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Category: History

Moldavian Russia

sergy Sulyak

Moldavian Russia

(to the 650 anniversary of formation of the Moldavian statehood)

Close interrelations between our history and history of the Russian people cause the imperative need of study that and another.

George Asaki (1788-1869).

The words of the famous classic of the Moldavian literature, the educator and the social and political figure Mr. Asaki from "the Naputny word to & #34; Stories Russian империи"" And. Kaydanova1 as well as possible characterize a role of the Russian population of the Karpato-Dnestrovsky region in formation of the Moldavian statehood, education Moldavian nationalities, language and culture.

Mentions antique authors about Slavs under the name of veneda near the Carpathians and in lower reaches of Dniester and Danube belong to the beginning of the 1st century of 2 V to the first half of the 6th century AD of the earth of Northwest Black Sea Coast up to Danube were occupied by east Slavs (Anta) 3. Anta, as V.V. Sedov, the group of Slavs settled to Entre Rios of Dniester and Dnieper among the iranoyazychny population which was then them assimilirovano4 noted. The word of Anta was borrowed by Greeks alan and means in translation into Russian "living on the outskirts", "boundary inhabitants", "Ukrainians" 5. Academician

A.A. Shakhmatov in 1916 concluded that "the territory of ant, therefore, area between the Prut and Dnieper" 6 was the ancestral home of the Russian people

In the VSh-X centuries, according to the chronicle, tribes lived in the Karpato-Dnestrovsky region catch, tiverets and Croats - ancestors of modern Russinians. The localization of resettlement of these tribes in Karpato-Dnestrovsky lands given in "The story of temporary years" does not raise doubts: "And to a zhivyakh v world to a glade, and derevlena, sever and radimich, both residents of Vyatka, and hrvata. Duleb to a zhivyakh across Bug where nowadays to the volynena, and seize, and tiverts a sedyakha across Dniester, a prisedyakh to Dunayevi; be a mnozhstvo ikh, to a sedyakh bo across Dniester of Olya to the sea, an essence a hail ikh and to this day and that sya to a zshchvakh ot grek Great Skuf" 7.

Catch a word (seize) reflects Turkic transfer Old Russian Uglich, seize, that is altered, received "at second hand",

from Pechenegs, the Old Russian breeding name. O.N. Trubachyov believed that the corner is the district of Northern Black Sea Coast where currents of three rivers meet at an angle to each other: Dnieper, Bug and Dnestra8.

The ethnonym tiverets comes from the ancient name of Dniester which during an antique era was called Tiras that in translation from Iranian means "fast" 9. Calling among participants of a campaign of the Kiev prince Oleg on Greeks in 907 g of tiverets, "to a yazha an essence of a tolkovina" 10, the chronicler pointed to their occupation - pastushestvo11.

Great Scythia corresponds to the concept "old, ancient Scythia", i.e. the territory which was earlier belonging skifam12.

The name next to tiverets and ulicha of the East Slavic tribe Croats - from drevneiransky "the shepherd, the guard of the cattle" 13. Modern Ukrainian Prikarpatye and also the Region of Peremyshlya (Poland) (i.e. the most part of the formed late Galitsky the principality - S.S.), according to A.V. Mayorov, made the territory of Great Croatia about which Konstantin Bagryanorodny in the 10th century 14 wrote

By 10th century of the earth of tiverets, catch and Croats were a part of the Old Russian state, and at the end of the 11th century were allocated to the certain principality Galits-koye.

At the beginning of the 13th century the Old Russian population living in Northwest Black Sea Coast the chronicler will call "galitsky vygontsa-m" 15, considering their "state" accessory and an occupation - pastushestvo16.

Thus, it is about the special economic and cultural type of the population created in the territory of Southwest Russia. The population of this region, along with agriculture, actively was engaged in cattle breeding that distinguished this region from other regions of Russia a little. Subsequently the community of economic way and also unity of belief - Orthodoxy led to establishment of peaceful contacts with volokha and joint "voloshsky colonization" (it is more correct - "voloshsko-Carpatho-Russian" - S.S.) slopes of Karpat17.

In the second half of the 13th century all northern coast of the Black Sea appeared under control of Mongols. However, only in the 70th of the 13th century of border of the Golden Horde reached Nizhny Novgorod Podunavya. In the 30th of the XIV Article v structure of the Golden Horde also the central forest-steppe part Pruto-Dnestrovsky mezhdurechya18 was included.

After the termination of a family of Daniil Galitsky in 1340. The Galitsko-Volynsky principality becomes the arena of fight between Poland, Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Russian and Hungary. During aggravation of Catholic aggression against Southwest Russia there is the Moldavian orthodox principality. It was created volo-

be rude also Russinians. The ethnic situation in East Prikarpatye is reflected in the Moldavian legend of foundation of the Moldavian principality in which it is told that shepherds from the Maramures (Maher-morosha) (the komitat (zhupa) in the northeast of the Hungarian kingdom. Today 3/5 Maramorosh is in the Transcarpathian region of Ukraine, 2/5 - in Romania-) during hunting it were S.S. near the present city of Suceava where found an apiary of the Russinian of Yatsko19.

Speaking about the legendary founder of Moldova, Ya. Golovatsky calls him "one of chiefs of maramoroshsky Romanians and Russians. voivode Bogdan Dragosh" 20. All voivodes of the initial stage of the Moldavian history - Drags (Dragosh), Bogdan I, Latsko and others - bore Slavic names. The Romanian historian of Nicolae Jörg considered that the premature death of Latsko prevented to base the Russian dynasty in Moldavii21.

In the 17th century the Moldavian scribe S. Daskal to the Moldavian chronicle by G. Ureke specified in "predosloviya" that the country from two languages is created, from Romanians (east romanets since Moldova can speak about the beginning of formation of the Romanian ethnos only after association in 1862 and Walachia to the uniform state - the Romanian principality - S.S.) and Russians mean, and till this day a half of the country consists of Russians and a half from rumyn22.

In the beginning Moldova was divided into the Lower Country (Tsara de Zhos, the South of the principality) and the Top Country (Tsara de Sus, the Carpatho-Russian North of the principality). In the 15th century, seigniorial positions of a great vornik (highest judge of the state) of the Lower earth and a great vornik of the Top earth are established.

The Russian cities of the end of XIV - the beginnings of the 15th century including located in the Karpato-Dunaysky lands which were by this time a part of the Moldavian principality are listed in the Novgorod and Voskresensky chronicles: "And se names all hail rusky, distant and near: To Danube: Vidychev a hail, about sedm walls stone; Mdin. And about an ona the country Dunaa: Sloes, that the svyataa lies Friday. And across Danube: Drestvin, Dichin, Kilia. And on lips of Dunaa: New village, Akolya-kra. At the sea: Korn, Kavarn. And on this party of Dunaa, on lips of Dniester over the sea: Belgorod, Chern, Yaskyi the bargaining on the Prut reets, Romanov the bargaining, Romanov the bargaining on Moldova, Nemech in mountains, Korochyunov a fireplace, So-chyava, Seret, Ban, Chechyun, Kolomyya, Town on Cheremoshe, on Dniester Hoten" 23.

That volokh under Bogdan or Dragosh's leadership "were on coast of the Prut found there still many Russians and lodged between them on the Moldava River", N.M. reported to Karamzin24.

Presence of the numerous Russian (Carpatho-Russian) population in the Moldavian principality is confirmed by results of the researches conducted in the second half of the 20th century. Being based on the data of a rural oykonimiya, established to L.L. Poleva that the share of representatives of East Slavic ethnic group (Russinians) in the middle of the 14th century reached 39.5% of the population of the principality, and East Romance - 48,7%25.

Despite large number of Russinians in the new state, the North and the northeast of the Moldavian principality remained the main areas of their resettlement and further: Bukovina, Pokutye, Hotin-sky, Soroksky, Orgeevsky and Yassky tsinut. In the 18th century the Moldavian scribe M. Kostin wrote that to "rutena" (Russians, Russinians) "the Chernivtsi and Hotinsky Counties and all region of Dniester, Soroksky and Orgeevsky Counties and across the Prut - a half of the Yassky County and a half of the Suceava County" 26 occupied.

A number of the areas inhabited by Russinians long time had autonomy. Speaking about the Russian Dolgopolye ("the rutensky province Kympu-lung" in the Suceava County), D. Kantemir mentions that residents of fifteen villages used the laws and vessels. "Sometimes they accept two vornik (representatives of district administration

>- Page of S.), put gospodary. But quite often banish them if those excite discontent of inhabitants...". "They pay an annual tax, but not such what will wish gospodar, and such what they paid former gospodaryam, - D. Kantemir continues. - If gospodar wants to treat them more strictly and will wish to impose new taxes, then they without long disputes refuse to pay taxes at all and go to remote mountains". Sometimes "inhabitants of mountains were deposited from the power gospodarya and accepted protection of Poles" 27.

