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Karl Fuchs and his place in sociocultural space of the Kazan province



ISTORIYA MEDITSINA

UDC 61 (091)

KARL FUCHS AND his PLACE IN SOCIOCULTURAL SPACE of the KAZAN PROVINCE

G.G. Hafizov

Department of archeology and ethnography (manager. - member correspondent of AN of RT, prof. A.G. Mukhamadiyev) Kazan

state university

put English, French and Italian languages, and subsequently, after arrival to Kazan, acquired the Russian and Tatar languages [5] that the language distinction did not prevent communication with local community.

In 1793 K. Fuchs was enlisted by the student in Ger-bornsky academy and within two years listened at first to general education objects, and then the general courses of different branches of natural sciences and medicine. In 1795, having ended a course of academy, he entered the University of Göttingen which was famous at that time for professors of the different industries of knowledge, in particular on philology and natural sciences. Having ended a course in Goettingen in 1797, the young man protected next year at the Marburg university the thesis on degree of the doctor of medicine & #34; Andreus Caesalpinus, de cugus viri ingenio, doctrina et virtute ets" devoted to statement of scientific works and merits of Andrey Tse-zalpinsky, one of the most wonderful naturalistic philosophy representatives of Renaissance. In the first of five theses to the thesis the need of study by physicians of literature of ancient Greeks and Romans in view of impossibility to be a good doctor without the thorough and wide general education is approved. K. Fuchs proved then in practice that the ideal inspired in it & #34; study древних" it is really capable to lead the doctor to perfection and glory.

After defense of a thesis within two years K. Fuchs practised medicine in the homeland, and in 1800 went to St. Petersburg and some time was a regimental doctor there. In 1805 he traveled around Russia with the natural-historical, in particular botanical, purposes and was the same year defined by the doctor at the Chinese Embassy Golovkin's column. On September 4, 1805 he is appointed in the Kazan university ordinary professor of natural history and botany where he already from the very beginning of the activity pays attention to statement of natural sciences and the structure of the relevant educational and auxiliary institutions of the university here.

In 1807. The Moscow society of naturalists elected him the member and sent it the diploma to this rank. As soon as Fuchs arrived to Kazan, he noted its impossible sanitary situation and the first started studying the Volga region in the medico-topographical relation. Since 1812 he began to publish in & #34; Kazan Izvestiyah" short notes about indications of a barometer and the thermometer, the direction and properties of the winds dominating in Kazan diseases and also the observations about an arrival of birds, appearance of butterflies, vegetation, etc. Are not less important in the scientific relation of a research of Fuchs in the field of ethnography, archeology and the history of the Volga region. He studies religious practices, holidays, customs, family life of Tatars and Volga region foreigners of Finnish

On November 17, 2004 the scientific community of Kazan celebrated the 200 anniversary of the Kazan state university. Due to this significant date it is necessary to remember those outstanding scientists-professors who laid the foundation to the scientific capacity of future Kazan imperial university and made a powerful contribution to its formation. Among them a specific place is held by Karl Fedorovich (Fridrikhovich) Fuchs.

About Karl Fuchs - extremely many-sided person, very talented scientist in spheres both natural, and the humanities, at last, the humanist, the devotee of culture in true meaning of a word many books and a set of articles are written. It would seem, we already know about it almost everything. However in fact the bright life of Karl Fuchs sated with rich events has some more the aspects which did not receive still due lighting. The question of its profession of a physician and a contribution to rapprochement of cultures of the Russian and Tatar people which are disclosed in incomplete volume belongs to their number, for example.

Professor of therapy, pathology and clinic and also natural history and botany K.F. Fuchs was born 6 on September (18), 1776 in Gerborne (the principality nassausky). Since young years he became addicted to natural sciences, foreign languages and literature; the poetry and music were especially peculiar to its nature. According to professor of the Kazan university N.N. Bulich knowing him personally, Fuchs except the native German, in perfection vla-

the tribe, and has sometimes the influence as the doctor in the Tatar houses to be present at such ceremonies which show remained inaccessible for strangers. Fuchs stated results of the researches mainly in two monographs: & #34; Short history of Kazani" printed in & #34; Kazan Izvestiyah" in 1817 (No. No. 67, 68 and the subsequent; there are also separate prints), and & #34; The Kazan Tatars in statistical and ethnographic отношениях" (Kazan, 1844). His book & #34; The Kazan Tatars in statistical and ethnographic отношении" still did not lose informative and scientific value. The figurative words of N.I. Vorobyov that & #34 are fair; Fuchs can be considered one of the first камней" not made by hand bridge through the Bulak channel dividing once Kazan into the Tatar and Russian parts [3].

On January 11, 1818 K. Fuchs was transferred to the department of therapy, pathology and clinic released after dismissal of the prof. Erdman. In 1819 after the death of professor of different medical sciences and the first rector of the Kazan Brown University the department of pathology, therapy and clinic was for the first time transferred to him, and next year the reading anatomy, physiology and forensic medicine is assigned to it. The same year at a general meeting & #34; pharmaceutical society in Peterburge" Fuchs was elected by the honorary member.

As the physician he treated that school which demanded from the doctor of comprehensive study of human nature, and recognized a condition of the patient by one appearance - his insight was amazing. The born diagnostician and the therapist, it had not equal in all Volga region.

The prof. Fuchs considered & #34; all diseases in extensive sense nervous болезнями" attaching great value to state of mind of the patient, his influence on a course of disease. Fundamental scientific preparation, systematic work on expansion of the knowledge, medical talent created to it glory of nearly miracle healer. Even people, far from medicine, paid tribute to his comprehensive talents and knowledge. So, M.M. Speransky, the prominent statesman of that time, having got acquainted with Fuchs, told about it: & #34; Чудо-профессор" - so it was struck by an entsiklopedichnost of knowledge of the Kazan physician. The diary entry of the former state secretary demonstrates to it: & #34; In the evening visit to professor Fuchs". Multifigurativeness of its knowledge. Passion and knowledge of the Tatar medals. His knowledge in Tatar and Arabic. Pious and moral person. It is very active. Its great influence on Tatars on медицине" [10].

Fuchs's participation in affairs of scientific administration begins only since 1820, after severe audit of the Kazan university by M.L. Magnitsky who after that was appointed the trustee of the Kazan educational district. From 1820 to 1824 Karl Fedorovich was elected the dean of medical office of medical faculty, and then the rector of the university and at this position remained till 1827. It is impossible to forget about his merits on preparation of national scientific shots: the first domestic therapists in Kazan N.A. Skandovsky and I.S. Dmitriyevsky, the pharmacologist I.V. Protopopov,

were direct pupils

and also K.V. Pupyrev, author of the first Russian description of cholera [1].

Shirokoobrazovanny and inquisitive nature of Fuchs could not be satisfied only with university activity. The house in which he lived was the center of intellectual life of Kazan. To it and his spouse - the writer Aleksandra Andreevna of the Fuks-Apekhti-noy as to authorities on the history of the region, linguists, orientalists and numismatists there came many outstanding figures of the 19th century - A.S. Pushkin, A. Humboldt, etc. [9]. For many years, to the death of Fuchs, his house replaced a clinic for coming with only that difference that everyone went to it more willingly, beforehand knowing from experience or by hearsay that the kind German of everyone meets tenderly and friendly. Since early morning the reception was filled in by crowds of the poor patients sometimes coming from far away. Tatars and even Tatars addressed Fuchs with the diseases. Day by day and from year to year the reception of patients continuing sometimes till several hours was its first business as soon as he woke up. Very delicate person, he met each man as barin: invited to the hall, asked to sit down and not only itself addressed everyone on & #34; вы" but also convinced the house that to tell & #34; ты" - impolitely. Participation is more sincere than it, kindness, an open and cheerful look caused feeling of reciprocal sympathy. Karl Fuchs was invited to patients to the Tatar settlements, and he was, perhaps, the only thing from physicians who were assumed to sick women there that testifies to his big authority among the Tatar population of the city. Of course, it was promoted much by knowledge to them the Tatar and Arab languages [6].

Knowing prejudice of the simple people against pharmaceutical drugs, he tried to treat people whenever possible house means. For this purpose in a medicine chest it always had a large supply of different officinal herbs which grew in a pharmaceutical garden at the Kazan university. This garden which was directed by the prof. F.H. Erdman and the prof. K. Fuchs was original the fact that there very rare herbs, always demanded by patients were grown up. When someone from peasants offered it & #34; благодарность" for treatment, Fuchs was able to refuse, without offending the poor person: & #34; If you want to thank me, - he said to the countryman, - gather to me here such травы". At the same time it gave a sample of that herb which needed, and thus the stock of its medicine chest renewed gifts of his patients. Possibly, such way in the people many useful data on the medicinal force of herbs of our flora dispersed.

K.F. Fuchs - one of initiators of domestic balneology: in 1811 he gave the first detailed description of physical properties of Sergiyevsky mineral waters [7]. In 1832 about Sergiyevsky sulfuric sources state houses for the coming patients were built. Its official report to medical faculty in which he asks to direct for use of Sergiyevsky waters of sick students [11] remained.

On July 1, 1833 Fuchs retired, but continued cooperation with the university before the death. In 1837 the university acquired for 1500 rubles its collection of birds and mammals. Even earlier, in 1825 to them it was sold also

to the university for 12 thousand rubles a rich meeting of east coins. Karl Fuchs in Kazan died on April 24, 1846. To the most death he did not leave scientific occupations and extensive, extremely popular in Kazan and in all region of medical practice.

LITERATURE

1. N.H. Amirov, Albitsky V.Yu. Karl Fuchs is an outstanding figure of domestic medicine of the first half of the 19th century. - Kazan medical zh. - 1997.-№ 1. - Page 73.
2. N.N. Bulich. From the first years of the Kazan university. - SPb, 1907, Part 1. - Page 104-105.

>. Vorobyov N.I. Fuchs is the first researcher of life of the Kazan Tatars//the Messenger of a tatarovedeniye.-1927. - No. 6.

>-¿Восстание Decembrists. Materials. - M.-L., 1927. - T.Sh. - Page 331.

5. Garzavina A.B. Kazan to professor K.F. Fuchs. - Kazan., 1987.
6. Garzavina A.V. The specified work. - Page 65.
7. Kazan news. - 1811. - No. 9.
8. Department hospital therapy. - Kazan, 1976. - Page 4.
9. Department of hospital therapy. - Kazan, 1976. - Page 5.
10. I.I. Lazhechnikov. Compositions. - СПб-М^Т^П, 1884. - Page 378.
11. CGA IPD RT. F.977, m f., 168, l. 59.

Arrived 25.02.05.

UDC 61 (091)

LIFE AND K.M. Leontyev's ACTIVITY is PROFESSORS of DEPARTMENT of FORENSIC MEDICINE of the IMPERIAL KAZAN UNIVERSITY

V.A. Spiridonov

Republican bureau of forensic medical examination (the head - N.Sh. Nigmatullin) MZ RT, department of forensic medicine (the manager. - prof. G.M. Kharin) Kazan state

medical university

The department of forensic medicine of the Imperial Kazan university has nice history. In the 19th century she was one of leaders in Russia, and the prof. K.M. Leontyev was her prominent representative.

The head of the department of forensic medicine prof. I.M. Gvozdev, leaving in May, 1895 the university before departure to St. Petersburg, recommended to appoint to this place of the pupil, privatdozent, anatomist, doctor of medicine Konstantin Mikhaylovich Leontyev. He asked to make it without waiting for an autumn semester, proving by the fact that delivery of corpses to a medicolegal office for a research continues also in the summer and demands in some most difficult cases of participation of professor of forensic medicine [8]. On June 1, 1895 K.M. Leontyev according to I.M. Gvozdev's will was elected extraordinary professor of forensic medicine, and and at medical faculty, and on council of the university the decision was unanimous. In 1899 he was entitled ordinary professor.

K.M. Leontyev was born on April 29, 1849 in the city of Totma of the Vologda province, by the passport was an ober-officer son. It meant that his father was not a nobleman, but served an officer rank and privileges & #34; благородных" estates. Having finished in 1870. The Ufa gymnasium, he at once entered the Kazan university from which he graduated in 1875 the Years of his study fell on hard time. In 1872-1873 the large number of students was captured by new revolutionary ideology - populism, and in the summer of 1874 more than 4 thousand people took part in & #34; circulation in народ". K.M. Leontyev did not stand aside, participated in activity of a narodnichesky circle, but & #34; in народ" did not go. Police and provincial the gendarme -

sky management long time kept it under observation [1], but did not take measures. Most likely, as well as a great number of other Russian students, he was disappointed in the revolutionary ideas. Participation in a circle did not interfere with good study, and the student Leontyev successfully graduated from the university in 1875, having passed at the same time examination for a rank of the district doctor. During study he especially was interested in forensic medicine, and according to I.M. Gvozdev's petition was left at department of forensic medicine the intern, in two years became the assistant. In April, 1878, during the Russo-Turkish war it was called up for military service and till November worked in hospital in Borjomi, having returned after demobilization on department.

In 1885 he defended the doctoral dissertation: & #34; Influence of alcohol and morphine on duration asfiktichesky процесса" and in 1886 it was appointed the anatomist, actively participated in conducting forensic medical examinations of corpses and physical evidence, became the good practician. So, in archive remained & #34; protocol of a microscopic izsle-dovaniye of hair and chemical research жидкости" carried out by the privatdozent K.M. Leontyev on May 14, 1888 on the basis of the relation of the investigator of the Yadrinsky County and an order of Medical office [6]. The task was set for the expert: & #34;... contained in water of a hair and removed from Makarova's wound to compare to obrashchik volos, removed s eya the heads when opening, to define ikh similarity and accessory of Makarovoy". Having in detail studied macro - and microscopically presented hair and having described them, K.M. Leontyev comes to a conclusion that the hair taken from a tub and from area of a wound belong to the killed Makarova. It should be noted at the same time

Gavin Franklin
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