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The Tsirkumpontiysky region and Egeida in drevneirlandsky genealogical tradition



UDK 397

The TSIRKUMPONTIYSKY REGION And EGEIDA In DREVNEIRLANDSKY GENEALOGICAL TRADITION

Belgorod state university

A.G. CHEREDNICHENKO of A.Yu. KRAVCHENKO

The analysis of a number of the Irish genealogical myths which are contained in "The book of captures of Ireland" is presented in article. The correlation of drevneirlandsky genealogical tradition with messages of antique authors and also with data of archeology and comparative-historical linguistics allows to assume that the most ancient ancestral home of the kelto-Illyrian people was in the Tsirkumpontiysky region and Egeida.

e-mail: cherednichenko@bsu. edu.ru

In the last decades the interest of the archeologists, linguists and culturologists studying Indo-European antiquities in the lands surrounding the Black Sea - the Tsirkumpontiysky zone, the province or regionu1 does not weaken. During a transition era from the eneolit by a bronze age, i.e. at the end of IV — the beginning 111 millennium BC, stability and the sequence of development of early agricultural cultures was broken here and the new system of agricultural and pastoral cultures was formed. During an era of early bronze the Balkans and Podunavye and also the Caucasus and Transcaucasia were the centers of cultural innovations. At the end of 11 — the beginning of the I millennium BC, i.e. during a transition era from a bronze age to iron, stability of development of a system of cultures of the Tsirkumpontiysky region and also Egeida and all East Mediterranean, was broken owing to movement of the considerable ethnic groups which received in Middle Eastern written monuments the name of "the people of the sea" 2.

We suggest to use the term "Tsirkumpontiysky Region" also by eras of the Neolithic and the eneolit. This region was included into an area of one of secondary, in relation to the Fertile half moon, the neolitization centers. The Tsirkumpontiysky region and Egeidu as one of the centers of emergence of the making economy, it is possible to identify with the ancestral home indoyevropeytsev3. Genealogical myths and legends of the Indo-European people keep the memory of stay of their ancestors in the specified area. The Celtic tradition connected origin of Celts with Scythia and Greece. The ancient Celtic onomastics of Scythia and Celtic-Slavic language parallels demonstrate stay of the Celtic tribes in the Tsirkumpontiysky region, at least, already in the I millennium BC (cf. Karroboio ‘the stone city’ — modern Kamyanets-Podilsky; Galich, Galichina, Galicia; praslav. * a mine ‘a horse, a horse’ — gallsk. * kapoks / * kapoks 'horse' and td.) 4. Perhaps, and in central Anatoly should treat arrival of Celtic galatians in the 3rd century BC to the Balkans as the reverse movement in an area of dwelling of far ancestors. In domestic

1 N.Ya. Merpert. About an ethnocultural situation of IV — 111 millennia BC in a tsirkumpontiysky zone / / the Ancient East: ethnocultural ties. M, 1988. Page 7-36; Chernykh E.N. Tsirkumpontiyskaya province and the most ancient Indo-Europeans//Ancient East: ethnocultural ties. M, 1988. Page 37-57.
2 A.A. Nemirovsky. To a question of reflection of an anatoliysky ethnopolitical revolution of the beginning of the 12th century BC in the Greek tradition//Antiquity: society and ideas. Kazan, 2001.
3 L.P. Marinovich. Studying Northern and Central Greece in 1962-1966 / / VDI. 1969. No. 3. Page 189-204; L.P. Marinovich. Studying Peloponnese in 1967-1970 / / VDI. 1973. No. 1. Page I6O-174; L.P. Marinovich. Studying the Greek islands of the Aegean Sea and Crete in 1967-1970//VDI. 1973. No. 2. Page 121-144; Zh. Audrey. Indo-European language//New in foreign linguistics. Issue 21: New in modern Indo-European studies. M, 1988. Page 24-121, 532-533; Renfrew C. The Origins of Indo-European Languages//Scientific American. 1989. No. 10. P. 82-90.
4 O.N. Trubachev. Ethnogenesis and culture of the most ancient Slavs. M, 2003. Page 46-47, 120-123.

Page 6-19.

science attention was practically not paid to studying the Celtic antiquities of Tsirkumpontiysky and adjacent regionov5. It is necessary to reveal the data on the ancestral home of the Celtic people in the basin of the Black and Aegean seas which remained in genealogical myths and legends by Celts and also, relying on achievements of archeology and comparative-historical linguistics, to define ways of migrations of ancestors of the Celtic ethnoses.

The mifologo-genealogical tradition of island Celts - Irish is best of all recorded. The most considerable monument - "The book of captures of Ireland (Lebor Gabala Erenn)". The first written fixing of its myths and sacral genealogiya is dated apprx. VI11 of century AD. The final version of this kompilyativny text belongs to the end of the 11th century. He narrates about several waves of immigrants from continental Europe and the Mediterranean to Ireland and to other British Isles. Irlandtsy-goydely are called descendants of the last wave of colonists from Spain - sons Mile (Latin of Miles H ispaniae).

Messages of "The book of captures of Ireland" that ways of migrations of ancestors of island Celts passed through the Mediterranean, will be agreed with the Greek-Roman tradition kept by Appian (2nd century AD). Celts, illiriyets and galatians were the Celt's descendants, Illyria and Gala, sons of a kiklop of Polyphemus and Galatea's nereid living originally on the island of Sicily (Appian. Rome. wars: Events in Illyria. I, 2; Apollodorus. Mifol. Bibl.: Genealogy. I, 2, 6-7; Epitoma VII, 4-9). If to assume that names of mythological nereids and kiklop correspond to ethnic groups of ancestors the Celt - sko-galatskikh (kelto-galaichesky) and Illyrian people, and to compare ethnogenealogical legends with data of archeology and comparative-historical yazykoznaniya6, then the picture of development of Europe by the first Indo-Europeans, carriers of neolytic traditions, is represented as follows.

During about 5283-5211 nereids and the kiklopa which came from the Areas of Egeida and the Tsirkumpontiysky region were proved on the island of Kefalleniya. Herodotus's instructions on the fact that area in the Aegean Thrace Briantika in the ancient time was called Gallaika (ГаАХшк^) (Herodotus are remarkable. History. VII, 108).

Apprx. 5250-5000 nereids and the kiklopa were settled on the islands of Corfu, Grind (Malta), Sicily and in Davniya from where began to occupy to Gespery and Giperborey (Western, Central and Northern Europe). Mythological collective names of kiklop and nereids designate the real ethnic groups related on language and culture. These are the most ancient ancestors of Indo-European galaiko-kelto-Illyrian nationalities which began the movement with the coast and islands of the Ionian Sea (Zakynthos, Kefalleniya, Levkada, Ithaca, Corfu) about VI millennium BC. They left the archaeological culture with ceramics of impresso which extended on coast of the Adriatic, Tirrensky and Balearsky seas (first of all, in Apulia, on Sicily, Sardinia, French Riviera in the south sovr. France, in Valencia, Cartagena and area sovr. Lisbon) and the archaeological horizon of Starchevo - Krish - of Karano-vo (in the Balkans and in the Danube and Carpathian region). The northern direction of migration and colonization of Giperborei by neolytic Indo-European ethnic groups from Central and Northern Greece through the North of the Balkans and the basin of Central Danube can be attributed to matrilokalny tribal communities of nereids. The remains of reproduction of these communities - the neolytic horizon of Starchevo - Krish - Karanovo VI of a millennium BC. This population, besides the archaeological remains of reproduction, gave also some most ancient river names of the Danube and Carpathian region (Krish, Maroš, Morava, Somesh, Temesh, the Yew, Halmyris, Maremorusa - Mare Mortuum) 7. All subsequent neolytic cultures of the Balkans and Podunavya are affiliated continuations of Starchevo - Krish - Karanovo.

5 S.V. Shkunayev. Community and society of the western Celts. M, 1989. Page 3-14.
6 V.I. Georgiev. Researches on comparative-historical linguistics: Related relations of Indo-European languages. M, 1958. Page 269-280; I.M. Dyakonov. About the ancestral home of carriers of Indo-European dialects. 1 / / VDI. 1982. No. 3. Page 3-30; I.M. Dyakonov. About the ancestral home of carriers of Indo-European dialects. 2 / / VDI. 1982. No. 4. Page 11-25; Mongayt A.L. Arkheologiya of Western Europe: Stone Age. M, 1973. Page 256-313.
7 O.N. Trubachev. Ethnogenesis and culture of the most ancient Slavs. M, 2003. Page 43-45; Shaposhnikov A.K. Mesto Potisya and Pannoniya in the most ancient ethnogenealogical legends of the Slavic people / / Б^са Б^аса. 2004. to. 39. Page 2. B.98.

