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Genesis of forms of feudal castles in Central Europe in the period of the mature Middle Ages

dlya the effective analysis of legal culture it is standard to structure it on the following basic elements: knowledge, installations, behavior. Correct and full-fledged knowledge is the cornerstone of legal behavior of the individual realizing the legal installations, and studying interest of citizens in legal information and sources of its receiving gives indicative criteria for assessment of legal culture.

The hierarchy of values forms a basis of social installations of citizens, including, shows the place of the right in structure of values. In structure of values of Russians conscience (a rank 1), family (a rank 2), money (a rank 3), the law dominates (a rank 4). According to F. Sheregi, fixation of Russians on compliance with law, in effect, positive, but citizens reserve the right them not to observe [13]. One of the main reasons for such relation is usual lack of information on laws which is often aggravated with unwillingness to increase the legal knowledge.

The lack of information on laws and the relations which they govern for citizens is the indisputable and justified basis of their ignoring. "I break type of behavior because did not know that I break" does not belong, according to citizens, to unlawful and it cannot be estimated as an arbitrariness. From this it is possible to draw a conclusion that improvement of legal knowledge will promote an institutionalization of legal behavior. But, in fact, citizens, answering a question of advantage of the right, knowledge of its norms, claim that knowledge of the rights and the provisions of the law in our country "is of no use to the person" (47%). Such fixation on uselessness of the codified legal behavior keeps society in a condition of apathy and reduces motivation to increase in individual legal knowledge and, in final the account, legal culture.

If citizens are sure that in modern Russia there is a real opportunity effectively to assert the rights in a support for knowledge of laws, then it can serve as a serious incentive for search and studying legal information. For this reason of 19.4% of the population in tse-

scrap feel the need for legal knowledge, most of all

>- 31.6% - youth. But owing to the apathy of society designated above as one of its dominating characteristics, it is natural that only 6.9% of respondents are completely sure that the result of their legal actions will be positive.

It is natural that the right role in everyday life of society receives a low mark at citizens. The majority (47.8%) considers that "in the country the life of society has not enough relation to the right, people live by the rules", badly respecting precepts of law. Many of respondents negatively estimate work of public authorities and change of a situation in the legal sphere. According to respondents, fight against corruption and crime changed for the worse, precepts of law are badly respected by public servants, and law enforcement agencies ignore addresses of citizens. According to citizens, one of vital issues of modern Russia without which solution it is impossible to improve a social and economic situation is corruption.

The majority denies effectiveness of the principle of democracy in the current lawmaking. The opinion of citizens is not considered, "they are not asked". From here estrangement of people from the law and unwillingness to observe it. Understanding as democracy accounting of opinion of the population in legislative process, i.e. the population declares the readiness in it to participate, 90% of respondents do not attach significance to law-abidingness of citizens.

Leaning on the aforesaid, it is possible to note that at the present stage the end is not put to studying category of legal culture, and problems of legal culture, its formation, formation, development which should be solved in the future are updated only. The movement of Russia to civil society is impossible without formation of legal culture and understanding of the right as major social value.


1. A role of citizens' initiatives in development of Russia in the 21st century: The full text of a performance of D. Medvedev at the II Civil forum on January 22, 2008. - Electron. data. Access mode:
2. Dugin, And. The Civil society project as threat of the Russian originality (From an interview of the leader of OPOD "Eurasia" of the philosopher A. Dugin to "The Russian magazine" ( Electron. data. Access mode:
3. Ilyin, I.A. Our tasks. Historical fate and future of Russia. - M.: Rarog, 1992.
4. Zaslavskaya, T.I. Innovative and reformatory capacity of Russia and a problem of civil society//Civil society in Russia: problems of self-determination and development. - M.: LLC Severo-Print, 2001.
5. Arinin, A.N. Rights and freedoms of the person and effective development of Russia//Social sciences and present.-2002.-№ 1.
6. Vetyutnev, Yu.Yu., etc. Legal culture in Russia at a turn of centuries (Review of the All-Russian scientific conference)//the State and the right. - 2001. - No. 10. - Electron. data. Access mode:
7. Lubin, V.P. Discussions about the political culture of modern Russia//Russia and modern world. - 2002. - No. 2 (35).
8. Shmakov, V.I. The pseudo-constitutional nature, imaginary democratism and extra morality of the Russian statehood in absence of civil society//the 21st century: spiritual and moral and social human health. - M.: MGUKI, 2001.
9. Lapayeva, Century. Proletarians of brainwork, unite!//Independent newspaper. - 2001. - On Feb. 1
10. Alekseev, S.S. Ascension to the right. Search and decisions. - M.: NORM, 2001.
11. Coca. Political sociology / lane with fr. - M.: INFRA-M, 2001.
12. Nersesyants, B.C. Civil concept of the public contract on bases of a post-socialist system//Social researches. - 2001. - No. 2.
13. Shereg, F.E. Sotsiologiya is right: applied researches. - SPb.: Aleteya, 2002.

