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Church and pedagogical journalism in Russia at the end of XIX beginning of the 20th century

k. E. Netuzhilov


Work is presented by department of history of journalism of St. Petersburg State University

Article is devoted to history and typology of one of types of church periodicals of Russia of XIX - the beginnings of the 20th century. Church and pedagogical editions covered the problems connected with activity of the parish schools which were widespread at a turn of centuries. The central, local and private church and pedagogical magazines are considered.

K. Netuzhilov


The article is devoted to the history and typology of one kind of clerical periodicals in Russia of the 19th and early 20th centuries. Clerical-pedagogical periodicals covered the problems connected with church schools, which got widespread development at the turn of the centuries. Central, local and private clerical-pedagogical journals are examined in the article.

Tragic events became on March 1, 1881 a starting point of the new period in the relations of the state and orthodox church. Projects of changes of church life in the spirit of reforms of the 1860th were buried in oblivion. Public policy in relation to

orthodox church quickly gained new lines. Control of it completely concentrated in hands of the chief prosecutor Sv. K.P. Pobedonostsev's synod.

Konstantin Petrovich Pobedonostsev (1827-1907) came from the spiritual environment -

his grandfather and the father were parsons, and the father still in addition taught the Russian literature at the Moscow university. He got an education, atypical for its estate, having graduated from School of jurisprudence. After several years of service in the Moscow department of the Senate K.P. Pobedonostsev occupied department of civil law at the Moscow university where within five years (1860-1865) gained deserved reputation of the brilliant civilian. The course of civil law developed by it was considered as classical and was repeatedly republished up to 1917. In the 1860-1870th he taught jurisprudence to the heir to the throne to Crown Prince Nikolay, and after his death to the new successor Alexander (future emperor Alexander III), and after his children, including future Nicholas II. In 1868 Pobedonostsev became a senator, and from the 1872nd the member of the State Council. When in 1880 the count D.A. Tolstoy expressed desire to resign and was appointed in the State Council, the double ministry run by it was divided - A.A. Saburov became the minister of national education, and the chief prosecutor K.P. Pobedonostsev. During the whole quarter of the century, from 1880 to 1905 K.P. Pobedonostsev held a post of the chief prosecutor Sv. Synod. But its activity was not limited to bureaucratic career. Already in youth he declared himself and as about the talented publicist. During "an era of publicity" of the end of the 1850th - the beginnings of the 1860th of its article and pamphlets were published in foreign editions by A.I. Herzen. But in the second half of the 1870th in K.P. Pobedonostsev's views there were serious changes caused by impressions of revolutionary moods in the intellectual environment. Regicide finally made him on March 1, 1881 the supporter of an autocratic way of development of Russia. He considered the liberal reforms of the previous reign a fatal flaw. The orthodox church, according to him, had to play a crucial role in strengthening of the autocratic power. Pobedonostsev in every possible way tried to strengthen influence of church on the Russian society.

According to him, the church should not have been limited to liturgical activity; the church had to become the full-fledged tutor for the whole country. According to Pobedonostsev, it had to be carried out through church participation in life of school, the universities, through daily activity of various brotherhoods uniting clergymen and laymen and also through the church press.

The church periodical press ideally of Pobedonostsev is first of all moralizing journalism. Pobedonostsev did not love "scientific" divinity and did not recognize. To controversial issues of the church and state or church and public relations also should not have taken place on pages of time editions: they had to be resolved in calm of offices. Opening of the new church magazine or newspaper which program would go beyond, established by the chief prosecutor was almost impossible - the St. Synod simply did not grant permission on such edition. In 1895 priest M.P. Fiveysky addressed in St. The synod with the application on permission to it to issue the Hristianskaya Rech magazine in Moscow. The program of future magazine seemed ill-intentioned because of existence of the section in which it was supposed to place materials about modern church life in Russia. M.P. Fivey-sky cannot be ranked as a circle of church liberals of that era at all. The prior of the Moscow church of Nicholas The Wonderworker, the teacher of the Scripture in a number of educational institutions, M.P. Fiveysky was absolutely reliable that proved subsequently, editing the Dushepoleznoye Chteniye magazine. But as a result of discussion of the program of the "Christian speech" planned to the edition, the decision on refusal was made [6].

