayev divided milestones of spiritual interaction of Russians and Chechens into 3 stages. The first (till 16th century) - time of the first acquaintance, initial incidental spiritual contacts. The second (HM-HMSh of centuries) - establishment of the various and constantly getting stronger Russian-Chechen spiritual bonds and the relations. The third stage (HMSh-HH of centuries) - further intensive, mutually useful spiritual communication, interference and rapprochement which carriers was wide people at large.

H.M. Akiyeva (Nazran), having opened an enormous role of Russia in formation of the creative intellectuals and the modern culture of Chechnya and Ingushetia, noted discrepancy of this process.

On section it was designated and highlighted that addressed in the Russian literature and art a subject of the mountaineer, his life and psychology and by means of the works which gave to the Russian society the chance to get a right idea of the patriarchal world of nationalities which the wave of the approaching bourgeois civilization did not concern yet Decembrists were the first. At the same time emergence of really great and sincere interest to mountain culture in wide circles of the Russian public is connected with works by A. Pushkin, M. Lermontova and after L. Tolstoy. In Z.A. Abdullaeva, Z's reports. H-and. Bersanova, (Grozny), Yu.U. Dadaev, G.A. Magomedov (Makhachkala) various parties of works of the Russian writers, artists, public figures anyway connected with the Caucasus revealed.

And mountaineers, in turn, considerably joined the great Russian, and then through her and the advanced European culture. One of important results of such beneficial influence of the Russian culture on spiritual life of Chechens were invaluable efforts of the advanced Russian intelligentsia in creation of the Chechen writing and formation of an education system. These efforts of the writer L. Tolstoy, scientists N. Yakovlev, K. Uslar, I. Bartalomey, educators Ya. Neverov and N. Voronov and others received lighting in reports of Yu.U. Dadaev, S.R. Tepsuyev, M.S. Tepsuyev, R.V. Gadayev (Grozny). Reports of R.A. Gubakhanova, A.G. Mansurov and A.Sh. Ibragimov (Makhachkala) were devoted to economic aspects of the Russian-Caucasian cooperation.

The prof. Movsur M. Ibragimov (Grozny) directed the fifth section "The People of the Caucasus in XX-XX1 of Centuries. The main discussion on section was developed around two problems. One is the Great Patriotic War and a role of the people of the Caucasus in a victory over fascism. And the second - development of education and the cultures of the people of the North Caucasus during the Soviet period of their history. In Movsur M. Ibragimov's report "The power and the people of the North Caucasus on the eve of and in days of the Great Patriotic War" on the basis of the analysis of national policy of Bolsheviks and its real results the conclusion was drawn that the Caucasian mountain subcivilization, even taking into account that already long time (about a century) developed as a part of uniform Russian (and later and Soviet) the states, and remained in many respects "transcendental object" with the mentality, patrimonial and religious traditions, developed under the specific laws of deep archetypes of ethnic consciousness. All this, according to the speaker, created objective prerequisites for emergence and activization of resistance to the totalitarian Stalin regime. Continuous kollektiviza-

the tion and political repressions of the 1930th led to formation enough the big social groups of local community dissatisfied with the political policy conducted by the authorities seeking for its adjustments.

As showed in the report "The mountain people of the Caucasus in political plans of Nazi Germany" E.M. Malyshev (Maykop) these measures did not bring to Wehrmacht of the expected result. In declassified documents of the English intelligence which dealt with this issue, it is noted that the Soviet people did not show nationalism, did not call into question a question of authority of the government on Moscow and were not of any value neither from political, nor from the religious point of view for the anti-Soviet purposes.

The contribution of the people of the North Caucasus to a general victory of the Soviet Union over fascism was opened in V.H. Magomayev, I.Z. Hatuyev and E.Sh. Hurtsayeva's reports (Grozny), V.A. Selyunin and N.V. Selyunina (Taganrog), etc.

Various problems of development of education and the culture of the North Caucasian people in the 20th century reflected Moussa M. Ibragimov, the specification. Elbuzdukayeva, A.R. Balayeva, A.H. Nuridova (Grozny), Of Kornilov (Elista), etc.

In focus of attention of the sixth section (head prof. Moussa M. Ibragimov) there were ethnopolitical processes in the North Caucasus and development of the republics of the North Caucasus in the system of the federal relations of the Russian Federation.

About a role of an ethnic factor in armed conflict in the Chechen Republic at the end of the 20th century A.A. Mankiyev said in the speech. According to him, "The conflict was caused by collision of economic and political interests of various groups of the federal Center and the Chechen Republic and inability of the power of that time to operate difficult political processes". This position was supported in the reports and performances of Moussa M. Ibragimov, D.H. Saydu-mova, M.A. Daduyev (Grozny) which were heard on section.

Interesting: to statement of a problem". Political processes in the Chechen Republic in the 1990th caused a mass outcome of inhabitants of the republic both to adjacent territorial subjects of the Russian Federation, and to the countries of the FSU and beyond. According to the speaker, more than 100 thousand Chechens live in the states of Europe, except for the CIS countries. Besides, process of an outcome of Chechens of the historical homeland continues.

A. Osmayev considers that the common opinion of the Russian media drawing an image of the Chechens living in Europe as bandits, criminals is not true.

M.M. Betilmirzayeva (Grozny) believes that peculiar features of self-identification of the Chechen can be defined, on the one hand, proceeding from historical development of the people in not favorable geopolitical conditions, and with another - leaning on religious exercises Chechen sufiyev and their followers. It is possible to refer the following to these lines: the nokhchalla as a phenomenon of national solvency, and the Muslim - "put bark" (Christian).

At a conference the developed resolution was adopted.

By the beginning of a conference the collection of materials in two volumes was published.

Highway And Gapurov, M.M. Ibragimov, S.S. Magamadov

Johansen Christian
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