Article came to edition 08.10.10

UDC 72.033/034 (4)

E.V. Kilimnik, department chair of arts and social education of the Ural institute of social education, Yekaterinburg, E-mail:


On the basis of the carried-out analysis of the natural and landscape, cultural and historical and sociocultural features which influenced evolution of forms of feudal castles in medieval regions of Central Europe in work the genesis, dynamics of development is considered

forms and structure of castle complexes that essentially will help to meet a lack in the European history of medieval culture, will increase education level of students of humanitarian faculties of higher educational institutions of Russia.

On the basis of the conducted field researches in sociocultural zones of Central and Eastern Europe the author developed a new course & #34; Lock as kulturnoistorichesky phenomenon: experience of culturological typology (on the example of monuments of Central and Eastern Europe) within teaching discipline & #34; History medieval культуры" what will allow student's audience to understand more multilaterally features of knightly culture of the Middle Ages and its phenomenon - the feudal castle [1]. Studying historical and cultural heritage of the Middle Ages, in particular feudal castles, gains the special importance for preservation in memory of people of bright manifestations of original culture of the European regions in the conditions of the integrating role of modern united Europe today. During processes of globalization and transformation of sociocultural space there is new single-crop Europe consisting of polycultural regions, historically developed quantitative and qualitative variety of local cultures is characteristic of each of which. There is a formation of uniform political, economic and kulturnoistorichesky space and education on this basis of a supranational concept & #34; европеец". Along with it there is a certain loss by Europeans, especially young, the national and cultural self-identification. It, in turn, causes damage to kulturnoistorichesky memory of the nation, that unique sociocultural space in which throughout many eras monuments to European civilization were created, similar to feudal castles, in each of which belonging to certain national culture is imprinted.


to meet the existing lack in a research made an attempt to reveal local cultural features of regions of Central and Eastern Europe (western areas) on the example of heritage of knightly culture of the Middle Ages - feudal castles. Monuments of knightly culture it is central and the East European regions allow to reveal their local specific sushchno-stnost first of all as sociocultural units of the whole organism - medieval European culture. The choice of medieval regions of Central and Eastern Europe (western lands) was caused by the fact that earlier they did not become a subject of complete scientific generalization of a culturological perspective of reconstruction of typology of feudal castles. The appeal of domestic and foreign researchers to problems of development of locks in Western Europe as to the leading region of the Middle Ages, results in lack of culturological studying genesis and dynamics of forms of the feudal defensive castle in the central and east regions of Europe. Thereof the overall picture of cultural interference of regions of medieval Europe taking into account influence of the Western European traditions and maintaining local cultural features is lost at a construction of castle complexes. By recognition Russian (A.V. Bunin) and foreign scientists (K. Ulmer) because of the arising difficulties in the analysis of genesis and dynamics of forms of regional castles of Europe of X - it is not possible to first third of the 17th centuries to create culturological typology of this phenomenon of a medieval civilization with identification of the main types of feudal castles and their derivatives

>- childbirth and types. Besides, being a peculiar cultural center between more developed Western (industrial culture) and Eastern Europe (agrarian culture), it is central and East European (the western lands) regions with feudal castles represent the unique sociocultural model which embodied a considerable range of peculiar features, to some extent inherent West

to the European regions, especially France and Germany. It allows to open most fully and systemically in cultural science a picture of the European transformation of castle case XI - the end of the first third of the 17th centuries in is central also the East European regions as subcultural loci.

It is much more difficult, than in regions of Western Europe (France, England), there was a process of evolution of forms of the feudal castle in sociocultural zones of medieval German principalities. On the bases of studying a basic basis of origin and development of early feudal strengthenings in the German medieval principalities it is possible to reveal two main regional cultural and construction currents which formed the basis of future feudal fortress.