Quite rapid change of an overall picture of church periodicals became result of the policy pursued by the chief prosecutor. For a short time there was a large number of new church newspapers and magazines of the instructive orthodox-national direction. Strengthening

instructive function of spiritual journalism began with change of shape of pedagogical editions of spiritual department.

At the beginning of 1881 K.P. Pobedonostsev initiated in the Cabinet discussion of a question of parish schools which he considered optimum for distribution of "the correct and reliable education in church and national spirit" [5, page 27]. As a result under the chairmanship of the archbishop Leonti the Special commission consisting of representatives St. was created. The synod, the Ministry of national education and territorial institutions which developed the "Rules about parish schools" approved soon by the emperor at short notice [11, page 197]. "Rules" accurately specified that the purpose of parish schools consists in distribution in the people of the orthodox doctrine of belief and Christian morality. Actually education ("initial useful knowledge") was on the second place only. Only those teachers that got an education in educational institutions of Department of orthodox confession could be teachers. Teaching the Scripture was assigned to parsons. They had to observe that pupils regularly attended church services, joining thereby liturgical life of church. Supervision of activity of parish schools was assigned to the special observers appointed by the local bishop from among decent. For the general coordination and control from St. The synod at it since 1885 the special department - Uchilishchny council was created. At the expense of Uchilishchny council a number of model schools at theological seminaries and women's diocesan schools was open. In 1889 in St. Petersburg there began the activity the Sacred and Vladimir women's church and teacher's school at the head of which there was the chief prosecutor's spouse and where it was supposed to realize ideal model of church and school interaction. The materials connected with activity of Uchilishchny council and the institutions created on its initiative regulyar-

but were published in "Church sheets" where there was a constant heading ("From Uchilishchny council at the Holy Synod").

Further K.P. Pobedonostsev put a lot of effort for transition to hands of church of all primary education of the country. In view of lack in Russia of the uniform system of elementary schools (at the same time there were schools of the Ministry of national education, territorial and parish) there were projects of their association in hands of one department from time to time. In 1887-1897 between St. Long fight for the right to head the uniform system of primary education went the synod and the Ministry of national education. Fight went with variable success. At the end of the 1880th even the possibility of repetition of former practice of combination in some hands of management of both departments and very few people doubted that K.P. Pobedonostsev will become the new "especial" minister was discussed. In this case it was possible to expect continuous clericalisation of all school business. But the initiative of the chief prosecutor met resolute repulse from the minister of national education I.D. Delyanov. Interdepartmental fight which arena were meetings of Committee of ministers continued up to the middle of the 1890th. The points of view of the parties were discussed on pages of periodicals. "Church sheets" conducted active polemic with "The magazine of the Ministry of national education". Only with Alexander III's death and accession of Nicholas II who was not wishing any resolute changes in the developed control system, the question was closed. The St. Synod did not get all system of primary education in the hands; division of schools on ministerial, territorial and parish was maintained. As a peculiar compensation public financing of parish schools was sharply increased: in 1896 3.4 million rubles against 875 thousand in 1895 were allocated to them [1, page 236]. The golden shower which spilled on Uchilishchny council brought to it, including, and an opportunity soz-

to give own periodic body. Since 1896 the capital monthly journal "Narodnoye Obrazovaniye" devoted to church and pedagogical questions began to be issued. The name of the magazine defiantly did not contain the elements characteristic of the church edition ("church", "orthodox", etc.). The official dryness and universality of the name partly reflected the remaining aspiration of the chief prosecutor and a part of sinodsky board to the unified educational system under the power of church. The magazine intended for teachers of parish schools and also for the general coordination of school matter in dioceses. Materials of educational and methodical character, the work of fiction, texts of spiritual chants and a note to them were widely published in "National education". The editor of the magazine it was appointed authoritative in the pedagogical S.I. Miropolsky environment - the author of numerous textbooks for elementary school, the long-term member of Educational committee at St. The synod, inspecting educational institutions.

In parallel with "National education", since 1885 in St. Petersburg the Tserkovnaya Shkola magazine was privately issued. But having appeared in a shadow of the official publication of Uchilishchny council, "The church school" quickly came to naught and in 1888 was closed.

Later, since 1896, all structure of management of parish schools was transformed. The uchilishchny councils were created also in dioceses. In the diocesan uchilishchny councils gathering under the chairmanship of the local bishop or the archpriest with the academic education, teachers and special diocesan observers who exercised direct control over activity of parish schools entered. Activity of diocesan uchilishchny councils was widely lit on pages of Diocesan sheets where from now on appropriate sections in most cases appeared. In some dioceses these sections postepen-

but expanded to stand-alone programs. The Tserkovno-prikhodskaya Shkola magazine issued since 1887 in Kiev at the diocesan faculty meeting created at the initiative of miters became a sample for many of them. Honor Platon (Gorodetsky) in ten years prior to universal emergence according to instructions of the chief prosecutor of similar institutions. Such application most often carried the name of "A church and school leaf" (with the indication of the respective diocese). Frequency of "Church and school leaves" fluctuated from one to two times a month at the capacity of 1-2 printed pages. Except publicizing of activity of diocesan uchilishchny councils, issues of development of local parish schools and the publication of various educational and methodical materials at these editions there were also materials of educational character, a note on the church history of the region, literary attempts of local clergy.

According to "Rules about parish schools" of 1884 of pupils the throne should have brought up in the spirit of the orthodox doctrine and fidelity. As it was noted in literature, K.P. Pobedonostsev never adjoining Slavophiles nevertheless adopted from them a thought that national development of Russia depends on the groups of the people which are most closely connected with orthodox church - i.e. on the peasantry and narrow-mindedness which were nearly 90% of the population [9, page 108]. In this regard education of the people on the basis of the called principles became the major national objective. A part of this task was assigned also to periodicals. Parish schools, as envisioned by K.P. Pobedonostsev and sharing his views church and statesmen, had to form basic outlook of the people. Periodicals for "ordinary people" had to form the contents on the basis of the corresponding educational and world outlook horizon. The 1880-1900th became the period of blossoming of absolutely special type of the church journalism obliged by the existence to appearance of the new mass reader - kre-

styan and the petty bourgeoises who received literacy and ideas of the world around at parish school. Tell the following figures about mass character of such reader. According to the official statistics (which is though a little embellished that was quite in good spirits K.P. Pobedonostseva) in 1884 in the country there were 4064 parish schools at which a little more than hundred thousand people studied. Ten years later, in 1894 the number of schools increased up to 31835, and the number of pupils was close almost to one million [4, page 102].

The brightest page in the history of the instructive periodical press for the people is connected with a name of the archimandrite (and after the bishop and the archbishop) Nikon. Nikon (in the world Nikolay Ivanovich Rozhdestvensky) (1851-1918) was a figure, rather atypical for the world of church journalism. Having good abilities, he did not manage to get the academic education because of a lack of means and problems with health (since childhood grew blind on one eye). Among those who took part in a spiritual zhurali-stika of those years the lack of the academic education was a big rarity (that testifies to the general intellectual level; let's remind that only the best graduates of seminaries could come to spiritual academy, and, in turn, admitted the best pupils from spiritual schools to seminaries). The lack of the academic stage in life left a noticeable mark on Nikon's identity. Despite very serious, though unilateral erudition, its cultural horizon was rather low. Been born in poor family of the rural sexton (it was the twenty first child in family), it did not know and did not see the world which is outside Chetyi-Miny; everything that was beyond traditional representations of its circle, was perceived by it extremely hostilely. Not tolerant to others opinions, not trying to understand never the opponent, Nikon was ready to brand any manifestations of allogeneity. In the articles he ruthlessly fell upon students, intellectuals, liberals, Jews, Europeans who merged at it in without -

the-sided dark force dreaming of death of Sacred Russia. Orthodoxy of Nikon was extremely orthodox, militant, alien mercies and compassions. The world around was perceived by it not as the God's World, and as Resident Evil, the only rescue from which is the prayful asceticism. The bright and passionate publicist, Nikon in the history of domestic church journalism began to proclaim the first the principles and to use receptions which became a basis so-called to the chernosotenny press subsequently.

In 1874 Nikolay Rozhdestvensky became the novice of the New Jerusalem monastery founded in the 17th century by the patriarch Nikon. After his prior arkhy. Leonid (Kavelin) was transferred by the deputy to Trinity-Sergius Lavra, N. Rozhdestvensky followed him. In 1880 he accepted tonsured with a name of Nikon. The atmosphere of the monastery which was one of the most important spiritual centers of the country left a special mark on the personality and Nikon's outlook. Brought up in devout traditionalist family, got an education on copper money, Nikon met in monastery a phenomenon of national Orthodoxy: thousands of wanderers pilgrims overcoming time thousands of versts for a meeting with Troitsk monastery. For Nikon only these people were also the Russian people - he just did not know others. Since 1879, still Nikon began to release the novice "Troitsk leaves" which were distributed or on sale then at the cheap price to numerous pilgrims, coming to Monastery in thousands. Trinity-Sergius Lavra then had no own printing house and Nikon agreed about the charitable help to the edition, something was paid by monastery (one of the monasteries, richest in the country). "Troitsk leaves" began to be printed by hundreds of thousands of copies. They represented small brochures of 8-10 pages on a format. At first their contents was made by fragments of sermons and short lectures, but gradually "Troitsk leaves" began to take a periodical form - a cart -

a nikla continuity of contents, systematicity in the publication of certain materials - explanations to a church service and the major prayers, short transpositions of lives of Saints, etc. And, above all, the materials connected with burning issues of the present began to appear (the impetus was given by regicide on March 1, 1881). In 19801990, despite strict church and conservative character, the monarchic ideology of "Troitsk leaves" was found still only from time to time; their resolute politicization in far-right spirit happened only after 1905 Nikon had undoubted literary and publicistic talent (in spiritual school he issued the hand-written magazine for which he wrote verses and essays). K.P. Pobedonostsev paid attention to Nikon. In the private letter of Alexander Highway of November 6, 1885 the chief prosecutor characterized Nikon's activity as follows: "In Trinity-Sergius Lavra there is a young worthy celibate priest Nikon, from scientists, sickly health, clever, diligent and excellent life. He conceived to devote himself to a good deed - to choose from the acquaintance to it old and new spiritual literature of article, it is simple and warmly written, language, clear for the people, and to publish them separate leaves for distribution to the people coming to monastery. He found taste and art in the choice, and the edition which began since 1880 made and makes success remarkable, and gained under the name of "Troitsk leaves" popularity in all Russia. Them over 10 million dispersed already, and many of the most remote places write out them in hundreds for distribution. At the same time, of course, there is no calculation on profit, - the only calculation - on maintenance of the edition that is possible only by means of philanthropists" [5, page 89]. Actually, "Troitsk leaves" were distributed free of charge only partly, over time a considerable part of circulation began to come to hands of dealers for distribution on dioceses. Cost was 60 kopeks for one hundred copies, i.e. 0.6 kopeks for one copy. In arrivals they were on sale on kopek, bringing to those sa-

