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Protection of motherhood and infancy in Bashkiria in 1920-1930



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PROTECTION of MOTHERHOOD AND the INFANCY IN BASHKIRIA In 1920-1930

© G.Yu. Sultanguzhina

Institute of history, language and literature of UNTsRAN Russia, Republic of Bashkortostan, Ufa, 450054, October Avenue, 71.

Ph.: & #43;7 (347) 235 60 50, fax: (347) 235 60 77.

E-mail: iijl@mail.ru

When writing article the archival documents taken from funds of the Central state historical archive of the Republic of Bashkortostan (CGIA RB) and the Central state archive of public associations of the Republic of Bashkortostan (TSGAOO RB) were used. On the basis of the used material in this article the attempt to find out what attention was paid by the Soviet power these years to protection of the rights of mother and child in the autonomous Bashkir republic is made.

One of the important directions of social policy is protection of motherhood and an infancy. In the 1920-1930th in the Bashkir republic considerable attention was paid to protection of interests of mother and child. Birth rate indicators in the Bashkir republic demonstrate to it. So, in 1921 on 1000 people of the population 40.4 babies were born. In heavy hungry 1922 this indicator decreased almost by 3 times. However after overcoming consequences of hunger of 1921-1922 the situation changes for the better. In 1923 35.2 births, in 1924 already 49.0 were the share of 1000 people of the population of BASSR. The trend of growth followed and further: in 1925-50.5, in 1926 - 51.3. But then decrease in this indicator began, and in 1927 it made 45.3 [1].

Child mortality during this period was quite high and remained within 140-150% for 1000 been born. However it was much lower than statistical data on the former Ufa province [2]. During the postrevolutionary period there is a decline in mortality of children aged up to one year. Till 1913 on each 100 children who were born live mortality was 29.2. In the 1920th the situation changed a little. In 1925 this rate was 22.3; 1926 - 19.2 [3].

During this period in the republic the first institutions on protection of motherhood and an infancy began to open: children's hospitals, a day nursery and houses of the baby, the house of mother and child, consultation for pregnant women. So, in 1920 at the initiative of the Ufa public health department the first child care educational facilities were open: the house of the baby on 30 places, the house for children from 1 to 3 years on 30 places, the house of mother and child on 20 mothers and 10 children, a children's day nursery on 20 places, consultations for babies with dairy kitchen [4]. In 1924 in the city of Ufa the first maternity hospital began to function [5]. For July 1, 1925 all on protection of mother and child across Ufa

was 9 institutions on 130 beds. From them - the house of mother and child on 20 beds, children's home - on 20 places, the house of homeless mother - on 30 people, the house of a grudnik - on 30 beds, two consultations for reception of pregnant women, one consultation for grudnik and one dairy kitchen. On areas was 5 institutions on 100 places [6] at this time.

In 1920 in Ufa the first children's hospital on 50 beds was open. In 1922 the number of beds was increased up to 130 [7]. On the outskirts of Ufa two sanatoria, one of them - children's appeared. In 1922-1923 in Sterlitamak, Birsk, Belebey and in areas of the republic the first child care facilities were also created. For example, in Sterlitamak two children's hospitals (therapeutic on 30 beds and dermatological on 15), the house of a grudnik on 30 places, a new zubolechebnitsa for children of advanced ages got to work [8].

The first consultations for pregnant women and babies were organized in 1924. By their 1927 in the republic there was 17 [9]. In 1934 in Ufa 3 women's, 3 children's consultations and 2 dairy kitchens were open for pregnant women and babies. In children's consultations in 1932 there were 18452 visits, and in 1933 - 20732. In clinics for women in 1932 - 17467, and in 1933-22316 visits. In dairy kitchens in 1932 there were 13497 visits, and in 1933 already 14320 [7]. These years gradually the number of the women involved in the sphere of social production increased. Therefore during the postrevolutionary period preschool institutions were created. In 1926 in Ufa the only day nursery in the republic on 25 places functioned. In three years their number increased to 6, and number of the children visiting them up to 150. These years in the republic three kindergartens on 170 places appeared. In five their years became nine where 589 children were raised [9].

124

section HISTORY

From year to year budget expenses on health care grew. If in 1913 for "the medical help" in Bashkiria 1.5 million wheels were allocated, then in 1928-1929 6.7 million rubles were spent. The number of healthcare institutions increased every year. New specialized medical institutions opened [10]. If in

1927 in the republic there were 129 city and rural out-patient clinics, 88 hospitals on 2912 beds, 62 independent infirmaries, 113 various institutions through protection of motherhood and an infancy (a day nursery, houses of a grudnik, consultations) [11], in 1929 137 out-patient clinics, policlinics, health centers, 93 hospitals on 3636 beds, 7 barracks on 431 beds, 77 institutions of protection of motherhood and an infancy (without seasonal day nursery) on 390 beds functioned. In these medical institutions 379 doctors, over 1300 people of average medical personnel worked [10].

Situation to the best allowed to change increase in allocation for business of protection of motherhood and an infancy, training of qualified specialists. So, in 1933 in the republic 265 obstetricians, from them in the cities and industrial centers - 99, in the village - 166 people worked, besides, there were gynecologists. The number of consultations and dairy kitchens grew also every year. If in their 1924 on industrial centers and the cities was only 6, then in 1933 already 20. Growth of consultations in the village is also noticeable, for example, in 1924 in rural areas of the republic there was 1 consultation, in their 1933 there was 34 [12]. The number of maternity beds in the republic grew. For example, in Ufa the number of maternity beds with 30 in 1924 increased up to 88 in 1933 [7].

In work on protection of motherhood and an infancy in the republic "не-дельники" and "months" of protection of mother and child had great value. These campaigns conducted by zhenotdela and public health bodies became traditional in the republic. So, the biweekly newspaper of protection of motherhood and an infancy was carried out from March 8 to April 1, 1925. On the funds raised from the biweekly newspaper the day nursery was organized (in number of 22 on 317 places), in Ufa the house of homeless mother on 60 places is open [13].

In the 1920-1930th there were changes in business of protection of mother and the child. Gradually the number of institutions on protection of motherhood and an infancy increased. In Ufa in 1928 the maternity shelter covered 60% of births. But in rural areas and in the kantonny cities this work was conducted very poorly. From 103 medical sites only in 18 there were about two doctors, in 34 - on one doctor, and in other doctors was not. From 293 regular obstetric places it was filled only 53, and in rural areas there was only 35 [14]. If in the city medical -

mi services captured 60% of births, in villages - only 6% [15]. For example, in the Mesyagutov-sky canton in 1928 there were only 5 hospitals, 22 infirmaries. In each hospital there were about two maternity beds. Midwifes on the canton there was only 2. Bashkir female asked all questions healers. Was deaths because of unsuccessful childbirth and female diseases [16] much. Every year the number of consultations, a children's day nursery increased. However in rural areas them was insufficiently. So, in the report of the Argayashsky Kantonny zhenotdel in regional zhenotdet it was said that "lately among women the aspiration to abortions grows. The main reason is that in the canton there is no shelter, a day nursery for children" [17].

Protection of motherhood and an infancy in the 1920-1930th became one of the main tasks of the state. These years there is a development of network of maternity hospitals, women's and children's consultations, a children's day nursery. The number of places in a city day nursery with 150 in 1928 grew in 1933 to 1750 that gave the chance to capture up to 90% of children of workers in industrial centers and the cities. In rural areas of baby beds not only in 1913, but even in

1928 was not at all, and in 1933 in a constant day nursery there were 9000 places, from them in state farms - 875, in a seasonal day nursery - 95000 places. Such expansion of a day nursery gave the chance to capture up to 40% of children in collective farms and up to 75% - in state farms. The coverage at delivery care thanks to increase in maternity beds grows in medical institutions and the organization of obstetric points in collective farms. So, in 1932 in collective farms of the republic there were 443 maternity beds and 54 obstetric points which carried out over 28000 delivery care that made 23% captured by the help instead of 3% in 1913 [18]. Along with growth of birth rate, mortality falls. However actions which were seen off on protection the child's mothers were nevertheless insufficiently. Obstetric service of women, especially on-tsionalok, was organized poorly. In 1928 Narkomzdrav of BASSR noted that only 6 women from 100 in the Bashkir village gave birth in specialized medical institutions by means of the doctor or the midwife [19]. Even in the late twenties some areas had no maternity bed. The coverage of children a day nursery was far insufficient. For example, at garment factory of the name "8 Marta" in the city of Ufa the day nursery captured in the 1930th only 13% of children of workers. Instead of a constant day nursery were more often organized seasonal, in many day nursery comfortable conditions were not created.

It should be noted that in the 1920-1930th in the solution of questions of protection of motherhood and an infancy in the republic not everything was so safe,

as it was reported in official reports of local party and state bodies. Problems which required the immediate solution that, certainly, had an adverse effect on the standard of living and mood of the population of the autonomous republic in that hard time continued to take place.

LITERATURE

1. Ten years of the Soviet Bashkiria. 1919-1929 Ufa: Edition of the Government of Bashkir ASSR, 1929. Page 374.
2. History of development of health care and medical science of Bashkir ASSR (1917-1980). Ufa: Bashkir book publishing house, 1981. Page 33.
3. Ten years of the Soviet Bashkiria. 1919-1929 Ufa: Edition of the Government of Bashkir ASSR, 1929. Page 375.
4. History of development of health care and medical science of Bashkir ASSR (1917-1980). Ufa: Bashkir book publishing house, 1981. Page 17.
5. History of Ufa. Ufa: Bashkir book publishing house, 1981. Page 291.
6. TSGAOO RB. T. 122. Op. 4. 173. L. 30.
7. A.A. Pashayev, G.I. Kolotov. Development of health care of Ufa.//Health care to the 15 anniversary of BASSR. Ufa: Izda-

ny National Commissariat of Health care of BASSR, 1934. Page 89.

8. A.A. Kulagina. Formation of the Soviet health care in Bashkiria (1917-1941). Short historical essay. Ufa: Publishing department of Goskomizdat of Bashkir ASSR, 1990. Page 22.
9. R.N. Suleymanova//Vatandash. 1999. No. 9. Page 132.
10. History of development of health care and medical science of Bashkir ASSR (1917-1980). Ufa: Bashkir book publishing house, 1981. Page 25.
11. CGIA RB. F.R. 394. Op. 2. 579. L. 407.
12. M.G. Fayzulina. Work on protection of motherhood and an infancy in Bashkiria.//Health care to the 15 anniversary of BASSR. Ufa: Edition of the National Commissariat of Health care of BASSR, 1934. Page 55.
13. CGIA RB. F.R. 394. Op. 2. D. 461. L. 4.
14. CGIA RB. F.R. 394. Op. 2. D. 602. L. 173.
15. CGIA RB. F.R. 394. Op. 2. D. 602. L. 174.
16. CGIA RB. F.R. 394. Op. 2. D. 599. L. 17.
17. TSGAOO RB. T. 122. Op. 5. 204. L. 36.
18. K.H. Ishmukhametov. A condition of health care to

to the 15 anniversary of Bashkir ASSR. //Health care to

to the 15 anniversary of BASSR. Ufa: Edition of the National Commissariat of Health care of BASSR, 1934. Page 8

19. CGIA RB F. 444. Op. 1. 421. L. 10.

Came to edition of 26.04.2007

Diane Dean
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