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To the history of formation of working faculty at the Grozny oil practical institute in the 1920th years



UDK 930

To the HISTORY of FORMATION of WORKING FACULTY AT the GROZNY OIL PRACTICAL INSTITUTE In the 1920th years

© 2009 of H.A. Matagov

Chechen state university, Chechen State University,

364051, Grozny, A. Sheripov St., 32, 364051, Grozny, A. Sheripov St., 32,

umu-chgu@rambler. ru umu-chgu@rambler. ru

Formation of working faculties in Chechnya in the first postrevolutionary years for training of workers for receipt in higher educational institutions is investigated.

Workers faculties were imposed new government in the early post-revolutionary years to train workers to enter higher education institutions.

The question of training of high qualification for the young Soviet republic was key. The working faculties opening for their graduates doors in higher educational institutions which, despite the new Regulations of Admission introduced after the revolution of 1917 remained inaccessible for workers and peasants because of their low educational level became a way out in the 20th of the 20th century. Responsibility for training of workers for receipt in higher educational institutions was conferred on workers' faculties.

Decree of SNK RSFSR of August 2, 1918. "About Regulations of Admission in higher educational institutions of RSFSR" was the beginning of reorganization of the higher school. The principle of democratization of the higher education and broad access to workers and peasants to higher educational institutions was the basis for the Decree. Was established that "each person, irrespective of nationality and a floor, the reached 16 years, can join number of listeners of any higher educational institution, without submission of the diploma, the certificate or the certificate on the termination of high or any school" [1, page 168]. It was forbidden to demand from the arriving any certificates, except the certificate of their personality and age, collection of a tuition fee was cancelled [1].

The resolution Narkomprosa of November 10, 1918 cancelled official introductory and

end-of-year examinations. Students could take examinations in the listened disciplines in coordination with the teacher irrespective of time of receipt and stay in higher education institution at any time.

On January 1, 1919 Narkompros's board of RSFSR makes the decision on opening of training courses in higher education institution. In parallel with courses on February 2 the same year the first workers' faculty was open in Moscow at the initiative of groups of communist students of the former commercial institute [2].

Considering successful experience of the first workers' faculty, Narkompros of RSFSR adopted on September 11, 1919 the resolution "About the Organization of Working Faculties at the Universities", and on September 17, 1920 SNK "About working faculties" legislatively confirmed with the decree the resolution Narkomprosa and announced workers' faculties an organic part of the higher school. In the provision on working faculties it was noted that "in the shock and industrial points which are not connected with location of Higher educational institutions, Working faculties can open from special every time of permission of Glavprofobr" [3].

On the basis of the resolution Narkomprosa of RSFSR of September 11, 1919 in Chechnya the question of opening of working faculty at local oil institute was also brought up (The Grozny oil technical school in 1921 was reorganized into Oil practical institute). In operating masses there was an idea to organize workers' faculty in Grozny. At the 4th Grozny conference of the union

miners in 1921 in the report on cultural educationally question one of his heads of Brewers noted that the union of miners needs to support this petition owing to the fact that there are many practitioners who cannot tell how many there will be twice two. Therefore they need to be passed through professional technical courses [4].

The colloquium, i.e. a test conversation - small examination everything registered in working faculty was appointed to February 25, 1922. Classes were supposed to be begun since March 1 [5].

On March 1, 1922 the ceremonial opening of working faculty as a part of 47 listeners was held [6]. Here what was written by the Nefterabochy newspaper in several days after opening of working faculty: "However, there is a lot of work and energy listeners should spend to be really ready to be admitted to the higher school to become engineers. But that circumstance that workers without rest directly from the machine, from the car go to study shows quite serious attitude to business. It is already guarantee of wellbeing. Listeners need more firmness, it is more than self-confidence and everything will go well" [6].

However about opening and the quantitative list of listeners of the first course of workers' faculty in the report of the Grozny oil practical institute from August 1, 1920 till January 1, 1923 the following information is supplied: "In March 22 years at Institute the 1st course of Workers' faculty with evening lessons aiming to give to workers preparation, necessary for revenues to the highest faculties, was open; since fall 22 years of its occupation were postponed for morning and the number of listeners (29 people) is filled up 14 more, again arrived. On the basis of it was decided to consider the previous period of classes a zero semester, to begin classes since fall in the new structure of Workers' faculty with the first normal semester for 1 course..." [7, l. 114].

The quantitative structure in 47 listeners which is given "Nefterabochy" took place, probably, at the beginning of set and classes of workers' faculty, but to fall of 1922 for various reasons of elimination it made 29 people that is noted in the specified report of institute. But the main thing is that due to new enrollment in 14 people in the fall of 1922 the structure of the first course was brought to the 43rd persons. For January 1, 1923 the number of listeners 1 - go a course of workers' faculty was 44 people [7, l. 102].

Fall of 1922 on the 2nd course of workers' faculty 31 listeners [7, l were accepted. 114]. Thus, the quantitative structure 1 - go a course of workers' faculty exceeded a set of the 2nd course.

B.E. Sokolov was one of founders of workers' faculty. Among the first teachers enthusiasts of workers' faculty were registered Z.A. Gavrishevskaya,

O.P. Belovidova, N.E. Krasnov. Workers promoted workers, subsequently ranking officers N.G. Poe-nyatkov, F.A. Kvochkin, G.A. Kovtunov, K.M. Snur-nikov, etc. [8] were the first students of workers' faculty.

The working faculty had solid pedagogical forces and independent, and the general with institute. From seven lecturers of workers' faculty five had the finished vocational higher education [7, l. 114]. Any of lecturers had as the main no service at institute, all of them were part-time workers, i.e. the primary place of employment was in other institutions.

Result of work of pedagogical collective and listeners was the first release of rabfakovets which took place on June 1, 1924 in Grozny which also demonstrated that workers from bottoms adequately coped with objectives. In the report of a zavrabfak Pokrovsky noted: "More than twenty workers taken on workers' faculty from production graduate from the first proletarian school today to become ideological communists, red specialists, commanders on the economic front, leave this workers' faculty for new work, for continuation of building of the socialist state" [9]. That is graduates were considered not only as experts, but also as reliable ideological shots.

Students of workers' faculty showed big thirst to knowledge. The experience accumulated by workers' faculty within the first year of work was a fertile basis on which workers' faculties of Chechnya gained the further development.

The second release of the Grozny workers' faculty which took place in June, 1925 gave new young proletarian shots on high school Wednesday. In total graduated from workers' faculty of 28 students with the right of entering higher education institutions also 3 students with the right of receipt in technical school.

So, for several years the Grozny workers' faculty successfully coped with a problem of training for a high school system. The fact that by the end of release of workers' faculty in 1925 it was succeeded to keep its initial quantitative structure from 31 people was especially pleasant

Workers' faculties were created not only for training of workers in higher educational institutions, but also for their proletarization. Therefore selection of rabfakovets was carried out with special care. Workers' faculties of the first years of the Soviet power concerning mountain youth were not so strict in the requirement of rather working production experience what they begin to become by the end of the 30th. The social composition of listeners of the first two courses of the Grozny workers' faculty is confirmed by tab. 1 [7, l. 102].

Table 1

Data on belonging of students of workers' faculty to the union for January 1, 1923

Workers' faculty Belonging to the union

Miners Builders Other unions In the union do not consist Military All for 1.01.1923

the 1st course 32 3 8 1 - 44

the 2nd course 31 - - - - 31

In September, 1924 the presidium of working faculty received the formal notice from department of workers' faculties that the Grozny workers' faculty is turned into state, with its expansion in the present academic year to 180 pupils, and in the future - up to 300 [10]. The state assigned means, but insufficient because the question of a grant from Grozneft was already brought up.

Set on 1 - y the course of the Grozny workers' faculty of 1924 was complete in the first of October. Due to the lack of the corresponding material living conditions of occupation did not begin yet. And the 3 and 2 courses were placed in the former shop of Chernyavsky (45 people). Rabfakovtsa complained of lack of conditions for classes [11].

