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Evolution of interaction of the Russian state and the Buddhist community of the Volga Kalmyks in XVII - the first half of the 18th century

UDK 94 (470.46=512.37)

evolution of interaction of the Russian state and the Buddhist community of the Volga Kalmyks in xvii - the first half of xviii of a century

© 2010 A.A. Kurapov

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Evolution of socio-political contacts of the Buddhist community of the Kalmyk khanate with regional and central public authorities is considered. The Buddhist clergy implemented in domestic policy of the khanate own concept of development of society, mainly theocratic. Otkochevka of a considerable part of the khanate to China in 1771 becomes a logical conclusion of long-term advocacy work of the Buddhist community.

In article is considered the evolution of sociopolitical contacts of a Buddhist community of Kalmyk Khanate with regional and central bodies of the government. The Buddhist clergy realized in internal policy of khanate own concept of development of a society, mainly theocratic. Resettlement a significant part of khanate to China in 1771 becomes a logic end of long-term propaganda activities of a Buddhist community.

The Buddhism became widespread at historical ancestors of Kalmyks - the western Mongols (oh-ratov). As a result of an otkochevka of oyratsky breeding groups of torgout and derbet at a boundary of the XVI-XVII centuries of Russia in Lower Volga area the Kalmyk khanate which had serious impact on political life of the region was created.

The status of Buddhist ideology and its carriers predetermined a special role of Buddhist priests in the political and social and economic processes happening on the Lower Volga in the XVII-XIX centuries. The Russian authorities seeking to include the Volga Kalmyks in the sphere of the Russian domestic and foreign policy throughout all considered period actively interacted with the Buddhist community (sangkhy), whether it be cooperation, fight or control from the Russian authorities. Let's conditionally allocate as the period of cooperation of XVII - the beginning of the 18th century; as the confrontation period - 30 - the 70th of the 18th century; as the period of control over community from outside rossy-

the sky authorities - the end of the XVIII-XIX century. Let's consider specifics of every period.

As a result of a difficult socio-political situation at the end of the 16th century in the Western Mongolia (lack of pasturable territories, aggravation of interstine fight of the oyratsky union, foreign policy complications) the torgoutsky and derbetsky governors advance the kochevya on the North and the northwest, in borders of Southern and Western Siberia to Tara, Tyumen, Tobol. Torgoutsky breeding association of Huo-Urliuk, having got beaten by the oyratsky governor Chokur, recedes under Tara, is later to Yaik [1, page 145]. In this region from the second half of the 17th century as a result of long socio-political process the Kalmyk khanate is formed. Documents confirm a significant role of Buddhist clergy in formation of the new state, active participation in respect for tradition of political interaction with representatives of the Russian government in the region. In 1636 in response to T. Petrov's embassy Huo-Urliuk's embassy - goes to Tobolsk

Urlyuka led by Bilyukta Mogundeev. Representatives of Buddhist clergy of ulus Huo-Urliuk entered into the structure of the embassy designed to confirm loyalty of Torahs-goutov to the Russian government during the political period, heavy for breeding association: ". .ot labs from Buturaya - Coolah Gabutakhayev and with it four persons and from labs from Chorti - Soman from mandzhika" [2, l. 86]. In the 30th of the 17th century ambassadors from lamas of ulus Huo-Urliuk - Chorchi and Buturaya - appear in the Russian-Kalmyk negotiations, actively participate in economic interaction of Kalmyks with the Russian cities [2, l. 216].

By 40th of the 17th century it is possible to note the fact of entry of Buddhist attributes into the Russian-Kalmyk political relations as the legitimating factor. So, in 1645 the Russian messenger A. Kudryavtsev sent to the Kalmyk uluses received an order from the Ambassadorial order, ".chtob they on Curan on the belief shert made" [2, l. 327]. In the 50th of the 17th century the Buddhist community actively assisted the Kalmyk secular aristocracy in the solution of a territorial question. Of Daychin with the Russian government took part in negotiation process of 1650 also Supreme a lama of the khanate. The letter from "Kalmyk hutugta" is mentioned in correspondence of the Ambassadorial order with the Astrakhan voivode (possibly, from Supreme lamas. - A.K.) to the Moscow archimandrite. Signing of the corresponding address by Daychin and "Kalmyk hutugty" once again emphasizes the high political status of clergy in the formed khanate. Becomes a peculiar result of the negotiation process authorized by Daychin in 1648 shert, signed on February 4, 1655 in the Bal-chinsky town near Astrakhan the Kalmyk ambassadors Seren-tayshoy, Duraly-tarkhany, zaysangy Chokula [3, page 116].