Apprx. 5067-4995 kiklopa and the nereids occupy coasts of Galatia (sovr. Southern France) and Iberia (Spain). Kiklopa suited smithies on islands of the Western Mediterranean. The first traces of archaeological culture with ceramics trgevvo in France are dated the end of the VI millennium BC. Approximately by 5000 it captured all South of France, having got there by sea. In areas of its distribution the cattle breeding (cultivation of sheep and goats) gained so fast development that led to destruction of the Mediterranean forests and an erosion of soils. Primitive motyzhny agriculture (grain and bean) was rather an addition to cattle breeding. From crafts the greatest development was gained by production of stone instruments of labor and jewelry. The volcanic islands of Pantelleria (export of obsidian on the island of Malta), Liparsky islands (export of obsidianovy tools to Liguria and French Riviera), Pontsiansky islands (export to Italy and on the peninsula of Istria), Sardinia (export of stone tools on French Riviera) were the centers of commodity production and export of such tools. Also production without potter's wheel of the ceramics decorated with the pressed prints of sinks developed (especially a type of Sagit - an uSH,-ако^?). In the V millennium BC there are settled settlements in mountain valleys, summer shelters and shelters in grottoes at tops of mountains where herds from valleys were driven away in the summer.

Apprx. 5000 kiklopa and the nereids occupy French Riviera, Septimaniya, Spain and the area sovr. Lisbon (Ulissipon).

Apprx. 4995-4923 the kiklopam and nereids are populated coast Betiki and Ulissipon. The most ancient Atlantic center of neolytic revolution in Portugal - an area of culture of ceramics of impresso around sovr. Lisbon and in the valley of the Tagus River (VI-V millennium BC) where this culture got also by sea from area sovr. Valencia and Cartagena. The primitive cattle-farmers and seafarers famous from mythology under names of kiklop and storuky (gekatonkheyr) became the first Indo-European population of Gesperiya (Zap. Mediterranean).

Apprx. 4419-4347, according to Appian, Galatea nereid and Polyphemus-kiklop gave birth to three sons Gala, the Celt and Illyria on the island of Trinakriya (Trinakiya, Sicily).

Apprx. 4347-4275. Gala, the Celt and Illiry inhabited to Giperborey and Gespe-ry, became the ancestors of three populous tribes: galaik (gallaik, galatians), Celts and illiriyets. Galaiki in Ostryumnidakh Celts and illiriyets of Giperborei buried the dead in stone tombs on custom of kiklop, - in bulk graves. At the very end of the period (to the V millennium BC) in seaside areas of culture of ceramics ^ргевво from Sicily carriers of culture of early megaliths come. If it is possible to identify legendary Partholón from "The book of captures of Ireland" with Gala, then the mythological remnant of the original legend about an outcome of a certain ethnic group of galaik - ancestors of goydel of Scotland, Ireland, Mona appears at us (the Isle of Man; perhaps, it is also Inis Fayl) and continental keltiber (with *^-кельтскими dialects), especially in Galatea Nereid. The most ancient areas of megalytic archaeological culture with the unique ceramics (smooth, without jewelry) in the V-IV millennium BC note, from our point of view, places of the settlement and the direction of migrations of ethnic group of carriers Celtic ‘^ the-pradialekt (galaiche-sky), the most archaic. It is possible to designate conditionally this ethnic group of hectare-laikami (descendants of Gala, the son of a nereid Galatea and Polyphemus's kiklop). The megalytic archaeological culture (AC) reached special blossoming in the new colonized areas - in Galaikiya (Big Galatea Nereid, including Sowing. Portugal and the Spanish Galatea Nereid), on the peninsula of Aremorika (Brittany) and Ostryumnidakh (atlantich. coast sovr. France). Rather high level of production of goods for a neolytic century is confirmed by a construction of "cyclopean" dolmens (a dolmen in Barnen near Morlex with 11 collective tombs decorated with arches and ledges and the hall of a sanctuary space in 70 m) and huge number of dolmens of the smaller size in the neighbourhood with neolytic settlements. More perfect structures of social management were necessary for such construction works. The archaeological culture of Vincha of a millennium BC and its derivatives are the most ancient complex of the remains of reproduction of ethnic group of ancestors of historical illiriyets (according to the legend, Galatea and Polyphemus Illiry's son moved from Sicily to the country bearing his name). The Karpato-Balkansky region appeared

