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Category: History

Activity of the state forest warden in the Russian Empire

n. P. Belousova



Work is presented by department of national history of the Vladimir state pedagogical university. The research supervisor - the doctor of historical sciences, professor G.P. Annin

In article the historical review of primary activities of the state forest warden in the XIX century is given. The main functions of a position of the forest warden of the Russian Empire and also his influence on process of forestry of the country are reflected.

The article gives a historical review of the main activity types of a government forester in the 19th century. The author of the article shows the main functions of a forester of the Russian Empire and also his influence on the development course of Russian forestry.

Prior to the beginning of the 19th century the activity of the forest warden was limited to quite narrow duties of the second order. In forests of a shortcoming it was not felt, it grew and renewed in itself, and the forest warden was only a special collector of state income and the observer of state property. The position of the forest warden did not require vocational education; often in this field people of the most various professions were active. In 1826 the position is created by most highly approved Provision on the new device of a forest part of June 19, 1826 by which ober-forstmeyster were renamed in provincial forest wardens with accession of their offices to state palatam1. Forst-meystera were renamed in forest wardens. The same situation established positions of erudite and district forest wardens. The provincial forest warden was appointed to a position by the Minister of Finance. Since 1838 - the minister of the state imushchestvo, then agriculture and the state imushchestvo, since 1905 - glavnoupravlyayushchy land management and agriculture; district, erudite and ordinary forest wardens - the head of Forest department. In 1833 the provinces concerning the number of forests were divided on

five categories: in the province of the I category, provincial forest wardens and the erudite forest warden relied; II and III - only the provincial forest warden; IV - the forest warden with functions of the provincial forest warden; The V category - the adviser of an economic expedition state palaty2. The provincial forest warden carried out the organization of protection of the state woods and also the correct forest exploitation: control of observance of the forest legislation; planning of actions for forestry and their submission to the ministry; organization of land surveying, description and valuation of the woods; division into forest areas and timberland, etc.; management of the state sawing plants, forest crafts and other types of activity with use of forest resources; estimating of a holiday of the wood; production and issue to ordinary forest wardens of tickets for the cabin of the wood and floatable tickets; cases of contracts, maintenance of subordinated places and persons. The provincial forest warden managed a forest part of state chamber, then - in 1838-1866 - chambers of the state imushchestvo, provincial management of agriculture and the state imushchestvo; resolved issues of definition, dismissal and the bringing to court of ranks forest vedomstva3.

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Activity of the state forest warden in the Russian Empire

Provincial forest wardens were abolished by the decree of December 22, 1866 in 20 provinces, and their functions are transferred to managing directors of the state imushchestvo. All provincial forest wardens were abolished by the decree of December 21, 1882 with transfer of forest management functions by the local forest warden, and supervising - to forest auditors. Provincial forest wardens were restored by the decree of June 12, 1902 as a part of provincial managements of agriculture and the state imushchestvo. The erudite forest warden replaced the provincial forest warden in case of lack of the last and also was engaged in the description of the woods, drawing up cards, etc. The district forest warden directed the forest district (one or several counties). In 1845 most high the minister of the state imushchestvo approved by the report of April 5 the district forest wardens were liquidated and their duties are shifted to district forest auditors. The district was divided into forest areas which were directed by privates lesnichiye4. Entered their functions: control of observance of rules of forest exploitation in the territory entrusted to them; supervision of the cabin of the wood; issue of tickets for the cabin of the wood and the floatable tickets received from provincial forest wardens; reproduction of the wood; control of forest guards, of the maintenance of state forest houses, etc.; forest wardens had descriptions, plans and maps of forests; rendered assistance to mezhevshchik by drawing up the inventory of the state woods. Annually in February the local forest wardens submitted proposals on works in the forests entrusted to them. Forest wardens were divided into senior and younger. Under the Forest charter of 1912 district forest wardens were entered at district lesookhranitelny komitetakh5. At taking office the forest warden accepted economy according to delivery sheets with a mark of the happened changes.

All officials of forest department belonged to the Corps of forest wardens created by the decree of January 30, 1839. By this decree the case was given the military status -

till 1869. The colonel's rank was appropriated to the provincial forest warden; other forest warden - from the ensign to the captain. Since 1894, forest management works, mainly on audits of economy are assigned to forest wardens. However, these works were offered to be carried out gradually, even by partial surveys of plantings and drawing up draft notes during all auditing period. At the average area of forest area in 30-40 thousand tithes forest management works became a constant duty of the forest warden, but not work "in time, free from office classes". The edition of the instruction of 1908 according to which forest management works were abolished, but simplification the forest warden received from it a little. To the last instruction the forest warden was engaged in forest management works gradually, in "time, free from official duties" and for a reward from 3 to 5 kopeks for tithe (i.e. from 100 to 200 rub at summer). All preparatory work: shooting of cutting areas, carrying out glades, etc., were executed not urgently, and the main thing, for themselves. Now during the forest management works, according to the new instruction, the forest warden is obliged, but already to the term, certain and independent of "official duties", and without reward: to clear away borders of giving and quarter glades, to remove and apply quitrent articles, office lands and cutting areas on tablets; at execution of these works it is necessary to be guided by technical indications of the instruction, these instructions are adequately exacting. Works should be done not for itself, and for taxation party which can each miss, each accidental and insignificant admission to expose by sight. The number of preparatory work on the instruction of 1908 increased.

In 1896, under the law on February 26, peasants acquired the right to defer payments for bought les6. The delayed payments arrived from the very beginning of application zako-

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on very inaccurate; on collecting these delays the forest warden had a big correspondence with volost foremen, stanovy police officers, territorial chiefs idr., and sometimes with the control chambers putting these delays in are begun on forest wardens.

In 1897 the reform of office office-work was undertaken. Its purpose - work reduction. In fact there was another. Reform reached one: brought outdated forms of office office-work into accord with inquiries of time, installed the known order, a system in office. Before reform the forest warden kept account of the released wood only at the time of its sale, making about it the corresponding entry in the called notebook. After reform the forest warden considers a wood holiday already at three moments: "it is appointed to a holiday", "it is authorized to release" and "it is really released". According to it paper work trebled.

Since 1897 the law on administrative prosecution of fellings and other violations against treasury worked on April 7. With the publication of this law all office-work was transferred to office of the forest warden. In 1899 the cultural fund was created. In hands of forest wardens solid money on lesovozobnovle-appeared

niye7. Creation of these means was vital. The forest warden is an authorized representative of the state; in management the property of enormous (million) value is entrusted to it. Therefore offices of the forest warden had to contain materials and documents, first, for the reporting, secondly, for control and, thirdly, for audits. Entered office activity of the forest warden: first, accounting of forest area (accounting of forest dachas, stock of personal and real estate) and management of its personal structure (forest warden, assistant, forest guards). Secondly, expenditure of the regular and emergency sums (on keeping of staff, various works), maintaining the account to these sums and submission of the reporting to management of agriculture and to control chamber. Thirdly, the forest warden had a big paper work on preparation of the wood for a holiday (estimated sheets), selling the wood from the auction (trade sheets, contracts and so forth), selling the wood without the auction and the economic order (large selling units), on petty sale (dead wood, a dead wood, thinning and so forth).

Thus, summing up the result, we see that the duties of the forest warden break up to two parts: economic lesovodstvennuyu and office and administrative.

1GAVO. T. 632. Op. 1. 14. L. 218.
2 GAVO. T. 362. Op. 1. 49. L. 121.
3 GAVO. T. 366. Op. 1. 158. L. 41.
4 GAVO. T. 366. Op. 1. 158. L. 42.
5 GAVO. T. 362. Op. 1. 2. L. 16.
6 GAVO. T. 365. Op. 3. 348. L. 8.
7 GARF. T. 934. Op. 1. 143. L. 6.
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Linda Adams
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