The Moldavian statehood was created on a sample of Old Russian. Large landowners were called boyars, the monetary system in the principality was created on a sample galitskoy28. Governors Moldavian principalities were called gospodaryam, voivodes. The governor of the district pyrkalab in some boundary districts in the 15th century was called a posadnik on the Russian harmony. Districts were called as powers (from a word to hold), in the Moldavian documents - tsinutam (the word was formed from Moldavian and Qin - derzhat29). In the 14-15th centuries of association of rural communities, voyevodata were called. Heads of country communities were called knez, a zhuda or vataman. In the 15th century the administrative unit operated by the village constable or a vornik was called okol. Vornik (from a word the janitor) - a seigniorial title or the representative of district administration in a mudflow. Words kutnut, voivodes, zhupan, also belonging to social life of volokh, too East Slavic origin, as well as the state positions

boyars: the post-fir grove cared for the sovereign's rooms, the steward knew kitchen and a table, the klucher operated gospodarsky cellars and storerooms, the chashnik poured on receptions gospodaryu the first glass of wine, the district police officer - the manager of the tsinut (county), great hatman (hetman)

>- the commander voyskami30.

Influence of the Russian culture is traced in many spheres of life of the Moldavian principality. "Our language, - N.M. Karamzin wrote, - till the most 17th century was not only church, but also judicial as that original diplomas Moldavian gospodary" 31 testify. Business documentation and the state acts were written in Old Russian language, as well as in Ancient Russia. As the Slavist noted, professor of the Novorossiysk university bessarabets A.A. Kochubinsky, official language of the Moldavian principality of the XIV-XVII article is through penetrated by low-Russians (sometimes obviously vostochnogalitsky, Huzul) elementami32. In fixed assets of modern Moldavian language there are about 2 thousand East Slavic loans. It the concepts designating agricultural tools, household items, house utensils, clothes, food musical instrumenty33.

The Moldavian researchers emphasize strong influence of the indigenous Russian people (Russinians) on the Moldavian musical culture. Names of works of the Moldavian musical folklore demonstrate to it: rusyaske, hutsulke, polyandra, loan of the whole melodies and separate elements musical rechi34. One of the most known Moldavian national dances - a moldovenyask (Moldavian) - was strongly influenced dances rusinov35. Also common features Carpatho-Russian and Moldavian poetic tekstov36 are noted.

The festive and ceremonial culture of Moldavians, in Ya.P. Mi-ronenko opinion, should be considered heritage of Old Russian culture which carriers in this region were tribes of Croats, of tiverets and catch. The researcher considers the center of formation of New Year's songs Bukovina and the North of Moldova, i.e. regions of compact accommodation rusinov37.

The Carpatho-Russian-Moldavian ethnocultural synthesis was accelerated by the integrating role of orthodox church where the church service was conducted in Church Slavonic language. With mediation of orthodox church, the Romanian researcher Margareta Stefenesku "Russian-rutenskiye considered elements consolidations gosudar-promoted

stvo" 38.

M. Shtefenesku provides data on toponymics of Moldova: east Slavs left in the territory of old Moldova in total 548 names with purely Slavic roots and 321 nazva-

ny with a Slavic suffix - sheep who had especially wide circulation in Bukovina (174 names), in Northern Moldova and Northern Bessarabia (Hotinsky, Soroksky, Orgeevsky Counties). And yes geographical objects - mountains, the rivers, valleys, hills in these parts often carry East Slavic names. In other parts of "the dako-Romance territory" the East Slavic names meet in isolated cases. Slavic names occur in documents from 15th century, i.e. from the moment of foundation of the Moldavian principality. On the basis of these facts the Romanian researcher found it possible to speak about presence of east Slavs in these parts from 4th century, i.e. long before arrival volokhov39.

The most part of Russinians was a part of the formed Moldavian nationality over time. That volokh began to gain the Moldavian lines from 13th century thanks to mixture and accommodation with a Carpatho-Russian element, the Romanian researcher I wrote in 1929. Berbulesku40.

