The Science Work
Site is for sale:
Category: History

Value of congresses of the Ingush people in formation and development of the legitimate government in the republic




Throughout late Soviet and early Post-Soviet the periods power institutions in the North Caucasus underwent a number of transformations, as well as all Soviet, and then and Russian society. At the same time it is very frequent, especially at the first stage of political and social transformations in our country, development of a system of regional power institutions carried on itself an accurate print of "revolutionism".

Formation of regional power institutions in the North Caucasus at the beginning of the 90th, in new historical conditions, can be tracked most visually on the example of the Republic of Ingushetia. Taking into account that in the Ingush regions of the former ChIASSR which became a basis of folding of the new republic there were no other authorities and self-government, except regional councils national deputatov1, the new republican authorities had to start literally with a clean slate. Adjustment of normal social and political life, modern structure of the power and management was interfered also by lack of traditions of parliamentarism, modern legal culture, etc. However, these shortcomings were typical for all Post-Soviet Russia. However in the Ingush conditions business was complicated by such circumstances as absence even of such decorative national substitutes of parliament which in the Soviet conditions were the Supreme Councils of the republics and autonomous regions. If in other regions the task facing the authorities of a new appeal was democratization and modernization of already existing structures, then in Ingushetia this task was combined with a problem of creation of the "democratized" structures. In these conditions for a transition period the appeal to certain improvisational forms of national representation for creation of the most legitimate legal and political framework for further functioning of the republic was required willy-nilly.

As a graphic evidence of use by the power of potential of traditions of national democracy and in general sympathies of wide layers for the idea of the reviving statehood and that who headed this process serve numerous congresses of the Ingush people which took place especially intensively in the first half of the 90th i.e. when construction of the building of young Ingush statehood faced especially large amount of various difficulties. The maximum consolidation of society and mobilization of potential of all its components for the general work on creation of this building represented undoubted and general importance.

The importance of such assistance and the organization of its public expression was especially significant for several reasons.

First, it is already mentioned need to cool passions after the tragedy of 1992 when a situation at any time


Magomed-Gireevna is the assistant to department of general history of the Ingush state university

1 I.A. Dementieva. War and peace of the Suburb. M, 1994, p. 7
94 _______________________ POWER ___________________ 09’2008

could get out of hand again and lead to new explosion. In these conditions stabilizing and literally the peacekeeping position of elders, religious leaders, other traditional authorities represented the state importance, and not only for the becoming independent republic, but also for all region and the whole country which had not the best and stable times and which any strong socio-political the shock could bring out of a condition of shaky balance and cast into a whirlpool of civil opposition. Thus, interested in use of capacity of the power and influence which traditional authorities (elders, heads of childbirth, etc.) in Ingushetia suddenly, consciously still had or unconsciously, became practically all influential forces, both in the republic, and in the region, and in the most federal center.

Secondly, the authorities of the republic needed internal consensus on the widest social basis. No other force could provide such width of this social base in the Ingush conditions of that time as people congresses. Having faced, in particular, such sharpest and demanding the fastest permission question as adoption of the constitution of the republic in the conditions of absence of the elected national parliament, the republican power (and as she was quite loyal to the federal authority — that and the last), was extremely interested in development and public approval at least of the fundamental principles of future Basic law of the republic which actually and took place in May, 1993 1 Thus, the authorities were doomed to the appeal to the help of the people for the maximum consolidation of society. Congresses of the Ingush people became concrete manifestation of this trend. These actions became a form of national will on the most vital issues of public life of Ingushetia. In the conditions of spontaneous democracy which characterized an era of formation of the Russian statehood and furthermore in it

1 Serdalo. 11.05.1993

its most difficult region in the obshchestvennopolitichesky relation as the North Caucasus, this form of direct national representation was recognized as both the population, and the power of the most adequate to the developed time realities. Not casually and actually organized process of fight for recovery of national statehood was started at the II congress of the Ingush people on September 9 — 10, 1989 in Grozny on which the Organizing committee on restoration Ingush avtonomii2 was created.