The major factor affecting activity of the Russian-Kalmyk relations in the 17th century was the internal political situation in the khanate, relationship of owners. The death of the Kalmyk governor - Monchaka in 1669 causes split in the Kalmyk khanate and long civil war [4]. In this situation the successor Monchaka - Ayuka, actively fighting for the power in the Kalmyk khanate, addresses diplomacy again. The Buddhist clergy actively participates in preparation of shertny congresses. Shert, signed near Astrakhan, for river. Salty with the assistance of the Astrakhan voivode, the prince Ya.N. Odoevsky, confirmed the main paragraphs of agreements 1660 - 1661 of and came to an end with a traditional formulation: "... shertvy on the Kalmyk belief both I worship and I kiss god of the Burkhan and the prayful book Bichig and beads", instead of Ayuki the Buddhist priest Che-chen-Zapsan [2, l laid a hand to the diploma. 1]. In 70 - the 90th of the 17th century the Buddhist clergy of the khanate is attracted by Ayuka for the organization of embassies to Moscow. Data on two embassies headed by clergy - embassies of a bagsha Bilikta and Unitey (Unyudey's) bagsh belong to 1674 [5, page 73]. Become their main questions vzai-

a khanate mootnosheniye with Cossacks and participation of the Kalmyk cavalry in a campaign of Russia to the Crimea.

Activization of foreign policy of the khan Ayuki which conductor was the Buddhist clergy, causes the first restrictive actions of the Russian government in relation to the Buddhist community. Not unreasonably finding political implication in the Kalmyk pilgrimages, the Government of the Russian Federation introduces restrictions for religious contacts of the khanate and Tibet. The chancellor G.I. Golovkin ordered to the Kazan governor P.S. Saltykov to do not allow on January 22, 1715 Ayuki's ambassadors into China without prior consent of the Russian government [6, page 159]. Since 1717 the question of the organization and sending pilgrimages to Tibet from the Kalmyk khanate passes from the religious plane - into political. The Russian government defined for itself that the religious factor and a pilgrimage as one of its manifestations play an important role in political life of the khanate. Later, in the 20th of HUS of century, permission to a pilgrimage to Tibet in the Russian-Kalmyk relations was considered as an award for military progress and for loyalty to the government in domestic policy of the Kalmyk khanate.

Having passed the formation period at the end of the 17th century, in 20 - the 30th of the 18th century the community begins to influence actively domestic policy, implementing the socio-political concept of the Buddhism. And since 30th of the 18th century we note the period of confrontation of the Buddhist community with the Russian statehood. In 1713 Ayuk's khan gives the hansky press of Dalai Lama to the eldest son Chakdorzhap and declares him the successor. Chakdorzhap's death causes on February 19, 1722 the beginning of feudal fragmentation in the khanate. Sha hens lama, together with the secular and clerical supporters the theocratic project implementing in the khanate actively interferes with the feudal conflict Supreme. Group Shakur lama and the Russian administration originally found understanding in the solution of the main internal political problems. In February, 1724 Shakur lama and zaysang Yaman opposed plans of most of the Kalmyk owners to otkochevat for Kuban, having made an otkochevka to Don, in the "Tsaritsyno line" strengthened by the Russian troops [7, page 41].

The similar political position coincided with plans of the Russian administration about prevention of possible transition of large group of the Kalmyk owners under the Crimean protectorate and consolidations of the Kalmyk society. Since 1724 to Shakur lama the Russian government in the solution of internal political problems in the Kalmyk khanate addresses. As A.P. Volynsky, "wrote... in all owners thin hope only their main spiritual Shakur lama shows great fidelity and diligence to its Imperial Majesty" [8, l. 95]. In our opinion, mutual interest of the parties was the cause of similar contact. During consultations with Shakur lama is accepted by A.P. Volynsky okoncha-

the telny decision on the deputy's candidate acting through the younger son Ayuki - Tseren-Donduk, the agreement on control over internal political activity of the head of the khanate from the Russian administration is concluded, through Shakur lama as closest adviser of the deputy [9, l. 116].

Shakur lama signing of the oath by Tseren-Donduk became on September 20, 1724 a result of negotiations of A.P. Volynsky and. The active exit of clergy to political arena, participation in internal political fight demonstrated increase in a role of Buddhist clergy in political life of the khanate.

Definition by the government of a figure of the deputy supported by clergy khanates did not stabilize an internal political situation. The feudal conflicts continued. Political opposition of groups of Donduka-Ombo and Tseren-Donduk in 1731 developed into direct military collision. On November 4, 1731 at Sasykoli's natural boundary Jara, on the left coast of Volga is lower Black, there was a battle of troops of Donduka-Ombo and Tseren-Donduk which ended with defeat of group of the khan [10]. Military defeat of Tseren-Donduk and as a result loss of a considerable part of uluses led to the actual change of a political top of the khanate.

In spite of the fact that the provision Tseren-Donduka in the khanate after 1731 becomes final nominal, Shakur lama as the active ally of the khan continues to play an important role in the Russian-Kalmyk interaction and in domestic policy of the khanate.

When maintaining the high status Shakur lama in the khanate considerably becomes more active its opposition in the Buddhist community. So, during negotiations with representatives of the Russian government one of conditions of the return from Kuban Donduk-Ombo Shakur lama, i.e. replacement of the leadership of Buddhist clergy called removal from uluses [7, page 83]. Sha - hens-lama could render counteraction to political strengthening of Donduka-Ombo.

The Russian government interested in political stability in the Kalmyk khanate, necessary including for the organization of military campaigns of the Kalmyk cavalry against Turkey intensified negotiation process with the most influential Kalmyk owner - Donduk-Ombo. Objectively estimating Tseren-Donduk, the Russian government within respect for "artificial balance of forces" for many years supported the weakest political figure of the khanate as oppositional to independent Donduk-Ombo. The significant role in this political scheme was played by Shakur lama who was legitimating the status of the deputy, and later - the khan and realized the main internal political objectives of the Russian side in the khanate.

In realities of 1734 the similar scheme sputtered out. Tseren-Donduk finally lost political weight among the Kalmyk owners, keeping the status only thanks to the Russian troops. Shakur lama pursuing difficult policy of maneuvring between the Russian interests and interest -

mi the Buddhist community, incited against itself a considerable part of spiritual and secular elite.

during political negotiations of representatives of the Russian administration with Donduk-Ombo Shakur lama repeatedly was called as one of the causes of a political crisis: as the active participant of collision under Sasykoli, and in general as the reason of aggravation of a political situation in the khanate [7, page 74]. Due to the general orientation of the Russian government on change of a secular top of the khanate Shakur lama as the active political opponent of the potential deputy in 1731 became a hindrance to political settlement in the Kalmyk khanate.

On March 20, 1735 the decree from the empress Anna Ioannovna is sent to the khan Tseren-Donduk: "... you to our citizen for some business to be here to St. Petersburg immediately" [8, l. 1]. Implementation of process of deportation of Tseren-Donduk of the khanate was entrusted to the Astrakhan governor I.P. Izmaylov. Supreme a lama asked about permission to accompany the khan on his trip to St. Petersburg. To the government also Tseren-Donduk [9, l addressed with a similar request. 2].

With leaving Shakur lama from policy ended the period of the most active participation of Buddhist clergy in the Russian-Kalmyk relations [10].

Donduk-Ombo's government (1735 - 1741) becomes the period of strengthening of authoritative trends in domestic policy of the khanate. In these conditions the role of Buddhist clergy in socio-political life of the khanate considerably decreased. It was attracted by the secular leader for interaction with the Russian government, legitimations of own political status and the status of the dynasty formed by it. At the same time coming to power in the Buddhist community of the regional spiritual elite which was drawn towards certain secular groups predetermined the further conflict of the Buddhist clergy and the Russian government which is actively interfering with domestic policy of the Kalmyk khanate.

The priests who got up at the head of the Buddhist community since 1735 departed from the fundamental principles of policy Shakur lama which are consistently realized by it since 1723: the solution of foreign policy tasks at the expense of considerable concessions of the Russian administration in domestic policy, support of the Russian doctrine of "reasonable balance" for the purpose of strengthening of the political status of the Buddhist community at decrease in political activity of secular elite. Together with change of a top of temporal power in the khanate in 1735 there was also a replacement of the leadership of the Buddhist community and its political policy in general [11, l. 82].

The period of government of Donduk-Dasha (1741 - 1758) is connected with activization of the political activity of Buddhist clergy caused by change of internal political reference points. The clergy which again had an opportunity to influence khanate policy promotes stabilization of a situation, rendering poly-

tichesky consultations to the Russian officials. Donduk-Dasha's legislation allowed clergy to strengthen authority of community on the khanate and to toughen disciplinary requirements to community members. Involvement of clergy by the Russian government to negotiations with the Altai telengita testifies to an appreciation of a role of Buddhist clergy in political life of the Kalmyk khanate [12, l. 2].

The analysis of the political events which are preceding an otkochevka of the deputy Ubasha to Dzungaria in 1771 and became a cause of death of the Kalmyk khanate allows to come to the following conclusions. Otkochevka becomes 1771 a result of domestic policy of Buddhist clergy of the Kalmyk khanate, in the II half of the XVII-XVIII centuries seeking to bring Kalmyks under ideological protectorate of hierarches Gelug-pa. The realization of this doctrine by Buddhist clergy is enabled after change of a political situation in Central Asia and Tibet in 20 - the 50th of the 18th century. The absence of opposition to the Chinese government among clergy of Tibet in the second half of the 18th century allows to draw a conclusion on use of the doctrine of association of brothers in faith in Dzungaria diplomacy of China [13, page 128]. Thus propaganda activity of Buddhist clergy of the khanate led by a lama by Lauzang-Dzhalchin become among other the reasons of an otkochevka of 1771

In general relationship of the Buddhist community (sangkha) of the Volga Kalmyks in XVII - the second half of the 18th century and the Russian state is characteristic both of religious, and of national policy of Russia. In the 17th century the process of "collecting" of suburban territories of Russia came to the end and the Russian government actively looks for the allies promoting integration in the environment of national secular and spiritual elite. The Volga Kalmyks from 17th century become the defining ethnopolitical force in the region, and the Buddhism as national ideology - one of the factors defining intensity Russian-

Came to edition

Kalmyk interaction. The Buddhist clergy actively joins in diplomatic process, legitimating a torgoutsky dynasty. In the 18th century the process of interaction of the Kalmyk khanate and the Russian Empire passes into a stage of state regulation and restriction of National political Institutes. The Buddhist clergy in the second half of the 18th century actively fights for maintaining political independence of the khanate in many respects inspiring process of an otkochevka of 1771


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