Expansion of list of pupils created need to find the second building under the hostel. The solution of this task was assigned to department of local economy. The Nefterabochy newspaper reports that classes on workers' faculty began since October 20, 1924 [12].

The economic situation of rabfakovets was very difficult. The state had no means yet that without public aid to be engaged in education affairs, to provide proletarian students so that it studied, without needing anything. An exit was one - in independent search of means for improvement of financial position of the needing students. In 1923 in Grozny the week of the help to students after which students of workers' faculty and technical school decided to create cash desk of mutual aid was spent and to transfer it the raised funds to give them to the needing students.

The second week on creation of monetary fund for delivery of lump sums for the aid to students passed in Grozny from December 13 to December 20, 1924. Such weeks of the help were spent through the whole country.

Results of week of the help to students in Grozny were modest. In particular, in the Groznensky Rabochy newspaper it is reported that week of the help to proletarian students gave few means: about 1000 rub [13].

Work on the organization in Grozny of society of "The help to proletarian students" was assigned to executive bureau of the student's organizations of workers' faculty. Its cells on crafts and the plants and in the city had to create a strong financial position of society by collecting membership fees, donations and so forth

The prevalence of Russians and even absence in the first set of 1922 of representatives of other people of Chechnya (tab. 2) [7, l was feature of the Grozny workers' faculty in the first years of its existence. 3].

Table 2

Information about the national list of students of workers' faculty

Workers' faculty Nationality All

Russian Armenians Other nations

the 1st course 44 - - 44

the 2nd course 28 2 1 31

Apparently from the table, Russians made on 1 - m a course among students of workers' faculty of 100%, on the 2nd-90.3. And only in 1925 on the Grozny workers' faculty 2 groups for ethnic minorities open [14]. So, the Grozny workers' faculty was reorganized into the Chechen workers' faculty of Aslambe Sheripov in May, 1931 [15]. The Chechen layer on the Grozny workers' faculty in 1925-1927 made only 1.5%. And by the time of reorganization in 1931 on national representative office the workers' faculty in Grozny can really be considered Chechen. In 1928 the workers' faculty joins in fight for indigenization, increase in a layer of Chechens. In 1928 it increased to 10.1%, in 1929 - up to 18.5 and in 1932 - to 49.5%. In a new set of 1933 the number of Chechens was supposed to be brought to 75% [15, page 156].

In national areas and, in particular to Chechnya, in the conditions of the cultural backwardness characterized by poorly developed network of elementary school and very low number of schools of the raised type, working faculties took the important place as one of the most suitable types of educational institution for training of workers and peasants in the higher school.

The new page because had not only local, but also nation-wide value was added to the opening day of workers' faculty in history of revolutionary gains of the Grozny workers. Only here and in Baku from ranks of workers it was possible to train specialists in the petroindustry. It was extremely important because oil was the powerful engine of the Soviet industry and transport, especially in the 1920th

Literature

Cultural construction in RSFSR (1917-1927). M, 1983. T. 1.

The higher school of the USSR in 50 years. M, 1967. Page 24. Higher educational institutions and working faculties of the USSR: enc. to kN. "Higher school to RSFSR and new students". M, 1923. Page 12. Red work. 1921. 19 noyab. Petroworker. 1922. Feb 22. In the same place. March 3. GARF. T. 1565. Op. 4. 237.

8. I.K. Losev. Workers of Grozny in fight for creation of socialism in our country//Grozny in 40 years of the Soviet power. Grozny, 1957. Page 54-55.
9. Petroworker. 1924. June 13.
10. In the same place. 1924. On Sep. 11
11. In the same place. 1924. On Oct. 23
12. In the same place. 1924. On Dec. 16
13. Grozny worker. 1925. On Jan. 13
14. In the same place. 1925. On Oct. 24
15. From century backwardness by socialism. Implementation of Lenin national policy in Chechen-Ingushetia (1917-1941): sb. dock. and materials. Grozny, 1977. Page 155.

Came to edition

On March 11, 2008

Raymond Anderson
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