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Category: History

Social component in archeology



s. G. Botalov, V.S. Mosin, S.V. Markov the SOCIAL COMPONENT IN ARCHEOLOGY

Article is devoted to social aspects in the organization and activity of the South Ural, archaeological expeditions: social, educational, research, reconstruction, game, pedagogical and humanitarian and orientation. The called components, despite the traditional character, are also the necessary humanitarian resource capable to gradually balance rationalistic outlook of modern generation and to fill the formed sociocultural lacuna.

Modern Russian society entered a new special stage of the social and humanitarian development today. From our point of view it is explained by the fact that the formational changes which happened in the last twenty years not only considerably changed a paradigm of moral and ethical reference points, but also deformed all institute earlier existing (even in the bowels of totalitarian society) humanistic installations and representations of community of Russians. With arrival of new extremely rational generation of politicians of the 2010th we appeared actually before a call which can be designated so: "It is how real to survive to the Russian culture, spirituality and a gumanitarnost after nowadays carried out modernizations and reformations?". Especially it was reflected in the system of historical regionovedchesky and local history education and education of children and youth. The sharp falling of prestigiousness of this knowledge and common cultural norms dictated not only by economic realities, how many the general relation of the modern power to historical and cultural heritage when architectural complexes in the capitals and the largest cities of the Russian Federation cynically communicate hundreds of monuments of archeology are annually destroyed, and the law "About Preservation of Historical and Cultural Heritage of the People of the Russian Federation" is mercilessly remade for the benefit of an oil and gas and construction complex. In this regard all system of historical and archaeological and local history education and education of the student's and studying youth within the South Ural corporate community: The IIA Southern Ural branch OURO RAHN, Southern Ural State University, the Chelyabinsk regional museum of local lore, the Chelyabinsk state pedagogical university and the Chelyabinsk Palace of pioneers and school students of N.K. Krupskaya - it is directed to preservation and use of traditional methods of local history regional training and education:

>- carrying out archaeological practice of students is Chelyabinsk, Shadrinsk, Kurgan;

>- the organization of school archaeological summer camps together with the Palace of pioneers and school students of N.K. Krupskaya and Palaces of creativity of pupils of Chelyabinsk and area;

>- reading public lectures in YUURGU and the Palace of pioneers and school students.

Within museology:

>- the museum of local lore in Chebarkul and the museum of life of the mining population in Nyazepetrovsk are created;

>- the historical exposition in the Chelyabinsk regional museum of local lore is developed and introduced;

>- the museum of the people of the Urals and development of technologies in YUURGU is created.

And, at last, promoting of humanitarian knowledge:

>- articles in newspapers, magazines and the Internet;

>- organization of telecasts and round tables;

>- shooting of educational movies on experimental practice of ancient processes, ex-

petition activity and the training video programs.

>- writing of the textbook on the history of South Ural and the city of Chelyabinsk for school students and manuals "Ancient History of the Southern Trans-Ural Region" and "History of Archeology of the Southern Trans-Ural Region" and also the popular scientific edition "Nomady" belongs to special results of populyarizatsionny practice (S.G. Botalov).

Practice of involvement of school students to archaeological researches in Chelyabinsk has almost century history. In 1908 teacher M.P. Chernoskutov made excavation of barrows at the settlement of Sukhomesovo. In 1924-1925 S.N. Durylin directed excavation of barrows near the lake Smolino. In the Chelyabinsk newspaper "Sovetskaya Pravda" for 1925 it was reported: "In excavation an active part was taken the work by the Komsomol members and pioneers who treated with big hobby to important work in the scientific relation".

In January, 1964 in the Chelyabinsk scientific organization of pupils (SOP) the archaeological section will be organized. The assistant to department of history of the USSR to teacher's college L.K. Matiukhin, students historians E.I. Morev, V.V. Malofeyev, I.K. Morozov were the first mentors of archeologists-noushat in the 60th years. Members of archaeological section NOU accepted the first baptism of fire on excavation of barrows and settlements at the settlement of Chernyaki under the scientific guide of the famous Ural archeologist V.S. Stokolos.