Carpatho-Russian component led to emergence in Moldavians of ethnocultural and anthropological differences from other groups of east romanets, including and valakh. So, the anthropological shape of Moldavians (residents of the Republic of Moldova and the Romanian Moldova) has obviously expressed East Slavic focus. The Romanian researcher S. Pushkariu specified at the beginning of the 20th century that Romanians of the Southern Walachia differ from Moldavians more, than from bolgar41. About the ethnocultural voloshsko-Carpatho-Russian symbiosis which led to emergence of new ethnic community - Moldavians and to formation of a peculiar Moldavian material and spiritual culture, mention also modern Moldavian issledovateli42.

Considering the mixed structure of the population and an ethnocultural situation in medieval Moldova, it is quite possible to call the Moldavian principality voloshsko-Russian (Carpatho-Russian). Model year. Vernadsky reasonably called medieval Moldova "the Moldavian Russia" 43. The Russian population (Russinians (rusnak)) compactly occupied the Northern and northeast lands of the principality. A long time it kept the Russian ethnocultural identity. Its considerable part was not assimilated. From the moment of emergence before

XVIII century Moldova remained the bilingual state.

In Bessarabia at the beginning of the 20th century there were not less than 250 thousand Russinians (more than 1/8 population of the province). Today in the Republic of Moldova. despite losses owing to emigration and assimilatory processes, not less than 500 thousand Russinians and their descendants, the majority of whom remembers the origin live and keeps the customs.

1. Asaki George. The Naputny word to "The history of the Russian Empire" / George Asaki. Historical short stories. Diary of the Moldavian traveler. Chosen articles. Chisinau, 1988. Page 150
2. See: V.V. Latyshev. News of ancient writers of Scythia and Caucasus//Messenger of ancient history. Application. 1949. No. 2 (28). Page 278-279, 285; V.V. Latyshev. News of ancient writers of Scythia and Caucasus//Messenger of ancient history. Application. 1948. No. 2 (24). Page 232-235; F.P. Filin. Formation of language of east Slavs. M.; L., 1962. Page 51; E.A. Rickman. Ethnic history of the population Podnestrovya and adjoining Podunavya in the first centuries AD. M, 1975. Page 327; A.V. Mishulin. Ancient Slavs and fate of the East Roman Empire//Messenger of ancient history. 1939. No. 1 (6).
3. N.S. Derzhavin. About ethnogenesis of the most ancient people of the Dnieper and Danube basin (to statement of question)//the Messenger of ancient history. 1939. No. 1 (6). Page 282.
4. V.V. Sedov. Origin and early history of Slavs. M, 1979. Page 125.
5. F.P. Filin. Formation of language of east Slavs. M.; L., 1962. Page 60.
6. A.A. Shakhmatov. Introduction to Russian history course. Part 1. Historical process of formation of the Russian tribes and adverbs. Pg., 1916. Page 46. "Edge which nowadays is called New to Rossiyey, - wrote in the middle

XIX century N.I. Nadezhdin, - really is old and even the oldest Russia

>- a cradle of an eagle who dawns the mighty wings on the seventh part of all globe now (N. Nadezhdin. About location of the ancient city It is crossed, belonging to the people to ulicha//Notes of the Odessa society of history and antiquities. T. I. Odessa, 1844. Page 256).

7. PSRL. T. 1. Lavrentiyevsky and Troitsk chronicles. I. Lavrentiyevsky chronicle. I. Ancient text of the chronicle of Nestor. SPb., 1846. Page 5.
8. O.N. Trubachyov. About the breeding name catch//Questions of Slavic linguistics. Issue 5. M, 1961. Page 187-188.
9. Mikhaylina L. Slov'yani article m_zh Dn_prom і Carpathians. Ki§v, 2007.

Page 178.

10. PSRL. T. 1. Page 12.
11. In Carpatho-Russian language the Old Russian word of a tolok which designates a pasture still remained. In this value the word of a tolok is still used in a number of regions of Russia and Ukraine.

V.I. Dahl (1801-1872) "The explanatory dictionary of living great Russian language" specified in the: a toloka (Simbirsk, Penza provinces), pounded (Kursk) - steam on which the cattle is grazed pasture, a poskotin. Toloka (southwest) - bestial pasture, a city, rural general pasture, steam, a bet - on, the steam field to which let the cattle at trekhpolny economy. (See: Distance of Century. Explanatory dictionary of living great Russian language. T. The IV M., 1991. Page 413). Brockhaus and Efron's encyclopedic dictionary so transfers one of

word meanings of a tolok: "In our black earth belt and, in particular, in the Novorossiysk region the earth, next to the settlement, which is under pasture is called toloky in general". (F.A. Brockhaus, I.A. Efron. Encyclopedic dictionary. T. XXXIII. SPb., 1901. Page 438). In Ukrainian one of word meanings of a tolok - the field left under steam which serves as a pasture for the cattle. (Slovnik ukra§nsko ї to mova. T. 10. Ki§v, 1979. Page 180).

12. A.V. Mayorov. Great Croatia: ethnogenesis and early history of Slavs of the Carpathian region. SPb., 2006. Page 40.
13. S.G. Sulyak. Russinians: history stages.//International historical magazine "Rusin". [Chisinau]. 2005. No. 1. Page 50.
14. A.V. Mayorov. Great Croatia. Page 79.
15. "Vygonts of Galichkyya" came to the rescue in 1223 of the Russian princes who were going to oppose Mongol Tatars. And, according to the chronicler, emergence "nevidannoya hosts" was a bolt from the blue not only for all Russian princes, but also for Daniil Romanovich (see: PSRL. T. II. Ipatiyevsky chronicle. SPb., 1843. Page 164).
16. The same V.I. Dahl writes that pasture - a pasture, release, a toloka, the place of flock of the cattle; the combined place for the cattle from where it is driven on a distant pasture, on a run (See: Distance of Century. Explanatory dictionary... T. I. M, 1989. Page 285). That is in this word meaning of a tolok and pasture in Russian - synonyms, respectively are synonyms derivative of them a tolkovina and you are messengers.
17. The Russinian - the self-name of the population of Ancient Russia. An ethnonym "Russinian"

>- derivative of a word Russia. It is mentioned in literary monuments from 10th century. For example, in texts of contracts with Greeks of the prince Oleg (912 g) seven times, the prince Igor (945 g) - six, in "The Russian truth" (see: Lavrentyevsky chronicle. Issue 1. Story of temporary years. PSRL. T. 1. L., 1926. Stb. 34-35, 50-52; Ipatyevsky chronicle. PSRL. T. 2. SPb., 1908. Stb. 25-26, 38, 40; Novgorod first chronicle of the senior and younger izvod. M.-L., 1950. Page 176), etc. Long time this ethnonym remained throughout the territory, being a part of the Old Russian state: Little Russia, Belarus, Velikorossiya, Carpathian Russia. The Tver merchant Afanasy Nikitin wrote in "Circulation for three seas" (15th century): "And in that in Chyuner the khan took a stallion from me, and withered that yaz not besermenyanin - the Russinian" (Afanasy Nikitin. Circulation for three seas//the History of the fatherland in novels, stories, documents. Age of XV-XVI. M, 1987. Page 451).

To the middle of the 19th century an ethnonym the Russinian remained widespread as the self-name of the population of the Carpathian Russia (Galichina, Bukovina, Ugrian Russia) whose lands were under possession of Austria-Hungary and also the population of the North of Bessarabia and Holmshchina.

The Austro-Hungarian authorities Russinians, routines (German of Russinen, Rutnenen), unlike Russians (Russian citizens) called the Russian citizens. And the name of a routine - the medieval Latin name of Russians, and Russinians - the wrong formation of plural from singular the Russinian. Russinians called themselves in singular the Russinian, and in plural - Russians, the belief - Russian, the people and


Russia I * 2010, No. 2 (20)

language - Russians. In turn Russinians were subdivided into a number of ethnocultural groups: briskly, lemk, the podolena, Huzuls, the pokutena, verkhovinets, to-linyane and others (F.A. Brockhaus, I.A. Efron. Encyclopedic dictionary. T. XXVII. SPb., 1899. Page 296-297; S.G. Sulyak. Splinters of Sacred Russia. Essays of ethnic history of rusnak of Moldova. Chisinau, 2004. Page 9-10).

