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Military commandant's offices of the Konigsberg special military district in 1945-1946



dantsigsky international arbitration court

2. Staatsvertrag zwischen Deutschland, Polen und der Freien Stadt Danzig ueber den freien Durchgangsverkehr zwischen Ostpreussen und dem uebrigen Deutschland. Paris, 21.4.1921/Reichsgesetzblatt, 1921, S. 1069 ff.
3. Versailles peace treaty. M, 1925.
4. Lukomski G. Problem & #34; korytarza" w stosunkach polsko-niemieckich i na arene miedzynarodowej. Warszawa, 2000.
5. A.Yu. Vatlin. Germany in the XX century. M, 2002.
6. M.V. Vinogradov. An East Prussian enclave during the interwar period (1918 — 1939): Yew.... edging. east. sciences. SPb., 2003.

About the author

I.A. Timirev — asp., RGU of I. Kant, itimirev@mail.ru.

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UDC 947 (470.26)

G.V. Kretinin

MILITARY COMMANDANT'S OFFICES of the KONIGSBERG SPECIAL MILITARY DISTRICT In 1945-1946

Activity of military commandant's offices of the special military district during the post-war period is considered. Article is prepared with use for the first time of the documents of the Central archive Ministries of Defence (Podolsk of the Moscow region) introduced for scientific use.

Activity of military commandant&s offices in the special military district during the post-war period is examined. The article is prepared on the basis of new documents of the Central archive of the Ministry of Defence (Podolsk, Moscow area).

During war for management of territories and settlements in the back of the troops the military authorities created special bodies — military commandant's offices. After the end of fighting where military units and connections were located on constant or temporary dislocation, military commandant's offices, as a rule, kept the functions. In particular, the military commandant's office of the Kaliningrad garrison (till July 4, 1946 was called as military commandant's office of the city and fortress Konigsberg) exists since April 7, 1945 till present [5, page 440].

In a regional historiography of the last the main attention is paid and there is an incorrect impression that except this commandant's office consisting of eight regional commandant's offices in the territory of the former East Prussia other bodies of military management were practically not [7, page 58 — 124; 1, page 6 — 9]. Meanwhile military commandant's offices in the territory occupied by the Soviet troops were located

The RGU bulletin of I. Kant. 2006. Issue 12. Humanities. Page 55 — 62.

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in many settlements, they played an important role in the organization of peaceful life, a zashtsta and providing with all necessary local German, and then and the Soviet population.

After the introduction of the Soviet troops on the territory of East Prussia in the fall of 1944 coordination of activity of the military commandant's offices connected with the relations of the military authorities and the German population was required. Originally the directive of the 3rd Belarusian front No. 0622 from

13 November, 1944 in department of account and completing of the headquarters of the front the office according to the management of military commandant's offices was created. After the Soviet troops occupied the considerable territory of East Prussia and in the back there were many settlements and big mass of the German population, the number of soldiers of commandant's offices began to grow. So, for February 14, 1945 only in a strip of advance of the 11th Guards army 9 commandant's offices worked. In total by the end of fighting in a strip of the 3rd Belarusian front over 30 front commandant's offices alone worked [5, page 440]. In this regard on February 16 as a part of field management of the front the department of the management of military commandant's offices including 17 servicemen and 2 civilians is created. The department was subordinated to the Council of War of the front [4, op. 2593, 700, l. 39].

Some time of commandant's office were subdivided into army and front, but because of frequent change of dislocation of parts and connections at the end of May, 1945 there was a streamlining of their subordination: army commandant's offices were transferred to the order of military commandant's offices of areas, and front or are disbanded, or, as well as army, transferred to the structure of commandant's offices of areas. In particular, the military commandant's office of the Konigsberg rural area was located in Noyhausene. In the beginning subordinated to it the commandant's offices of the 11th Guards army deployed in the territory of the area and then and similar commandant's offices of the 50th army.

Further military commandant's offices were created practically in all East Prussian cities including in the territory which departed subsequently to Poland. In total for July 5, 1945 28 commandant's offices [4, op worked. 2593, 700, l. 222]. By the end of 1945 the number of soldiers of commandant's offices stabilized: them became 15 (though this figure was not final). On their base, civil managements of areas and cities of area [3, op were developed subsequently. 383741, 1, l. 7; 4, op. 2593, 474, l. 488; 9, page 83].

Summer of 1945 the list of tasks and obligations of commandant's offices was defined: harvesting; accommodation of the German population, providing it with food on the established norms and the organization of medical care; control of respect for discipline among the military personnel, "neatness of a dress code", standards of behavior in the relation with local community [4, op. 2593, 474, l. 488].

The organization of accounting of the civilian population in the busy territory became one of the most important tasks of commandant's offices. Naturally, it is impossible to consider data of this account absolutely exact, despite a high security of a population census. Any movement of Germans was allowed only by the military commandant. And still the situation managed to be taken under control not at once.

Originally not all were registered. A part of the German population just preferred long time to sit out in houses and shelters. But then Germans were forced to appear in military commandant's offices and to be registered for the simple reason: the military authorities nevertheless tried to resolve issues of survival of the civilian population, to provide citizens let and poor, but livelihood.

In this plan the situation taking into account local community in Konigsberg is indicative. For April 26, 1945 the military bodies in the city registered 23,247 German citizens. On the first of May their quantity was 22,838 people, on May 6 — 26,559 people [6, page 186; 4, op. 2593, 817, l. 213; 2, op. 1, 7, l. 2, 3]. Besides, by estimates of military bodies about 40 thousand more German citizens lived in the houses and were subject to check by counterintelligence Smersh [6, page 186 with reference to contemporary records: 2, op. 1, 7, l. 3].

Really Smersh for April 23, 1945 26,876 people among whom there were Germans of extreme age, Russians, Ukrainians, Poles and representatives of other nationalities checked regarding service in the German army were listed. There were only 15 thousand prisoners of war (both Red Army men, and the allies) fought off Germans during storm of the city [4, op. 2593, 854, l. 92]. In 10 — 12 thousand the German citizens soon released from custody just could also make a difference. They also caused jump in statistical data for May 15, 1945 — 34354 people [4, op. 2593, 789, l. 56—57].

Data that for September 1, 1945 the number of the German population in the territory of the Konigsberg special military district was more than 139 thousand people are conventional [8, page 456]. Meanwhile the first registration of Germans in the areas which entered subsequently the Kaliningrad region as of May 1, 1945 reports only about number in 47,219 persons. For May 15, 1945 there were 76,343 Germans. In a month their number increased to 105,271 people (see the tab.).

The number of the German population in May — June, 1945 1

of Commandant's office For May 1, 1945 For May 15, 1945 For June 15, 1945

Gumbinnenskaya 987 1204 1431

Insterburgsky 902 140 418

Darkemensky 75 88 515

Angerburgskaya 752 835 1173

Gerdauyenskaya 1696 2024 3034

1 Table is made according to contemporary records [4, op. 2593, 817, l. 213 "The certificate of the number of the German population registered by commandant's office of the 3rd Belarusian front as of May 1st, 1945"; 789, l. 56 — 57 "Reference... for May 15, 1945", l. 96 "Reference. for June 15, 1945"].

Termination of tab. 1

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Commandant's offices For May 1, 1945 For May 15, 1945 For June 15, 1945

Preysish-Eylausky 5460 5460 5460

Hayligenbaylskaya 557 1541 4262

Tilsit — 459 1253

Velauskaya 138 1389 1770

Tapiausky 873 — —

Pilkallensky 10870 10870 8521

Haynrikhsvaldskaya 170 1895 3182

Labiauskaya 1423 1633 3861

Zemlandsky 41 13338 15555

Shtallupenensky — — 484

Konigsberg rural 437 1113 1679

Konigsberg city 22838 34354 52673

Only 47219 76343 105271

As military commandants reported in the reports, the population increased, and is very considerable in the Polish territory and also in the Soviet areas bordering on Polish due to return of local community from the central regions of Germany. Commandant's offices were recommended to interfere with such spontaneous movement of the population, but the small number of commandant's offices did not allow to organize effective patrol service. Besides, together with the German population, representatives of Army Craiova, the Polish armed organization opposing up in arms both own communistic authorities, and the Soviet armed forces, as well as the German population got into again attached Polish lands. Military commandant's offices had to allocate forces for fight against this real terrorist movement which though partly, but affected also areas of future Kaliningrad region [4, op. 2,593, 789, l. 94 "The report of the head of department of field management of the 3rd Belarusian front on the management of military commandant's offices to the chief of staff of the front of June 26"].

The German population which appeared in the summer of 1945 in the territory which departed to Poland was forced, escaping from terror, to move to the Soviet territory (till that time, the Soviet-Polish border was not closed yet). By our estimates, the number of such "refugees" made over 30 thousand persons. The difference between the number of the German population for June 15 (105,271 persons) and for September 1, 1945 (139,902 people) gives such size. All this laid down additional load of military commandant's offices "Konigsberg and the area adjoining to it" — the territory which departed to the USSR before education on it the Konigsberg region quite so was called.

Naturally, as one of the purposes of the organization of accounting of the German population need of use of local labor for work on restoration of the territory acted. Except the German population of it nobody as among Germans there were experts, people knowing local features of the industry, agriculture could make. Besides in future area so far there was no Soviet population at all. The staff of military units and connections though was attracted for performance of some works, but not systematically.

At the same time the considerable mass of the population in the post-war destroyed territory needed to be supplied with food, to provide with medical care, to resolve other social problems. So, for example, soon there was a need for creation of an education system for the German children.

The economy of the USSR during the post-war period worked with the excessive tension of forces: war was not ended yet, combat operations in the Far East were coming, it was necessary to restore urgently the national economy of the western regions of the country destroyed by war. Besides, the economy was planned, and it was possible to find reserves for ensuring activity of the whole region in the middle of business year hardly. The territory was under authority of the military authorities, on them and all weight of the solution of social and economic tasks laid down. Directly the Council of War of the 3rd Belarusian front, and then the Council of War of the Konigsberg special military okruga2 was engaged in it in the beginning.

The special military district should provide with food staff of three armies (the 11th Guards, the 48th and 50th) and approximately the same number of the German population on number.

Troops of the front, and then the district in the summer of 1945 experienced serious food difficulties. According to messages of quartermaster service, in troops by August, 1945 in a soldier's diet there were no fats, vegetables, potatoes. There were small stocks of grain, generally barley which soldiers ate four months. Due to the lack of fats and vegetables, food was cooked monotonously, with low tastes (vegetables and potatoes tried to replace with rye flour, the turned black old potatoes were used). The front had in a stock 12.6 sutodach meat products. The being absent fats had to be replaced with meat therefore security with meat was reduced to 7 sutodach. If to continue to slaughter the dairy cattle, security with meat would grow to 10 sutodach. But then by August 23 in the special military district there would be already neither cattle, nor fats, nor meat. Providing with meat and molokoprodukta in that case entirely would depend on deliveries from the Center [4, op. 2593, 789, l. 150 — 158].

Command of the 3rd Belarusian front even before the end of fighting expected such situation. An exit from it seemed in carrying out in the subordinated territory of spring sowing, the organization

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2 The order of the People's Commissar of Defence of the USSR of July 9, 1945 No. 0139 "in a northern part of East Prussia created the special military district" [4, op. 2593, 763, l. 536].
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large-scale agricultural works. Troops, of course, with involvement of local community had to be engaged in all this. For performance of specific objectives by the order of the top military commander of the 3rd Belarusian front of March 24 in troops subsidiary farms began to be created [8, page 450]. They in April, 1945 started preparation of a sowing campaign.

Sowing was organized throughout East Prussia. Account of the performed works was kept separately: troops of the front sowed independently, military commandant's offices — with use of local community. Such distribution of works affected at once, and not in favor of military commandant's offices. Already on May 11, 1945 the chief selkhozupravleniya3 the headquarters of the 3rd Belarusian front the major of quartermaster service Lebedev reported that the subsidiary farms created for a sowing campaign in troops performed a plan target for 129%. At the same time military commandant's offices where the apparent defect of agricultural workers was tested (the German population occupied with adaptation to new vital conditions did not seek for residence in rural areas and for work in the field too), sowed only 72% of the plan. And indicators in landing of vegetables where manual work especially was required — all

were the lowest
14 % of a plan target [4, op. 2593, 817, l. 205].

A part of crops was transferred by the resolution of the Council of War of the 3rd Belarusian front No. 043 of July 5, 1945 to again formed Northern group of troops (Poland). From 20,675 hectares sowed by commandant's offices in the territory subordinated to the front in the Konigsberg special military district there were only 4235 hectares [4, op. 2593, 700, l. 222].

At the same time after a re-deployment of troops from Konigsberg and the areas adjoining to it transfer of the acreage which were registered for the decreased troops, to military commandant's offices far inland was required. In their maintaining military state farms which did harvesting of 1945 and performance of other agricultural works began to be created.

For October 1, 1945 17,478.5 hectares of the sowed lands were registered for military commandant's offices for cleaning of grain. It was supposed that these crops have to provide with bread the German population of areas, except for Konigsberg. Regional military commandant's offices managed to finish the thresh of bread and to collect about 15.5 thousand tons of grain. Collected grain was spent for food 31,725 people the able-bodied and 39,875 people of the dependent German population, for crops winter and for fodder [3, op. 851,746, 2, l. 103 — 104].

At once after completion of fighting the military commandant's offices of the cities and areas started performance of urgent works on cleaning of the area of ammunition, clearing of blockages, restoration of a number of objects. However these works were performed incidentally, not everywhere

3 The resolution of the State committee of defense against May 6, 1945 No. 8435 at the 3rd Belarusian front created agricultural management, and the directive of the front in military commandant's offices — agricultural groups [8, page 451].

and not always commandant's offices had for this purpose necessary forces and means. Commandants started the organization of planned restoration and development of economy of areas since October 1, 1945, after issue on August 21, 1945 of the directive of department of the management of military commandant's offices No. 01605. In it the attraction problem for all economic works of the German population not forcibly, and voluntarily, with payment for work generally by food [3, op was officially solved. 851,746, 2, l. 103]. However, the economic situation in the country and, respectively, in the Konigsberg region was exclusively difficult. There was not enough food, and the population of the region irrespective of nationality, both nemtsky, and Russian, took this period hard.

In the middle of January, 1946 the military commandants of areas had to submit the first reports on the done work on recovery of the economy of subordinates of areas. In general this work consisted in resuscitation of the enterprises of processing of agricultural production, restoration of power capacities of territories, performance of work on protection against influence of elements, creation of public service establishments, establishing transport relations between Konigsberg, areas and settlements. Start-up in a system of the large industrial enterprises, creation of new departments and industrial productions were a prerogative of the governments of the USSR or RSFSR.

Practically in all areas the military commandant's offices organized construction or restoration of mills and bakeries (Haynrikhsvald-Skye the commandant's office for January 15, 1946 let in a system of 6 mills with a general performance of 65 t of flour a day, the Konigsberg rural commandant's office — 4 mills on 27 t of flour, the Kroytsburgsky commandant's office opened three bakeries with a performance up to 3 t of bread everyone). In Haynrikhsvaldsky district four power plants and two sawing plants were put into operation, are open four repair shops for agricultural stock, the fishing economy is organized (up to 800 kg of fish a day). Fish generally went on food of the German population. Considerable attention was paid to restoration of the water pumping out stations on polderny lands [3, op. 851746, 2, l. 13 — 16, 18, 29, 29 about., 35].

However, the positive nature of reports was maintained not always. Military commandants reported also that the lack of various raw materials does not give the chance to start any given production. In particular, start-up of creameries and milk plants in a number of the cities, the margarine plant in Velau, the barmy plant in Tilsit was delayed, due to the lack of the electric power the Ragnitsky brick-works, etc. [3, op were not put into operation. 851746, 2, l. 15, 18, 19, 22, etc.].

Active work of military commandant's offices on the translation of the region to peaceful life, on arrangement of its territory and economy continued till spring of 1946 when the Konigsberg region was formed. Military commandant's offices naturally turned into bodies of interim civil administration, and then into managements on civil cases. From the second half of 1946 the reins of government strongly passed with new Russian area to the civil authorities.

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List of sources and literature

1. Chronicle of the Kaliningrad region. T. 1: 1945 — 1976. Kaliningrad, 2005.
2. State archive of the Kaliningrad region. T. 330.
3. Central archive of the Ministry of Defence. T. 139.
4. Central archive of the Ministry of Defence. T. 241.
5. East Prussia since the most ancient times until the end of World War II. Kaliningrad, 1996.
6. Yu.V. Kostyashov. Eviction of Germans from the Kaliningrad region in post-war years//Questions of history. 1994. No. 6.
7. V.N. Maslov. Orders of the military commandant of the city and fortress Konigsberg for 1945. (From funds of the State archive of the Kaliningrad region)//the Kaliningrad archives. Materials and researches. Kaliningrad, 2003. Issue 4.
8. Essays of history of East Prussia. Kaliningrad, 2002.
9. Funds of the state archive of the Kaliningrad region: short reference book. Kaliningrad, 1978.

About the author

> Kretinin — the Dr. an east. sciences, the prof., RGU of And. Edging,

biacrisi@baltnet.ru.

UDC 94 (438)

I.I. Zhukovsky

CHANGE of the ELECTORAL LEGISLATION of POLAND In 1989-2006

Changes of the legislation regulating parliamentary elections in Poland during the period from 1989 to 2006 are traced, an assessment of their influence on the modern political history of the country is given.

The article touches upon the problem of the changing the electoral laws of Poland 1989-2006. The influence of the changes of the legislation on the contemporary political history of Poland is been analyzed.

Representative (electoral) democracy has in the basis the procedure of elections as legitimate means of obtaining the mandate of public trust on implementation of the specific program. Conditions and characteristics of elections as process are the factor defining specifics of party systems. This thesis was proved on an example as the consolidated democracies, and transit societies in classical works on a partologiya and also in works of the modern writers studying interrelation of the electoral legislation and formation of multi-party systems in the countries of Central and Southeast Europe where the Above-town countries were generally explored.

The RGU bulletin of I. Kant. 2006. Issue 12. Humanities. Page 62 - 67.

Marcus Curtis
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