In the early seventies the mentoring relay in work with young archeologists is accepted by N.B. Vinogradov, then still the student of ChGPI. In 1971 he directed group of the Chelyabinsk school students on excavation of the strengthened settlement of a bronze age at the village of Kizilskoye. Work with young archeologists in NOU was one of the main tasks of the student's archaeological laboratory organized by N.B. Vinogradov in ChGPI. Opening in 1976 of the Chelyabinsk state university and emergence in the city of the archeologist G.B. Zdano-vich with group of young, vigorous colleagues favorably affected further development of the children's archaeological movement. These years, large school archaeological expeditions will be organized. Work with young archeologists in Chelyabinsk and area accepts mass character. However creation and formation of an educational system under the name "children's archeology", or, more precisely, "pedagogical archeology", in Chelyabinsk region is connected, first of all, with activity of laboratory of archaeological researches ChGPI (now ChGPU) and her head N.B. Vinogradov.

We will shortly sum up above-mentioned social practice on the example of field seasons of the last two years. So in the course of field seasons of 2009-2010 about 700 school students from more than 20 associations of the city and area in total were captured.

School students of the city of Kartala and settlement Annensky participated in a research of the ancient settlement of an era of Kambar bronze in Kartalinsky district. The group of young archeologists of the Palace of children's creativity of Sovetsky district of Chelyabinsk continued excavation of the burial ground of an era of resettlement of the people the Salty Dale in Bredinsky district. Young archeologists of school 74 Centers of children's creativity of Kurchatovsky district, the center of Leninsky district For children and young people of the city of Chelyabinsk, Esaulsky high school of Sosnovsky District, the House of children's creativity of the city of Karabash, Formika club of the Chelyabinsk palace of pioneers worked at a unique monument the burial ground Uyelgi in the Kunashak district. On the Gumbeyka River in Agapovsky district, young researchers MOE SOSH No. 108 and lyceum No. 37 of the city of Chelyabinsk participated in a research of barrows of the early Iron Age. The group of young archeologists of municipal educational institution lyceum No. 13 of Troitsk explored the eneolitiche-sky settlement of Kochegarovo in the Kurgan region. The Snezhinsk archaeological group of the Palace of creativity of children and youth of a name of Komarovo carried out investigation on coast of the lake Itkul. The fifth year on coast of the lake Akakul (Ozyorsk urban district) is spent the camp of experimental archeology. Young experimenters from Ozyorsk, Karabash, Chelyabinsk, Snezhinsk took part in work of the camp. Group of Formika club of the Chelyabinsk Palace of pioneers of N.K. Krupskaya took part in work of the platform of experimental archeology in the reserve Shulgan Tash (Bashkortostan) and also in excavation of Paleolithic layers in the Kapovy cave.

Fig. 1. Social components of the South Ural archeology.

1-4 - social aspect; 5-6 - educational; 7-10 - research

Fig. 2. Social components of the South Ural archeology. 11-21 - experimental; 22-23 - game; 24-26 - pedagogical; 27-30 - humanitarian and orientation.

In archaeological social practice the involvement of student's youth, first of all, of students historians to field researches is quite traditional. However process of transformation of obligatory archaeological practice in gumanitarnooriyentatsionny process is one more very important component of the South Ural archeology. It, as well as in a case with school students, is reached as a result of realization of various social aspects in the course of the organization of activity of field camps. The most traditional is the social aspect (fig. 1, 1-4) which follows from the general organization of existence of field camps. It is connected as with the most collective basis of life in the field (the field hostel), and with all elements of activity of the camp (organization of works and processes of cooking, ensuring protection and a day regimen). Also the educational aspect (fig. 1, 5-6) of archaeological social practice is so traditional. However, in recent years, with providing more comfortable organization of camps, to replace ordinary conversations at a fire, cycles of multimedia lectures both on historical subjects, and on subjects of related subjects practice.

An organic social component of field archeology is the research aspect (fig. 1, 7-10) as it is present at all stages of field excavation. However in recent years the range of research activity is significantly expanded at the expense of the organization of experimental platforms in field camps. The experimental aspect (fig. 2, 11-21) actually became a special field of activity of the camp of experimental reconstruction on the lake Akakul.

From experimental aspect the organization of activity games (fig. 2, 22-23) peculiar follows. Their range also extraordinary extended in recent years. To replace traditional "dedication" and "Day of the Neptune" games come intellectual (brain ring, quizzes) experimental (production of weapon and a competition, competitions to the best pottery, reconstruction and fire getting competitions).

Certainly, all above-mentioned circle of aspects is possible only at the due level of a pedagogical component (fig. 2, 24-26) of archaeological camps where experts teachers not only are engaged in ensuring activity of groups, but also are engaged in the direct organization of social practice for single aspects.

