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Changes in the mechanism of repatriation of the Soviet citizens of the German nationality at the beginning of Cold War



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Maria PRIVALOVA

changes in the mechanism of repatriation of the Soviet citizens of the German nationality at the beginning of Cold War

One of rather poorly studied subjects of a domestic historiography - a subject repatriation of the Soviet citizens at the final stage of the Great Patriotic War and in the first post-war years. In not numerous Soviet historiography it was represented as universal voluntary return of the Soviet citizens home from bondage to which the Soviet occupational bodies rendered all assistance. Since the end of the 1980th in domestic historical science the works covering a repatriation problem in all its completeness and discrepancy began to appear.

These researches stood on comprehensive and compulsory hind legs of repatriation, existence of a large number of the people, for various reasons who were not wishing to come back to the USSR, the rigid nature of check of repatriates to loyalty (through wide network of test and filtrational points), broad and unfairly severe application of repressions to repatriates.

Within a common problem of repatriation the repatriation of the Soviet citizens German natsionalnosti1 is even less studied. The first this topic was covered by A.A. Hermann in a number of the works. The author rather deeply considers the beginning of repatriation of the Soviet Germans (1944 — 1946), at the same time later period of this process practically remains not studied.

At the initial stage of repatriation of citizens of the USSR the Soviet Germans were not allocated in any separate category that allowed some of them even to return to places of the pre-war accommodation. Studying archival documents from "Managements of Authorized SNK USSR for Repatriation" fund of the State archive of the Russian Federation (further

— GARF), allows to draw a conclusion that subsequently the Soviet Germans after all passed the separate column in the Soviet repatriation documents. So, in 1946, by transfer Soviet repatriated from one camp the total number of the repatriated citizens from whom the former prisoners of war, the Soviet citizens, "Germans of citizenship of the USSR" and Russians emigranty2 were separately fixed was specified in another.

For July-August, 1945 the peak in number of the German repatriates coming monthly to the USSR had. Further their stream began to decrease gradually, but did not run low even many months, including took place and in 1946. Studying documents of the fund stated above allows to conclude that German repatriates, let and in a small amount, continued to arrive on assembly points and the camp for sending to the USSR and in 1947 — 1951. For example, the largest combined camp of the Soviet citizens

1 The Soviet German repatriates are the citizens of the USSR the German nationality who appeared during an initial stage of the Great Patriotic War in the territory occupied by the German troops and in 1943 — 1945 undergone "administrative resettlement" to Germany and the regions of Poland, prilezhavshy to it, for "germanization" of these lands. At the final stage of war and in the first post-war years they were subject, as well as all Soviet citizens, obligatory repatriation in the USSR. In total over 200 thousand German repatriates were returned to the Soviet Union
2 GARF. T. 9526. Op. 2. 58. L.1

PRIVALOVA

Yurevna —

Saratov

university

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in France there was Boregar. On February 19, 1946 on assembly point No. 13 Boregar 2 Soviet Germans serving in troops on February CC, 20 — 1, arrived from Military mission, on February 25 arrived

— On February 9, 28 — 83, and all of them served in the German army and were brought by the French military authorities from prisoner-of-war camp No. 141; 8 Soviet Germans who also served in the German army were brought to the assembly point from camp No. 21.

From March 12 to March 31 the assistant to the representative of the Representative of council of ministers of the USSR for repatriation of the Soviet citizens in the territory of Western Europe major V. Shakhov carried out an inspection of all prisoner-of-war camps of the 8th military district with a problem of identification of the Soviet citizens and sendings them to the Boregar camp. In camp No. 81 it revealed 7 Soviet citizens from whom 3 Soviet Germans; in camp No. 82 — 3, and all of them are Germans of "the Soviet citizenship"; in camp No. 83 among Germans of "the Soviet citizens" it did not appear; in camp No. 84 only one German who refused to go voluntarily and had to be sent to Boregar with a convoy was recognized as the Soviet citizen. In camp No. 85 the Soviet nationality was declared by 41 Germans, from them were recognized as really Soviet citizens of 7 people. In camp No. 87 of the Soviet citizens it was not revealed, and in camp No. 88 "the Soviet citizenship" was declared by 6 Germans, but they were not recognized as the Soviet citizens since emigrated from Russia till 1935 1 Though in the course of repatriation cases of "prikhvatyvaniye" of old emigrants were frequent.

In Belgium the large assembly point was the joint venture No. 2 in the city of Brussels. On February 21, 1946 here arrived from camp No. 2221 17 of the Soviet citizens from whom 15 people there are Soviet Germans serving in the German army; On March 2 the same year — 21 people, from which 11 Germans; On March 16 — 4

— all Germans; On April 9 — 9 — all Germans; On April 25 12 people, from them 8 Germans; On May 4

— 4 Germans who together with three Soviet Germans were sent on May 7 to Paris. On May 9, 1946 7 Germans of "the Soviet citizenship" serving in German armii2 were brought to this assembly point from Luxembourg. On May 20, 1946

from this assembly point 7 Germans of the Soviet citizenship who were mobilized in the German army and were taken prisoner by allied troops in Czechoslovakia and Germany were sent to Paris. On May 21 the same year to the assembly point No. 2 of Luxembourg there arrived 4 Soviet Germans serving in the German army. All Soviet Germans who were in prisoner-of-war camps in Belgium served in the German army and CC and were taken prisoner up in arms.