The second ethnonym of the population of the Carpathian Russia - Rusnak. The population of the Carpathian Russia long since lived in the neighbourhood with Polish Catholics. The word Rusnak arose as opposition to an ethnonym the Pole. Rusnakami (rusnyakam) their neighbors Poles, Slovaks, Czechs named Russinians. This external ethnonym given by the next people was known, at least, since the beginning of the 15th century. In the Czech Republic and Slovakia the rusnyakam called the Russinians who were at war during Hussite wars in groups of taborit (Z. Needla. Hussites and Russians. Historical magazine. Prince 10-11. M, 1941. Page 126, 128).

In modern Bulgarian of a word the Russinian, Rusnak mean Russian (The Bulgarian-Russian dictionary. S.B. Bernstein made. M, 1953. Page 689).

18. E.N. Abyzova, P.P. Byrnya, A.A. Nudelman. Old Orkhey's antiquities. Zolotoordynsky period. Chisinau, 1981. Page 89.
19. Field L.L. Essays of historical geography of Moldova of the 13-15th centuries Chisinau, 1979. Page 33.
20. Ya.F. Golovatsky. Carpathian Russia (historical and ethnographic essay)//Magazine of the Ministry of national education. Part CLXXIX. 1875. June.

S. 380.

21. Iorga Nicolae. Histoires des relations russo-roumaines//Histoires des relationes roumaines. Anthologie et edition augmentee par Florin Rotaru. Bucarest, 1995. P. 358.
22. Letopisetul Tarii Moldovei. Chisinau: Hyperion, 1990. Page 28.
23. PSRL. T. VII. The chronicle according to the Voskresensky list. SPb., 1856. Page 240; Novgorod first chronicle of the senior and younger izvod. M.; L.: Publishing house of Academy of Sciences of the USSR, 1950. Page 475.
24. N.M. Karamzin. History of the state Russian. T. IV. M.: Science,
1992. Page 174.
25. Field L.L. Essays of historical geography of Moldova of the 13-15th centuries Chisinau, 1979. Page 33.
26. CostinM. Opere. Bucure§ti, 1958. P. 233.
27. Dmitry Kantemir. Description of Moldova. Chisinau: Kartya to Moldova-nyaske, 1973. Page 151-152.
28. I.P. Rusanova, Tymoschuk of B.A. Drevnerusskoye Podnestrovye. Uzhhorod: Karpati, 1981. Page 126.
29. N.A. Mokhov. Formation of the Moldavian feudal state//Moldavians. Essays of history, ethnography, art criticism. Chisinau: Shtiin-tsa, 1977. Page 27.
30. S.G. Sulyak. Autocrat's son vseya Russia//International historical magazine "Rusin" [Chisinau]. 2005. No. 2 (2).
31. N.M. Karamzin. History of the state Russian. T. IV. Page 174.
32. A.A. Kochubinsky. Tura (Tiras) - Belgorod - Akkerman and his new lapidary inscription of 1454. Odessa, 1901. Page 396.
33. V.S. Zelenchuk. The population of Bessarabia and Podnestrovya in the 19th century Chisinau: Shtiintsa, 1979. Page 236.
34. P.F. Stoyanov. Musical rhythm as source of studying ethnic aspects of the Moldavian national culture//Slavyano-moldavsky communications and early stages of ethnic history of Moldavians. Chisinau, 1983. Page 149.
35. Moldavians. Essays of history, ethnography, art criticism. Chisinau, 1977. Page 364.
36. Ya.P. Mironenko. The Moldavian-Ukrainian communications in musical folklore. Chisinau: Shtiintsa, 1988. Page 77.
37. In the same place. Page 124.
38. P.M. Shornikov. Moldavian originality. Tiraspol: Publishing house of the Dnestr university, 2007. Page 67.
39. M.V. Sergiyevsky. Toponymy of Bessarabia and its certificate on process of settling of the territory//News of Academy of Sciences of the USSR. Office of literature and language. T. The V Release 4. M, 1946. Page 335-336.
40. Barbulescu I. Individualitatea limbii romine §i elementele slave. Bucure§ti,
1929. Page 81.
41. N.A. Mokhov. Essays of history of formation of the Moldavian people. Chisinau: Kartya Moldovenyaske, 1978. Page 91.
42. P.M. Shornikov. Moldavian originality. Page 31-37; V.N. Stati. Moldavians: historical and ethnopolitical research. Chisinau, 2009. Page 75, 80, 131.
43. VernadskiyG.B. Tracing of the Russian history. SPb.: Fallow deer, 2000. Page 146.

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