Of course, it is difficult to consider congresses of the Ingush people in the 90th as a peculiar modern Caucasian form of the Novgorod vech. You should not exaggerate elements of spontaneity and self-organization in these actions which were regularly held to RI in the 90th. Cases in point, as well as the main desirable vector of their consideration and adoption of the final decision, certainly, were studied routinely by their organizers whom both public organizations, and state authorities and managements of the republic were among. However at the same time it does not allow to speak, from our point of view, about full controllability and a possibility of manipulation with the authorities with the course of work and decision-making at these congresses. First, at that level external and intrinsic, at the level of psychology, the consolidation (whether forced whether voluntary, but indisputable in the face of a national trouble and the general for all difficulties and problems) society with the authorities in the first years of existence of RI was not represented sharply necessary holding a purposeful campaign for the special organization of such "conducting". Decisions necessary to the authorities could be made (and, as a rule, were accepted) without special for the first difficulties and without attraction of additional levers of pressure upon delegates of congresses — and not only from among elders traditionally loyal to the power. Was to announce more or less distinctly the point of view of authorities in power on any given problem considered by a congress and the final decision of a forum, as a rule, enough

2 V. Shnirelman to Be alanam. Intellectuals and policy in the North Caucasus in the 20th century. M, 2007, p. 306
09’2008 __________________ POWER _________________________ 95

did not disperse from the main content of such installation what required neither the special pressure, nor threats, nor bribery.

Secondly, consent in general with "the general line" of the power was not a guarantee from different statement of the points of view, and even from discussions at congresses. And though other point of view different from a look of the power was stated, as a rule, by absolute minority of delegates, and carried these statements character, not basic and, usually, not sharp in a form, nevertheless it is impossible to consider congresses of the Ingush people as the cloned option of congresses of the CPSU of Brezhnev's time with "unanimous and full support of a course of party and government".

It is characteristic that experience of convocation of congresses of the Ingush people was not an innovation of the Ingush authorities of sample 1992 — 1993. During the period after the revolution of 1917 and throughout all civil war this practice was tested and was widely applied in the Ingush political reality. At congresses of the Ingush people which, as a rule, were going to Bazorkino — at that time the largest ambassador of Vladikavkaz the settlement of Ingushetia (though congresses were held at different times and in Nazran, and even in the mountain settlement of a hamkha in 1919) 1 such fatal decisions as participation of the Ingush groups in suppression of an anti-Soviet bicherakhovsky mutiny in the Tersky republic in the summer of 1918 which led to liberation of Vladikavkaz and the actual reconstruction almost failed were made was the Soviet power on Terek; about rendering the armed repulse of army of Denikin in the winter of 1919; about a rejection of the ultimatum of denikinets about exposure of volunteers in white army in the summer of the same year, etc. 2 Thus, actions of the Ingush authorities both at the beginning, and at the end of the 20th century on consolidation of society and

1 Dispersal And. Fight of guerrillas against White Guards in the North Caucasus in 1919 — 1920 M., 1942, p. 22
2 M. Abazatov. From the history of civil war in Chechen-Ingushetia. Grozny, 1962, building 34

to the state construction had surprisingly something in common not only in the principles, but also in details.

Congresses of the Ingush people carried out also one more important role — they were a peculiar channel of "steam-out" for representatives of the most various population groups among which quite could be and dissatisfied or, in any case, not quite happy with the state of affairs in the republic, but incapable still or, more often, not persons interested to position themselves as opposition to the existing mode — both local, and federal with which, despite all disagreements existing between the republican and Moscow authorities at that time the republican administration with firmness was associated. Therefore, such form of public consolidation turned out very effective and in the conditions of the increased stability though it arose in transitional conditions when there was no parliament, the constitution, the system of authorities in general. Moreover, experience of development of the Ingush statehood in the beginning and the end of the last century demonstrates that in the conditions of a transition period in Ingushetia such form of national representation was quite effective.

Congresses of the Ingush people in the 90th became, undoubtedly, the positive phenomenon in the public life of people. They promoted consolidation of society, development of the uniform national line concerning the most sensitive issues facing the young republic, at last, became a starting point of process of revival of national statehood. Today came it is time to work at modern, professional level as that to the constitutional power structures which arose during the state construction in which congresses played so important role. The efficiency of such work will become the best prerequisite for elimination of those conditions under which there is relevant an idea of resumption of these, in effect, extraordinary national forums.

Kristian Gabriel
Other scientific works: