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Category: History


aleksandr BULGAKOV


The Moldavian principality initially was polietnichny. Descendants of seven-town volokh, descendants of seven-town and local Russinians and also groups of Hungarians, Bulgarians, Tatars, Roma, Poles, Greeks, Armenians, Jews, saxophones (Transylvanian Germans) lived in it. According to data of an oykonimika, from the middle of the 14th century the absolute number of east Slavs in Moldova, perhaps, was not reduced to the first third of the 15th century, but their share among the population of the principality decreased from 39.5 to 26.5%1. This period generally coincides with the period of government of Stefan the Great (1457-1504). A subject of our message - representation of the East Slavic population of the principality in the government of Moldova of those times - Seigniorial Council.

As the way of determination of ethnic origin according to onomastics is disputable in this case, it is possible to assume that Mikhaylo's boyars mentioned in gospodarsky diplomas between 1457 and 1482 were east Slavs, that is Russinians, Russians lyudmi2, logoft; Pyotr, pyrkalab; Hodko Kretsevich; Stetsko Dalen-kushevich; Ioann, komis; Olovyanik; Hodko Shibor, Ioann Groma, Pyotr Yakimovich, Ivashko, Ivashko from Serets, Ioann; Novel; Kostya Damo-vich; Andreyko, Pisar; Ivan, visternik; Yury; Stetsko, clerk, Pasch-co, post-fir grove, Luka, Ignat, priest Fedor, Yatsko, zhupan Ioann; Yatsko Domakush; Maxim Hudich; Ivanko Vladych; Ivashka Hrinkovich; Pasch-co Kiliysky; Dazhbog, chashnik; Pyotr, steward; Eremey, post-fir grove; Ioann (Luka's brother); sir of Andreyka3.

Names of some boyars are mentioned in diplomas within one or two years, for example, a name of Olovyanik. But the majority mentioned there were postoyannymiya members of Seigniorial Council. So, long time among the closest people of Stefan the Great is mentioned the boyar by the name of Yatsko from what it is possible to draw a conclusion that he was one of the closest and entrusted Stephen III's associates. One of the first diplomas of Stefan the Great was certified by Russinians: pyrkalab Pyotr, Hodko Kretsevich, Stetsko Dalenkushevich and komis Ioann.

Above-mentioned boyars were not only members of council, but also held positions in government. Pyotr was a deputy gospodarya in one of principality tsinut, the boyar Ioann was Stefan the Great's equerry, therefore, partially was responsible for fighting capacity of his guard as its basis was formed by a cavalry. Further Russinians are mentioned in diplomas as various officials. So, the boyar Ivashko is mentioned as pyrkalab Siret (12. VI. 1459) and Kiliya (5. VI. 1468) 4, important fortress on Danube. Also the mention of a logofeta Mikhail occurs in gospodarsky diplomas (13. II. 1458) 5. He fulfilled duties of one of two assistants to the great logofet of Tudor. One more Russinian by the name of Ivan is mentioned on December 5, 1460 as a visternik, the keeper of gospodarsky treasury. Among great dignitaries were also Pashko's post-fir grove (15. V. 1462) and steward Luka (28. IV. 1468). Both were the persons which are brought closer to Stephen III: one of them was responsible for personal rooms gospodarya, and another knew supply with products of a gospodarsky table. Further are mentioned as post-fir groves Eremey (15. X. 1481) and Pyotr who in 1480 became the steward. The boyar Dazhbog since 1471 was appointed a chashnik. Supply of a gospodarsky table vinom6 belonged to its duties.

However Stephen III did not leave long boyars in one position and often changed the place of their service. So, the Gentleman of the Bedchamber Pashko since 1469 is mentioned as pyrkalab Kiliya, the steward Luka became further the member of Seigniorial Council, the boyar Ioann who was komisy from 70th also the member rady7. It is possible to carry such boyars as Pyotr Ekimovich (1458-1470) to Rada Stephen III's "long-livers", Yatsko Hudich (from 1467 to 1492, with small breaks in 1477 and 1485), pyrkalab Ivashka (with 1470 and till 1499 with breaks in 1477 and 1485), Luka (from 1464 to 1476), Dazhbog (from 1470 to 1484 with breaks in 1477 and 1485), Ivashko Hrinkovich (from 1466 to 1478, with a break in 1477), Eremey (from 1480 to 1503 with a break in 1485). From 96 boyars serving more than two years in Seigniorial Council of Stefan the Great, 14, i.e. every sixth were rusinami8.

Language of office-work of gospodarsky office, Slavic, was close to a spoken language rusinov9 therefore it is possible to assume that the share of Russinians among clerks and clerks of gospodarsky office was even higher. Roman, Stetsko, Andreyka, Ioann, Luka's brother are mentioned in diplomas. From this it is possible to draw a conclusion that in office many Slavs since the aforesaid names as names of the persons writing gramoty10 are most often mentioned were gospodary. Subsequently some of them were Rada Boyarskaya's part, for example: Stetsko Demetush and Andreyka Chortoroysky, apparently, Polish origin.

So far we cannot define in what degree the ethnic consciousness corresponded to a Carpatho-Russian name of its carrier. But names of Russinians were often written with a middle name, for example: Hodko Kretsevich, Pyotr Eki-movich, etc. All middle names are written with a characteristic old Slavic and modern Russian suffix - HIV. Sometimes names of boyars were written in an official form for example: "Ioann Mikhail's son ounuk Vasile" In it can track a part of a family tree of boyars. Also it is possible to determine by names of boyars which of them was the representative of the aristocracy and who was not notable origin. For example, the name of Dazhbog was widespread among notable Slavs (Russinians) in Rechi Pospo-litoy. People of simple origin, as well as in Russia, wrote the names in diminutive forme11.

The name Ioann was one of the most widespread. We cannot claim that we all or at least the majority mentioned in diplomas Ioannov were Russinians. But - the first quarter of the 16th century it is mentioned in the set of documents XIV considered by us 88 times. The name Ivan is mentioned 22 times, Georgy - 2, Yury - 14. By our calculations, Russinians were 25% of members of Boyarsky of Soveta12. At the same time it is possible to note regularity: at the beginning of Stefan the Great's government the share of Russinians in Rada was small, however from the second half of his board it increases. So, in the last decades Stefan the Great's governments boyars-Russinians made about a third of members of Seigniorial Council.

To that, historians believe, there are two main reasons. The first is a stabilization of structure of management personnel as Stefan the Great removed the political opponents from Rada and brought closer only the most faithful from among small boyars among whom there were many Russinians. And the second is a transition of many shlyakhtichey-Russinians to service to Stefan the Great during his campaigns to Galitsky Russia and especially after accession to the Moldavian principality of the territory Pokutya. As note sources, Russinians actively participated in campaigns Moldavian gospodarya and went to borders of Moldova, escaping from prosecutions of the Polish magnates and a shlyakhta.

Without denying justice of these judgments, we will put forward one more version. In 1476 during fight, unsuccessful for Moldavians, in the White valley a part of the Moldavian boyars died, and some even before fight and after it changed gospodaryu. Stefan the Great had to form new army in the north of the principality, on Bukovina where most of the population was made by Russinians. War managed to be won, but the situation in many respects repeated during the Turkish invasion of 1485 topped with Stephen III's victory over Turks, Tatars and valakha at Katlabu-ge. But both wars caused significant changes as a part of ruling

go a class and Seigniorial Council in favor of representatives of the North of the Moldavian principality, less affected from invasions. Therefore the representation of Russinians increased in Seigniorial Council, despite reduction of their share among the population of the principality.

Thus, at the time of Stefan the Great among "directors of destiny" of the Moldavian principality were and especially approximate to gospodaryu the Russian people are Russinians. Considering that Stephen III was a person far-sighted and the patriot of the country, it is possible to assume that boyars were also people worthy, to podstat to the governor. The absence in diplomas of references to ethnic origin of Russinians (unlike Hungarians, saxophones, Roma, Tatars) testifies to high degree ethnopolitical and, considering the official status Slavic, in essence - Carpatho-Russian language, also ethnocultural unity of the Carpatho-Russian and Moldavian (voloshsky) population of medieval Moldova. The subject of participation of the Russian people in political life of the Moldavian principality demands a further research.

1. Field L.L. Essays of historical geography of Moldova of the 13-15th centuries Chisinau. Shtiintsa. 1979. Page 113.
2. S.G. Sulyak. Splinters of Sacred Russia. Essays of ethnic history of rus-nak of Moldova. Chisinau. 2004. Page 69-81; P. Shornikov. Russian people of the Moldavian principality. Russinian [Chisinau]. 2005. No. 1 (1).
3. Documenta romaniae histórica. A. Moldova. Vol. 1. Bucure§ti, 1975. P. 213-410.
4. Documenta romaniae historica. A. Moldova. Vol. 2. Bucure§ti, 1976. P. 213.
5. In the same place. Page 222.
6. Stati W. Stefan Weliki. Chisinau, 2004. Page 118-120.
7. Documenta romaniae historica. A. Moldova. Vol. 2. Bucure§ti, 1976. P 376.
8. N.D. Russev, Zh.B. Kroytor, Lazo Yu.V. Stefan the Great in adverbial modifiers of time (anthropological sketches)//Stratum plus. of 2003-2004. No. 6. St. Petersburg, Chisinau, Odessa, Bucharest. 2005. Page 43-47.
9. P. Shornikov. Russian in the Moldavian principality. 1359-1859.//Russian album. [Chisinau]. 2001. No. 3; It. Official language of the Moldavian principality. 1359-1859//Social thought of Transnistria. 2006. No. 1 (2).
10. Documenta romaniae historica. A. Moldova. Vol. 2. Bucure§ti, 1976. P. 213, 215, 311, 326.
11. Ibid., P. 306-307; D.N. Sheler. Awards, ranks and uniforms. M, 1998. Page 123-125.
12. Russev of N. Volokhi, the Russian Tatars in the social history of medieval Moldova//the Russinian. [Chisinau]. 2005. No. 2. Page 99.
Alan Miller
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