Uneven cultural, economic, military development of certain German territories led to the fact that here the uniform prazamkovy structure genetically was not created as in England and France. Where antique cultural and construction traditions were not lost, origin of forms of future feudal castle in the Early Middle Ages of a century fluctuated between two archaic prazamkovy structures inherited of the past: the structure of the open dwelling which had similarity to an imperial pfalets of the 8-10th centuries and between structure of the national ancient settlement strengthened by natural elements of protection (so-called Folksburg) [1] which existed here from time immemorial. The first connection of both forms happened during an era of the emperor Otton when again there was a need to revive in full gloss the half-forgotten Carlovingian empire - the only means to stop centrifugal forces in the breeding lands of Germany. However in the power which borders were threatened by Magyars to them - Normans and which violently conquered Slavic areas in the east, it was already impossible to build the representative not strengthened buildings - pfalets on the open place, as during an era of Carlovingians. They needed to be transferred to the safe place protected by both natural, and artificial obstacles or to the old ancient settlement strengthened by new strengthenings. Along with early strengthening in the form of the national ancient settlement by the beginning of the High Middle Ages pfalts - the residence of the king acts as new type of a feudal construction. Pfaltsa had to provide to the king during his detour empires (in the medieval German empire there was no constant royal residence) a reliable residence and supply and, thus, to promote the continuity of implementation of the royalty. Under the relevant provision treated a pfalets: a household yard (curia), the royal palace (palatium from where there is the German concept Pfalz), the royal hall (aula regia) and defensive works of a pfalets (castrum) - an external protective shaft [2].

Difference between the areas affected and not affected by ancient art are best of all visible if to compare some genetic structures of the earliest feudal castles near Rein. The oldest form of the feudal dwelling - a prismatic tower, about 10 m high, the sizes and thickness of walls reminds so-called & #34; бургузе" - the watchtowers constructed by Romans for protection of borders on Rein and in Podunavye in the first centuries of our era. The oldest squared feudal towers conducting the genetic beginning from boundary Roman tower constructions arose in these areas only at the end of the XI century (Glyayberg, Cassel); towers of rounded shape near Rein, on the contrary, appeared only at the end of the 12-13th centuries (Plankenberg), and, therefore, are secondary. They were to a large extent applied already under the influence of kulturnostroitelny traditions of the French castle architecture

eras of the king Philip-Augustus. And though the French cultural and construction influence is indisputable here, roundish towers in these German lands did not reach such impressive sizes as in France, they it is rare where exceed 20 m. Besides their close rooms met requirements imposed by the German feudal lords to the dwelling a little.

The lack of housing in tower structure of the German lock caused need for construction of the strengthened palace with the ordinary hall for it. Existence of the residential palace building had, in turn, the return influence on zareyn-sky feudal towers of the considerable sizes in which premises were under construction, duplicating the main palace and which did not receive as a result of active palace building of the further development.

The construction of feudal castles in lands of the Sacred Roman Empire in XI - the beginning of the 12th centuries which except the highest military nobility was conducted also by influential families of imperial and royal ministerial allows to observe a big variety, given rise during this architecture, arkhitekturnokhudozhestvenny forms. For the first time in this period of time near the inhabited tower which was often the only remarkable building in walls or a palisade of a castle complex there are new palace constructions, unique on the shape, repeating a land relief and representing usually two-storeyed, the extended stone houses - most often screen type with the courtyard. The refusal of the former characteristic tower residence happens a consequence of this development of the feudal castle in the German lands at the end of the 11th century, and inhabited and defensive functions are completely shifted, as a rule, to the two-storeyed strengthened stone house (screen building). These constructions small originally during an era of emperors Shtaufenov (HP-HSh of centuries) developed in the magnificent strengthened palace buildings [3]. They continued to play a role of the main building of the feudal castle, having undertaken a role of the former tower residence which is in turn transformed to an observation construction and besides acts as an element of defense of a palace complex. In some cases in medieval German principalities it could be new tower-like palace constructions which it is possible to define as & #34; strengthened дома" the having almost square bases and powerful walls and also an entrance on the top floors.

The investigation of it during transformation of forms of the feudal castle, in German-speaking regions of the Sacred Roman Empire instead of a former inhabited tower about 1100 - at the beginning of the 12th century approved purely defensive observation tower.