the homeland of kurganny burials from where as status funeral practice they extended to the West and the East of Giperborei8, having reached Iyerna. At last, the archaeological culture of linearly-tape ceramics (CLTC) uniform on big space in V thousand, and its numerous derivatives (Zhelezov-tsa's group in Zap. Slovakia, JSC Byukk in Vost. Slovakia, joint stock company of nakolchaty ceramics in the Czech Republic, Poland and Germany, joint stock company of alfeldsky linear ceramics in valleys Yews and Maro-sha) is the remains of material reproduction of ethnic group - ancestors of historical Celts (The Celt - Galatea and Polyphemus's third son). Natives of corpulent loessial and muddy soils of Central Danube, protocelts probably two migration flows reached Top and Bas-Rhin about 4500, and by 4000 developed all basin of Seine, having brought agriculture at once and in full. Protocelts built spacious houses from a tree and a clay brick raw, the big family could lodge in each of which (up to 10 people). Their settlements reached number in 100-200 inhabitants. The ceramics because of a pattern in the form of curls received the name linearly - tape. In settlements, large "communal houses" were constructed. Settlements were not strengthened, a cultural layer of small power. Frequent change of places of settlements is connected with the nature of economic activity. The most ancient way of carriers of the protoceltic dialects "р" - groups is defined as agricultural and pastoral. Signs of KLLK: the primitive podsechno-fire agriculture on muddy loessial soils complemented with cattle breeding with the continuing domestication wild and crossing of pets with wild; conservative ceramic production with monotony of forms. Burials in the form of a trupopolozheniye it is on one side writhed, is more rare - extended, were followed by topping ochre. The funeral stock - stone axes, zernoterka, sinks of a type of Spondylos - indicated existence of exchange with the southern seaside areas.

Apprx. 4131-4059 the Celts develop Sekvana's (Seine) valley. Natives of corpulent loessial and muddy soils of Upper Danube and the top Rhine, protocelts, by 4000 developed all basin of Seine, having brought with themselves agriculture.

Apprx. 4059-3987 the giperboreyets Ostryumnid began to esteem great mother Evribiya, to bury the dead in stone crypts; the giperboreyets who came from Orkyuniya and Pyurena filled the first high graves on the island of Iyerna. Celts, galatians and galaik met in Galatia. The Balkan region was the homeland of kurganny burials from where as status funeral practice they extended to the West and the East of Europe, having reached Ireland. The only impressive stone statue of the Goddess-mother from Kadenak-le-au (dep. The Leningrad Region) got to France from Illyria in the V millennium BC. It reflects development of a cult of great mother. Her conditional name - Evribiya ('EupuPia "wide life""). To the head of the IV millennium BC the territory of modern France was divided into three cultural zones with border across the Massif Central: the Atlantic coast - dolmen JSC (pragalaiki), the Northeast - of continuation of KLLK ("prakelta"), the Mediterranean coast - hectare-latsky joint stock company.

Apprx. 3555-3483 there was a mixture of descendants Galatea and Polyphemus in Galatia and Galaike. Worship of the titan Kry (Kernunn) and three of his sons Astrayu (Esos), Persayu (Dithat) and Pallanta (Sukkelosa), governing three worlds. Honoring of mother of gods of Evribiya was established. By 3600-3500 between three archaeological cultures of France so close ties that there was their merge in a peculiar archaeological culture of Shasse with its beautiful, by the ceramics which is carefully ground and made on roasting were established with geometrical patterns, with advanced stone tools (the cutting stone edges, knives, sickles, tips of arrows of various form polished with the axes, pesta, mill millstones, crushers) making an impression of a certain abundance.

8 Nikolova L. Poyava and distribution on a nadgrobnita to a grave in Karpato-Balkanskiya the region (wound of a bronzov of Ipoh)//Archeology. l992. Prince 3. Page of l-10.

Followed in the 2nd floor. The IV millennium BC the population explosion completed merge of three former cultural Areas of Galatii therefore there was something like "a national neolytic civilization". By the end of the period of JSC Shasse practically all population of the territory of France, including relic late mesolytic groups of hunters of the mountain woods (most likely, not Indo-European on language), was akkulturirovano. Hunters and shepherds come out of the woods and become settled valley farmers. In the 2nd floor. The IV millennium BC amplifies trade exchange (especially Shasse's ceramics, axes with the round handle from a beautiful firm dolerite from the workshops Pluseyulyena (dep. Kot-du-Nor), the polished axes from the gornblendit made on Cape Finisterre in Galatea Nereid). That era possesses the numerous small figures of the goddess molded from clay and the only impressive stone statue from Kadenak-le-au (dep. The Leningrad Region), got to France from Illyria in the V millennium BC. These ancient sculptures note development of a cult of great mother, ancestor and progenitress, defender of a sort, its patrimonial settlement, bolshesemeyny house and the sacred center. A conditional name of this goddess - Evribiya or Galatea.

Apprx. 3123-3051 the galaik develop continental areas east of Ostryumnid (Atlantic coast of modern France). Settling of a galaikama of the islands of Kassiterid and Orkad. About 3100-2900 the expansion of megalytic culture to inland zones is noted (in Iberia - to the average current of Tahoe, in France - to the Massif Central, to the Netherlands and to Prialpiysky regions). At the same time there was a development and settling by carriers of this archaeological culture of the British Isles (Ireland, Great Britain, Orknei - Skara Brey, Rinio).

Approximately by 1800 there was a mixture of galaik and illiriytsev-venet. Carriers of megalytic archaeological culture and culture of funnel-shaped cups (CFSC) mixed up, their cultures became the culture of kolokolovidny cups, uniform on huge space, with wide circulation of megalytic constructions (local options - the verkhnereynsky archaeological culture of cups).

Apprx. 1800 in Galatia the metallurgy of tin bronze which concentrated in Rhône Valley in the beginning gets better (Yura, the Canton of Valais, Alps). Products of this metallurgy (daggers, axes, a pricker, needles, pins, bracelets, beads) dispersed in all southern Galatia.

Apprx. 1800-1500 in Galatia there are many new centers of metallurgy, line production of bronze tools finally forces out copper and stone instruments of labor (new types of axes, daggers, swords, kopeyny tips). Exchange and export of products from tin bronze amplifies. In the 1st floor. 11 millennium BC there are ancient all-Celtic estates (farmers, miners, smiths, handicraftsmen, dealers, soldiers riders, kings threshing barns, priests-druids) that finds reflection in various ceremonies of burial. There are individual burials, royal barrows with precious weapon, jewelry and utensils. Traditional cults of sacred fire of three Gorgons (Brigantiya), the hero Arga (Mile), Poseidon (Tevtat) and the Celtic Luke-Hermes-Apollo became widespread (Luga).

Apprx. 1500-1250 the nemeta from Scythia moved on Kassiterida, Iyer - well, Orkada, in Belgika, Great Greece. According to "The book of captures of Ireland", NeMed and his people left Greeks of Scythia ^гесаШ Scithia), the sea Kaisp (tshg Caisp). His descendants (sons, grandchildren and great-grandsons), without having managed to be fixed on the island of Iyerna, were settled over the different countries. Biotas Iarboyneoyn poppy was the first, left Ireland. The country to which they the first came was in the northeast of the Great Lake country of Lokhland. There they studied art of a prophecy, sorcery, knowledge of druids. The grandson Nemeda Erglan Stairn poppy left in Domon and Erdo-mon north of Alban (Albion?). Brittan Obrity, Feargus Letderga's son captured Moind (Mountains or Strengthenings) Conan, the son Faebuyr. Its posterity occupied the island Great Britain called on his name. Semion poppy Iardaneoil of the Fop left

to lands of Greeks where from it there were Fir Gaylian, Fir Bolg and Fir Domnann. From there Semion's descendants poppy of Iardaneoil went to the country Great Greece where were improved in arts. Then they by the father and the grandfather through Scythia and the sea Kaisp arrived in Ireland under a name of tribes of the goddess to T uatha De Dannan. Not honey and his descendants it is possible to compare with belga (belga, cf. the tribe in Gallia Belgica - Nemetes). The ethnonym of Belgae is etymologically identical to a drevneirlandsky ethnonym of Fir Bolg. In the 2nd floor. The II millennium BC in the north of France the archaeological culture of Seine - Oise - Marne with special ceramics and heavy bronze axes and knives extended. The certain keltoyazychny tribes known under a mythical name NeMed (*Nemet-) which became creators of special historical and cultural community of belg (Belgae) were later carriers of this archaeological culture. They were settled not only in Belgika, but also on the British Isles (NeMed and Fir Bolg).

As origin of mythical ancestors of the Celtic people of Partholón, Nemeda, Fir Bolg, Tribes of the Goddess Mile "The book of captures of Ireland" connects Dana, Sons with Scythia, Migdoniya and Sicily that will be coordinated with the antique tradition kept by Appian and data of archaeological researches on a vector of distribution of neolytic cultures in Europe from the southeast on the West and the North, it is possible to assume that the Tsirkumpontiysky region and Egeida were the most ancient ancestral home of Celts, galatians and illiriyets.

THE CIRCUMPONTIAN AND THE AEGEAN REGIONS IN THE OLD-IRISH GENEALOGICAL TRADITION

A.G. CHEREDNICHENKO, A.YU. KRAVCHENKO

Belgorod State University

This article presents the analysis of some Irish genealogical myths from & #34; The Book of the Taking of Ireland". Correlation of the Old-Irish genealogical tradition with the Antique tradition, data of archaeology and comparative linguistics can prove the hypothesis about localization of the Celtic-Illyrian homeland in the Circumpontian and the Aegean regions.

e-mail: cherednichenko@bsu. edu.ru

Randell William? Daniel
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