my, taking into account overhead costs, 20-30 percent profit. In view of unprecedented astronomical circulations business brought quite good income. So K.P. Pobedonostsev, asking Alexander III to allocate five hundred rubles for support of the edition of "Troitsk leaves" [5, page 89] offered rather moral, but not material support. The celibate priest Nikon, very skillfully running business, after a while managed to save up money for printing house and a binding workshop. In March, 1894 he addressed with the letter the Metropolitan of Moscow and the Kolomna Sergius in whom he proved need of the device at Laurus of own printing house. That petitioned before the Synod, and in September, 1894 the permission from the Moscow governor was got. In the summer of 1895 from the Moscow warehouse of accessories of stamping Ivana Flora delivered two skoropechatny cars which in June were already ready to get to work. From now on circulations of "Troitsk leaves" increased even more (according to the estimates of V. Rozhdestvensky, the total circulation of the "Troitsk leaves" published during 1879-1899 reached 90 million) [7, 156]. S.G. Runkevich wrote about Nikon: "Troitsk leaves"... collected to the publisher after a half-ear the decent capital which gave it the chance to arrange own printing house and to develop business: except "Leaves" of the island of Nikon began to publish still the "Troitsk books" at the cost of 1 kopek and "Troitsk obrazk", but the last enterprise it was not possible because of the competition from elegant and cheap icons from tin" [8, page 209]. Further, continuing to combine spiritual and moralizing business with business, Nikon organized some more periodicals (the monthly journal for parish schools "God's Field" issued from 1903 to 1917 with the appendix of the children's magazine "Zernyshki Bozhiyey Nivy" and also the church and public weekly of the far-right direction "Troitsk Word" (1910-1917)). But glory of "Troitsk leaves" and the width of their raspro-traneniye new editions did not receive any more. According to V.F. Zybkovts investigating

economy of a number of large monasteries of Russia at the beginning of the 20th century, by 1917 the Trinity-Sergius Lavra gained annual income in the sum of 1 million 340 thousand rubles from which 178 thousand rubles fell on income from printing house and sale of literature [2, page 131]. Thus, in the budget of Trinity-Sergius Lavra the income from activity of printing house was about 13%. In the general revenue breakdown of this richest monastery the typographical income was on the third place in size, conceding only to income gained from the leased lands and buildings (440 thousand) and from sale of candles (201 thousand). From other items of income only sale of icons (168 thousand) could be compared to income from printing house, all others - kruzhechny collecting, a payment for occasional offices, trade in the wood and so forth remained far behind [2, page 131]. Experience of the edition of "Troitsk leaves" caused attempts of imitation in other regions. Since 1883 "The Kiev leaves of religious and moral reading for the people", similar on form and content, began to be issued weekly at the Voskresnoye Chteniye magazine, and since 1886 there was "a Pochayevsky leaf" published at Poe-chayevsky Uspensky monastery.

For "Troitsk leaves" Nikon in 1900 was conferred a prestigious Makaryevsky award. This award founded by the emperor Alexander II was handed since 1867 for researches in the field of church history. At the heart of bonus fund there were royalties received miters. Makari (Bulgakov) for it "The history of the Russian church". The only "historical" work of the island of Nikona - Sergey of Radonezh's biography - scientific value did not represent, also his patrons understood it. The award was appointed for journalism. In March, 1904

Nikon's hirotoniya took place - he became a Bishop of Murom, and in November of the same year is transferred to the Serpukhov department and became the Vicar of the Moscow diocese. The bishop Nikon was the complete antithesis to so-called "erudite monks" of whom the episcopate of that time was in most cases formed. According to the estimates of S.L. Firsov, by 1905 from 109 bishops who were in the Russian Church 99 were graduates of spiritual academies and had an academic degree of the master or doctor of divinity [10]. Most of them accepted tonsured young people in academy and went traditional in this case career way - the inspector's position to seminaries, a nastoyatelstvo (often nominal), a position of the rector of seminary or the inspector of academy and, at last, an episcopal staff. The life and spiritual experience gained on this way often did not conform to requirements imposed by tasks of diocesan management. The bishop Nikon was out of the academic corporation, was not connected by numerous informal threads with other bishops. Brought up in valid humility to a tserkovnonachaliya, deprived "suyemudriya" and at the same time extremely active, vigorous, he embodied himself that type of the bishop who so attracted K.P. Pobedonostsev who was vainly trying to find among the episcopate of active devotees and toilers who at the same time would not look for independence and independence of the ober-public prosecutor's power.

Development of church and pedagogical journalism was interrupted with revolution. One and all periodicals appearing under the auspices of church were closed in 1917-1918


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3. Nikon, arkhy. Life and feats of the Reverend Sergius, abbot Radonezhsky and vseya Russia wonder-worker. Sergiyev Posad. 1885.
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