Thus, during influence of the developed regional cultural and construction features there is a birth of the original German palace and tower lock which genetic cornerstone were imperial pfalts - the palace and the national ancient settlement with its archaic derevozemlyany strengthenings.

The amount of buildings in often small castle space was rather small. Except a tower, & #34; strengthened дома" or the screen palace building which mutual existence was usually excluded whenever possible there were also small farm buildings (kitchen, a workshop, warehouses, the stable) - if they were not taken out in a predgradya or forburg - and as an exception a separate chapel as, for example, in the Kuyerfurt lock (Saxony). The district defensive wall most often executed in the equipment of two covers surrounded the territory of the German feudal castle on round ovally contour, but could have also the polygonal form that was characteristic of mountain locks of the German principalities. The majority of entrance gate in feudal castles throughout XI - the beginning of the 12th centuries were still small and most often represented the simple arch passes executed in a wall (the lock

Vianden, Luxembourg). But, since the middle of the 12th century the number of the equipped perverse constructions big more richly which were often representing a vorotny tower as, for example, in feudal castles Kuerfurt or Lyuttsenburg (district Moselle) increases. It was a new step in development of feudal castle architecture of Germany since the defensive vorotny towers located in a chain of a district wall during a former Salic era do not meet yet. The surrounding wall and walls of stone palace buildings represent generally irregular laying on limy solution, but also the laying from the smaller, vytesanny and laid by layers stones or vytesanny rectangles often meets. Besides a stone laying in the form of so-called & #34; fish bone or колосьев" (opus spicatum) [4] in especially pretentious feudal castle constructions of the krupnozemelny nobility by master organizers is actively applied a laying with use of the big, accurately squared large rectangular stones - kvadr. Thanks to them still examples of architectural and art jewelry (door and window openings, arches, door crossing points, columns, capitals), exclusively rare during a Salic era, of feudal castle complexes appear.

The structure of palace and tower or German castle type included the main palace building with the representative hall on the second floor from the yard. On the first floor, usually half utaplivayemy concerning forecourt level, got on the going-down ladder. In the hall located on the second floor a number of the coupled windows making quite often whole gallery with columns was arranged. These windows were or glazed, or were supplied with rotary wooden boards (peculiar medieval blinds), and the nave lit with these windows was called a sunbed. In case of small security of the palace, the coupled windows were replaced with small slit-like loopholes, and the lack of illumination was compensated by light of torches. The chapel, sometimes two-storeyed, with the first floor allocated to commoners and with the amphitheater on the second (a peculiar tribune) intended for the spiritual and secular nobility was a part not subject to changes of the strengthened palace. The chapel was an independent part, or was a palace extension, or was over gate. The palace form usually always followed a configuration of a local landscape and was irregular. Outside of a wall of the palace cut through windows loopholes. Considerably the lack of the fighting course on all perimeter of the palace reduced fighting opportunities of this strengthening that, probably, was compensated by a mountainous landscape and, as a result, complexity of approach to walls. The tower dominating over the palace originally (to the middle of the 12th century) played a supporting role, in defense the function patrol was allocated for it. In first floors of a tower often could take place prison or warehouse. Transformation of location of a tower for the purpose of strengthening of defense capability of the palace begins with the middle of the 12th century. As a result the provision of a tower in its organism changes, and it is built in a palace wall for control and active protection of entrance gate, at the same time (if it was rectangular) the acute angle was turned to the front that enhanced its defensive qualities. Along with it, from the middle of the 12th century the pre-castle territory also begins to become stronger in addition. Owing to the happening cultural and historical processes in regions of the empire there is a semi-dismembered scheme of the lock where the strengthened palace with a tower becomes the central building, and precastle strengthening (predgradya), regular or irregular in the basis, completely subordinated to a mountainous terrain adjoins to it. Similar precastle strengthening usually had the walls conceding on height to the palace to which could be attached inhabited inside (for guards), economic objects are more rare. The wall predgradya could be in addition strengthened by small rectangular or round turrets, one of which,

often played a role of gateway. Outside entrance to the lock usually in addition became stronger an earth mound if the area was flat, and a ditch. In the small palace yard the well usually was placed. On the first floor of the strengthened palace construction, economic services and housing for garrison generally were placed. On the second and third floors, personal rooms of the owner of the lock and the knightly hall for reception of guests were placed. The similar scheme usually was the cornerstone also of various derivative options of palace and tower or German type of the lock where the main place was allocated to still strengthened palace performing the main defensive, inhabited and economic functions.