What total purpose of the organization and carrying out field archaeological seasons according to so difficult program? It is obvious, and in brief we already mentioned it. A problem of this social and pedagogical activity in realization of humanitarian and orientation aspect (fig. 2, 27-30). It does not mean that, significantly expanding representations of pupils in historical and adjacent to it subjects, we pursue the aim of direct historical career guidance though in recent years with carrying out large-scale economic contractual researches the shortage of the qualified field laboratory assistants is especially sharply felt. In this regard it is necessary to expand constantly geography, involvement of students or graduates volunteers on excavation in the city and the area. Nevertheless the main objective of implementation of the above socially important programs is education at youth of basic humanitarian values that certainly will find subsequently the application in any spheres of social practice of this generation.

Above-mentioned achievements, methods and actions undoubtedly are traditional practice of that sphere of social and humanitarian knowledge which is area of our professional interests. On our belief, the main objective of today not reforming of these existing norms and techniques, but expansion of their social base of application. Today we faced need of involvement of all arsenal of multimedia means and development, thanks to existing education systems and Internet spaces in general.

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It is thought that the called components, despite the traditional character, and are the necessary humanitarian resource capable gradually to balance rationalistic outlook of modern generation and to fill the formed sociocultural lacuna.

A.V. Epimakhov NEW MATERIALS TO the HISTORICAL FATE of the SINTASHTINSKY POPULATION IN the VOLGA-URAL REGIONE1

Article on the basis of new materials considers the historical situation which developed in the Volga-Ural region at a turn of a middle and late bronze age.

Rather short period of studying sintashtinsky and potapovsky antiquities with interest pays off intensity and fruitfulness of its study. Various constructions have to lean on concrete materials, therefore their introduction to a scientific turn was and remains demanded zhanrom2. Increment went generally through a research of settlements in recent years, however outside the Southern Trans-Ural region this type of monuments is presented otryvochno3. There is also some dissonance in cultural attribution of a part of materials. Examples such it is possible to gather, for example, from discussion of results of excavation of the burial ground in Berezovoy4. The list with ease can be increased at the expense of other "pozdneabashevsky" monuments. The reasons of divergences root, first of all, in assessment of cultural accessory of a ceramic complex. For the western periphery of sintashtinsky antiquities there is also an uncertainty in the ratio with potapovsky and partly with the Pokrovsk materials. Thus, representation of concrete archaeological sources from this zone remains a relevant genre, and their rather small number obliges to the detailed publication even of separate complexes.

The burial ground at the village of Grachevka

The neighborhood of the village and Kinelsky district in general were actively studied in the 1990th by archeologists of Samara who revealed and investigated excavation a number of interesting objects of a bronze age. The presented materials are received by S.V. Bogdanov (Institute of the steppe OURO RAHN) during excavation of 2008. The burial ground is located in a right bank of the Grachevka River

>- left inflow of the Kutuluk River (left inflow of river. Big Kinel), in 0.8 km to the east of the village of Grachevka of Kinelsky district of the Samara region. The necropolis included two barrows dated for jubate top of a watershed. Geographical coordinates of a monument

>- 53 °09&46.8" NL, 51 °07&25.7" EL of Raznotravno-zlakovye and feather-grass tipchakovye steppes are replaced with an anthropogeocoenosis now. Long-term plowing strongly distorted also shape of nadmogilny constructions (height varies from 0.2 to 0.6 m, diameters

>- from 25 to 40 m). The barrow 1 which removal of an embankment was carried out by means of the equipment with leaving of three meridional brows (fig. 1) underwent stationary study.

Features of ceremonial practice

The top part of an embankment is destroyed by a plowed land on depth of 0.4-0.5 m, height of the remained part of an ancient embankment - 0.6-0.9 m. The remains of the buried soil (0.25-0.4 m) are recorded in the form of the wrong circle with a diameter of 24-26 m. On perimeter of an embankment it is revealed superficial rovik 4.8-6.5 m wide 0.25-0.4 m in depth from continent level. Barrow contained two burials: No. 1 - in the center and No. 2 - in the northeast sector, in the area of a ditch. The top filling of the first sepulchral hole focused in the area of SV-YuZ was strongly broken by holes, for this reason it had a little nepra-

Bill Smith
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