In spite of the fact that the Soviet citizens of the German nationality served in the German army, we managed to establish that among them there were also those who wished to return on the homeland to the Soviet Union. So, E. Miller who in 1944 at retreat of the German troops them was moved to Germany, and in February, 1945

— it was admitted on military service to the German army, addresses in the letter of February 25, 1946 the consul of the Soviet Union with the following questions: whether it is deprived and his parents of "the Soviet citizenship" and whether they can return home? And on March 6, 1946 the same E. Miller and 6 more Soviet Germans appealed to the consul of the Soviet Union to help them to return on rodinu3.

During the work with archival documents it was succeeded to establish the interesting fact: after in March, 1946 U. Churchill's speech in Fultona which laid the foundation of Cold War the allies who were earlier rendering to repatriation bodies of the USSR assistance in compulsory return of the Soviet citizens home was heard, giving them from the occupational zones, now, on the contrary, began to help in every possible way "defectors", covering them from a sharp-sighted eye of repatriation missions of CCCP4. Owing to what the number of the Soviet citizens returned home was considerably reduced. So, on April 11, 1946 from England only 12 people, from them 4 Soviet Germans were sent to the Soviet Union.

Even earlier, February 15, 1946, in the Binnengof newspaper which was issued by Catholics in the Hague there was article under the name "Russians Want to Force to Return All to the Country" in which the point of view of madam Roosevelt concerning "defectors" was given. On it to me -

1 GARF. T. 9526. Op. 1. 158. L.2 84-285 3 GARF. T. 9526. Op. 1. 158. L. 355-356
2 GARF. T. 9526. Op. 2. 17. L. 2/8-2/52 4 In the same place. 177. L. 37-39
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a niya, it is impossible violently to force to return home, and it suggests to find a human solution of the matter for these people. The statement of madam Roosevelt on the fact that the USSR denies the formal human rights, was selected with capital letters and is underlined redaktsiyey1.

Change of the attitude of allies towards "defectors" extended and on the former Soviet Germans, not casually there were escapes of the Soviet citizens of the German nationality in the western zones of occupation of Germany. All Germans of "the Soviet citizenship", as well as all citizens of the USSR, from the Soviet occupational zone of Germany and from zones of the western allies sent home through camp No. 226 in Brandenburg. Here within two-three months special echelons were formed of them. But because there were escapes of the Soviet Germans in the western zones of occupation of Germany, the decision to send them small parties to two-three vagonakh2 was made.

For January 1, 1949 in the English occupational zone of Germany there were 4991 Germans of "the Soviet citizenship" who are subject to obligatory repatriation that made 5.1% to all Soviet citizens who are in this zone of occupation. In the French zone there were only 7 Soviet Germans, and in American there was no.

From the beginning of Cold War the English, French, American authorities not only assisted "defectors", but also made difficulties for return of the Soviet citizens wishing to return to the USSR. So, on January 3, 1947 on assembly point No. 13 Boregar in France from prisoner-of-war camp No. 222 11 Germans of "the Soviet citizenship" arrived. Having arrived to the assembly point, two repatriates, Heinrich Kohl and Yakov Kurle, in writing reported that they, being in the French captivity, appealed to the commandant of the camp to allow them to the commission to the Soviet attache since wanted to return on the homeland. After their desire was not granted, they escaped, the French police detained them and locked in a doper where they about -

1 GARF. T. 9526. Op. 1. 158. L. 238
2 P. Polyan. Victims of two dictatorships: ostarbeiters and prisoners of war in the Third Reich and their repatriation. M, 1996, p. 271

sat not one day until released them Soviet komissiya3.

The Soviet officers throughout all course of repatriation it is unceasing search of the Soviet citizens for various reasons evading from repatriation was carried out. For example, for the first half of 1949 in the Soviet occupational zone of Germany 495 such Soviet Germans were revealed. By the end of 1949 in east zones of Germany and Austria there were 147 such Germans who by this time (in 6 years) received allotments, got constructions, the cattle and did not wish to return to Soviet Soyuz4.

The Soviet repatriation missions revealed also the Soviet children who are subject to repatriation home. So, according to the instruction of the Soviet military authorities in Germany (SVAG) in the first half of 1949. The German bureau of searches made a census of the children living in the territory of the Soviet zone of occupation of Germany, and as far as it was possible in the western zones of occupation of Germany.

In the course of forced repatriation the Soviet departments allowed numerous abuses, catching and sending Germans who were never citizens of the USSR and did not live in its territory to the USSR. In total about 1 thousand such people who were settled across all USSR together with the Soviet Germans-repatriantami5 is revealed.

The Soviet German repatriates were also a part of the contingent "vlasovets". In March, 1949 available there were 2836 special settlers - "vlasovets" of the German nationality that made 2.5% of the total number of special settlers - "vlasovets". In 1951 after 6-year term the special settlers - "vlasovets" were struck off the register of special settlements, and "vlasovets" are transferred to the German nationality to the special settlement forever.

According to V.N. Zemskov, by January 1, 1953 stayed on the registry of special settlements 208,388 repatriated nemtsev6. Further they shared lot of all other Soviet citizens of the German nationality.

3 GARF. T. 9526. Op. 2. 17. L. 9-11
4 P. Polyan. Victims of two dictatorships: ostarbeiters and prisoners of war in the Third Reich and their repatriation. M, 1996, p. 270-271
5 A. Hermann. Tragedy by Martha Nout//"Military and historical researches in the Volga region". Release 5, p. 376
6 In the same place, p. 285
Patricia Ramos
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