Thus, at the end of the 10-12th centuries as the defensive centers of territories and the strengthened residences of the nobility in medieval Central Europe gradually there were traditional, standard types of the strengthened feudal dwelling. At the same time this period of time can be considered and as a phase of a certain experimenting in which also old forms - the wooden house or screen buildings were applied, but also the new architectural and art decisions in a construction of defensive locks submitted by an inhabited tower with bulk & #34 at the same time developed; моттом" and & #34; strengthened домом" or the palace with a watchtower.

At the end of XI - the beginning of the 12th centuries with weakening of the imperial power, the nobility of the Sacred Roman Empire becoming during this period more and more independent in escalating volumes sought to build powerful stone locks as the constants and representative patrimonial residences, neglecting protection of regions. They were for the dynastic creators on the one hand in the way to evade from claims of the royal and imperial power, but also to be protected also from expansionist aspirations of fellows on estate. The device of the high-rise lock as attribute of a noble way of life dominating over a landscape during this period was still the privilege of large land dynasties while members still of the low-notable and rather poor imperial ministerialitet put the small locks almost without any exception on the plain, near country settlements. This category of feudal estate belonging in later times to the average and lowest knightly nobility, status construction of the strengthened castle complexes at hilly heights worked well only at the time of emperors Shtaufenov (middle of the XII-XIII centuries).

Speaking about genesis of forms of the European feudal castles, it is necessary to mention works of the French researcher of locks P. Lavedan who considers that the European medieval zamkostroyeniye developed in many respects under the influence of development of the obsidional equipment [5]. At all correctness of a similar statement it should be noted that all main defensive innovations concerned first of all the locks located in important strategic places and belonging to generally large feudal nobility. In general the European castle architecture was rather conservative, absorbing only separate new elements in defense of locks. It was influenced directly by local cultural and construction traditions; here also small material resources of small and average feudal lords for which construction of the upgraded locks often was too expensive mattered. If to follow the statement of the French researcher, there is a representation that all castle complexes in Europe were constantly improved throughout all time of the existence according to new developments of the obsidional doctrine. This assumption is disproved as show the conducted researches, by the history of the majority of the European locks of the Middle Ages reflecting short-term sieges of the enemy in the basic.

With emergence of the early feudal state construction of derivatives from palace and tower or not -

metsky type of the lock of patrimonial castle complexes in the German principalities reached the considerable rise that was especially shown during the period since beginning ХП-Х^ of centuries. It was promoted, first of all, by penetration of troops of crusaders into space of the Mediterranean, expansion of the German feudal lords on the East and as a result interpenetration of cultural and construction features between various regions of Western, Central and Southern Europe united by borders of the Sacred Roman Empire.

Influence of palace and tower or German castle type during an era of board Shtaufenov was shown in a number of places and in Sicily, but already sometimes in the form of his derivatives. As a result, under the influence of the knightly sort Koyaromonte in Mussomeli at top of the rock there was a freaky lock (1370). In the semi-oval strengthened palace in the plan under the influence of French-Norman cultural and construction traditions all second floor was decorated with two-arch windows (V11ote).

Despite patrimonial types of the locks relating to North German and southern German the kulturnostroitelny directions of palace and tower or German castle type dominating at the beginning of the 12-15th centuries have the traditional strengthened palace (often irregular) and a round or rectangular tower which testified to North German Saxon or South German pridunaysky regional kulturnostroitelny currents.

Considering development of forms of palace and tower or German type of the feudal castle it is necessary to concern regional feature of the elzasko-Swabian kulturnostroitelny direction of which distribution from the middle of the 12th century to the Areas of Saxony and Austrian Podunavya of a laying from kvadr was characteristic. Completely it was used in regions of Central Germany in own shtaufensky possession (Alsace and Swabia) and in Franconia annexed to an imperial crown. In these srednenemetsky areas (the truth, in small degree) the southern German pridunaysky cultural and construction direction in a construction of the palace lock with a tetrahedral tower also prevailed.

In palace and tower locks of the North German Saxon direction - with a roundish tower, even in such expressed shtaufensky possession as in Franconia, the laying from kvadr practically at round towers was not applied completely, unlike locks with the dominating prismatic tower anywhere.

The shtaufensky style in the Southern Germany - the main German part of modern Switzerland was brightly shown, that is in the Areas of Allemanskogo of the cultural and construction direction where the laying from stone kvadr was used only on corners of palaces and towers (as expression of a local cultural and construction identity). In the Areas of Podunavya the laying from kvadr towards the East and the South considerably decreases. If in headwaters of Danube the laying from kvadr was the phenomenon still rather frequent, then in the Austrian Poduna-vye the locks with a similar laying are already single. In Tyrol and in the Foralsberg area the laying from kvadr was used restrictedly, as in Switzerland only on corners (in Northern Switzerland - Egrenfeld, Frauyenfeld; in Tyrol - Trattsberg). This traditional laying which is closely connected with the imperial idea which the emperor Barbarossa conceived (to create the uniform state with uniform culture), was successful as a result partially. But in a construction of locks Barbarossa encountered the insuperable border dividing architectural and art tastes and cultural and construction traditions of certain territories of the Sacred Roman Empire.

Except the main structure of the German dvortsovobashenny type of the lock at which the main defense is entrusted district walls of the palace and a watchtower there are in Germany such feudal castles where there are no towers at all and where

defense entirely lays down on fortifications. These are locks from chekholny (Map1e1shaiyeg) and panel board (Bsyyshaiyeg) a wall. In a case where the castle cape was poorly protected by the nature, the kernel of the lock is enclosed with a high and powerful wall which on the dangerous party reaches 3-5 m in thickness and quite often 10 m in height, and premises are attached to it from within. Very often around the castle palace there was a strengthened by bypass, but lower wall (so-called parkan), precastle territory in several meters width protected outside by a district ditch. At locks mysovy where approach went on a narrow isthmus, this chekholny party was located only from approach where it grew in a powerful board 3-5 m thick and 20 m high which had under the top side gallery in the thickness of walls also the vaulted course. At separate simple castle structures the wall is adjoined by the palace at once, at more difficult designs the approach to an inhabited palace part is interrupted by several boards going one after another and protected by ditches with water. Both derivative options of palace and tower type of the lock - a chekholny and panel board look - were often combined with towers, behind some exception quadrangular or pentagonal, put in angular breaks of a wall (pentagonal in respect of a tower - Lokkenkhaus, Austria). Often the tower is put in the middle of a wall as locks topmost, and flat. Almost in all cases it is about castle constructions entirely of a kvadrovy laying or with quadras on corners. Already from this it is visible that it is about the lock belonging approximately to southern German direction pridunaysky cultural construction concentrated mainly in Fran-

koniya, Alsace, Rhine Pfaltsa and Swabia. As show the conducted field researches, in them a laying from kvadr, inherent in locks of shtaufensky type, it is most expressive.

In the Sacred Roman Empire the towers of pronounced round shape meet occasionally, mainly in those lands where the French kulturnostroitelny influence was notable (Katz on Rein). At the same time it is necessary to consider also that to the second half of the XII century in royal and crown lands in Franconia, Swabia and Alsace the magnificent shtaufensky strengthened palaces were built, and development of structure of the feudal palace and tower castle went to end. The Shtaufensky royal and imperial castles were top of the German castle architecture. They became widespread along the old Roman way following along the average and lower Rhine Current, partially - in Porec Mokhana and from there along the Tauber River and on the southwest from Rein to Podunavya inclusive.

As a result of the happening evolution of forms of feudal castles, in the XI-XIII centuries in sociocultural loci of Central Europe there was a regional closed housing estate capable to exist independently rather long time in the conditions of a siege. During this period in medieval German principalities in process of forms of the feudal dwelling the formation of new type of a fortification - the feudal castle which main lines existed without significant changes prior to the beginning of the 15th century, and in some western areas of Eastern Europe - was completed up to the end of the 16th century


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Article came to edition 08.10.10

UDC 008:001.14

I.V. Leonov, edging. kulturol., dots. ALTGPA, Barnaul, E-mail:


the Present article is devoted by

to studying the main components and the generating mechanisms of patterns of cultural and historical process. In work on the announced subject the paradigmalno-thematic analysis allowing to reveal the deep parties protses-is applied

Gulbrandsen Frank
Other scientific works: