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Category: History

Material security of public servants during origin and formation of public service in Russia: from the system of feedings to monetary pay

T.A. istomina



Public service is that link which is capable to provide unity legal and organizational space of any state, management efficiency in country scales. The role of civil service especially increases in exit conditions from financial and economic crisis when from professionalism, corruption stability, ability of employees in due time and effectively to solve problems of public administration normal functioning of market economy, maintaining social stability in society and also providing and protection of legitimate rights and the interests of citizens depends. In this regard the scientific community pays considerable attention to a research of issues of increase in effective functioning of public service recently. Understanding mutual influence of any given aspects of legal regulation of public service with the solution of the tasks facing society and the state is also important.

Public service is not the static phenomenon. It is constantly transformed to meet needs of the state at any given stage of its historical development. Studying features of public service in historical aspect is of interest not only in terms of application of the accumulated experience now. Gradually formed legal framework laid various foundations of the public relations in this field of activity of the state. Treated questions of legal regulation: order of reception and replacement of positions; service order; requirements imposed to civil servants and measures of their responsibility and also questions of material security. Results of a research of material security of government employees during origin and formation of domestic public service are given in this article. This indicator characterizes not only public service in

any given period, but also the purposes which were set as the state which created such legal system and also the nature of methods which were applied to the solution of these tasks.

Bases of public administration and, respectively, public service was inititated in Ancient Russia. The service in the Old Russian state was under construction on the principles of the vassalitet [2, page 10]. According to norms of "The short Russian truth" the combatants used a number of privileges as at that time preference was given to power methods of the solution of the internal and external tasks facing the state. In particular, the prince was obliged to contain the team, to present her members, to arrange feasts which in essence proved unity of the prince and his team [6, page 4]. Generally money was earned for providing team at the expense of aggressive campaigns, assignments of a tribute, court fees, etc. Similar approach to material security of soldiers of people promoted centralization of the princely power and strengthening of defense capability of principalities. And because the procedure of a material reward for service was not standardly fixed, the dependence of combatants on the prince who presented them at discretion grew. None of them could know the exact amount of the reward for a certain period of time.

To civil service, to be exact its standard fixing, due attention was also not paid. Originally the category of the people operating the princely yard (tiuna and heads), was dependent, that is it were not free servants, but lackeys (slaves). At the beginning of the 11th century the trend of fouling of combatants property was outlined. Part of them became servants at court and in princely economy and also tax collectors and copyists. Over time these palace managers turn into managing directors of the industries of princely (state) economy. Thus, ancient sources of words "service", "sluzhily people" - the collective name of the persons which were in service of the prince [2, page 11].

Due to the happened changes the formation of a new system of material security of public servants was required. As such way the "feeding" assuming transfer to these attendants to management of a part of lands with imposing of a duty to carry out executive functions and granting the right to assess different population with requisitions was chosen [6, page 4].

Certainly, the similar system provided big stability for the employee who had an opportunity to define amount of remuneration independently and not to depend in this question on the prince. However the lack of restrictions for the amount of encumbrance did a similar system unfair to the population of these lands. Moreover, the similar way of material security in total with the principle of regionalism when assigning to positions (than the person is more well-born, especially he held a high post) did public service bureaucratized and ineffective. To the official there was no need to show diligence on service. Having received a treasured position, he received material maintenance which actual amount it could determine independently.

Further centralization of the Russian state changed the nature of public service that led to formation in Russia of "the sluzhily state" in the conditions of which separate estates could keep themselves only on condition of service for the sovereign's benefit.

The system of the relations when the category of soldiers of people (noblemen) received for the service - both military, and civil - an allotment on a pro-forage became a basis of new statehood. The plot was given for service life.

The "lip reform" which is carried out in the 30-50th of the 16th century not only divided the country into administrative districts and laid the foundation for development of local government, but also finally liquidated the system of "feedings" of royal managers in the second half of the 16th century when certain norms of local salaries (allotments) and a monetary salary were established to them. It should be noted that it was not the salary, but money which complained the tsar for faithful service as the service was not public yet, remaining still monarchic.

An important milestone in development of public service in Russia was rule of Peter I. Having actually created public service in her modern understanding, having allocated its types, having defined legal status of the public servant, he could not avoid a question of their material security. If before Petrovsky reforms the monetary salary was addition to local and natural stimulation, then in 1715-1717 it gains independent character. For all administrative positions annual monetary salaries which differed for the serving prices -

were established

trawl and local bodies and also for the serving various orders [4, page 388-390].

Thus, besides a local salary and various ways of natural stimulation the similarity of a system of compensation of public servants appeared. The fact that this first step to standard fixing of monetary pay of public servants was made by Peter I who understood that the approaches applied earlier do not promote increase in efficiency of public administration is important.

In terms of the rights of public servants, this also positive change as the harmonious system of the legislation setting the status of public servants is the factor which is providing their stability, and, therefore, and positively affecting quality of performance of the duties by them.

Final transfer of employees to monetary pay was complete in the years of Catherine II's reign. On December 15, 1763 the manifesto "About the resolution of states to various offices was accepted; about establishment in the Senate, in Yustitsionny, Patrimonial and Auditing boards of Departments; about it separation put; about a non-existence to the Siberian and Search Orders, Printing both Dissenting to Offices and special Kommerts-boards Komissarstva; about absence at offices of Boards and Titular cadets; about establishment at Military Overland School and the Moscow University of classes of the Russian Law and about preparation of children from commoners and a mandative rank for definition in Offices in kopiist, about their training and contents at public expense" [3, page 221-227] which among others solved a number of questions about purpose of a salary to officials.

The manifesto defined dependence of the size of a salary not from a rank, and from a post. Thus, increase in a rank on condition of stay at the same position did not attract increase in a salary. Also the order of payment of a reward with the small clerk which had no accurately certain regular salary was established. The possibility of the differentiated approach for payment of work depending on their abilities and diligence was provided. Besides, officials acquired the right to regulate the quantitative list of the lowest public servants on condition of not excess put the number of staff. If it was possible

implementation of functions by smaller number of the lowest employees, the means saved thus could be spent for additional payments.

Despite introduction of a monetary salary, the rewarding of officials for service lands and peasants which had character of a certain favor from tsars, and not being obligatory still practiced. Thus, only by the end of the 19th century in Russia there was a final transition to monetary pay of government officials.

Increase approximately twice in salaries to most of public servants, introduction of a salary to the lowest link of employees the government sought to improve work of government, to raise prestige of civil service, its appeal to educated people. Complete elimination of the remains of a system of feedings and universal transition to a monetary okladnoye keeping of officials, its transformation into the main source of material security of employees promoted increase in level of the organization of public administration [5, page 208].

During rule of Catherine II the foundation of material security of public servants at which amount of remuneration depended on objective indicators, such as education level, abilities of the official and also his relation to execution of the duties were laid. It, certainly, affected also quality of public administration. Not without reason this time is called the Golden Age of public service.

It is obvious that the question of monetary pay could not remain out of sight of the legislator. Depending on a political situation and also tasks facing the state, ways and an order of payment of a reward to public servants were established.

Setting features of an order of a reward of faces of various estates, primary position of some in relation to others was emphasized. Besides, the dependence of officials on the state and also employees on the chiefs, for the purpose of accurate implementation of their orders, and, therefore, and tasks which any given department had to solve was established by method of such legal regulation.

The analysis of definition of an order of establishment of monetary pay of public servants during various historical periods allows to draw a conclusion that it not only an element of definition of their legal status, but also

legal bases for the solution of the tasks facing the state and its governors in the sphere of public administration.

Now in many areas of activity of the Russian society full-scale transformations are carried out. Such transformations were about to happen also in activity of government, in work of its personnel long ago - public servants. However numerous attempts to reform this institute did not bring desirable result [1, page 26].

For modern Russia one of the most important tasks is creation of the effective state, overcoming serious shortcomings of the organization and functioning of a system of public authorities. The solution of this task demands modernization of civil service which has to become open, competitive and prestigious, focused on productive activities for ensuring execution of powers of public authorities, rendering public services, active interaction with institutes of civil society. This institute is urged to realize the policy of the state in the sphere of economy, social development, culture, education, to provide protection of the rights and legitimate interests of citizens and also protection against encroachments from the outside.

The task of increase in efficiency of public service set in the 90th years is finally not solved and now. An illustration of it are all new actions directed to increase in trust of the population to public servants, improvement of their work with the population (for example, creation of the electronic Government), reduction of number of public servants for the purpose of optimization of performance by the ministries and departments of the functions, etc.

Attention, however, only in line with increase in salaries is also paid to questions of improvement of compensation. At the same time historical experience demonstrates that legal regulation of compensation, to be exact new conceptual approaches to its structure, can not only promote increase in the status of public servants and prevention of corruption, but also to increase overall performance of government.

the System of compensation of public servants is capable to become that mechanism by means of which many tasks facing the state can be solved. Creation of the effective mechanism of material stimulation of public servants, namely establishment of dependence razme-

ra their monetary pay from results of work, it is capable to increase labor productivity and also quality of performance of the duties by them that will affect efficiency of public service in general.

1. Yu.M. Buravlev. Public service of Russia - reform of management//the Government and local government. 2005. No. 5. Page 26-31
2. Public civil service: the textbook / under the editorship of V.G. Ignatov. M.: IKC "March"; Rostov on / D: Publishing center "Mart", 2005. 512 pages
3. Catherine II's legislation: in 2 TM: Yurid. liter, 2000. T.1. 760 pages
4. Peter I's legislation. M.: Yurid. liter, 1997. 808 pages
5. V.P. Melnikov, V.S. Nechiporenko. Public service in Russia: domestic experience of the organization and present. M.: RAGS, 2003. 506 pages
6. V.G. Rumyantseva, I.V. Menshikova. Genesis of institute of public service in Russia//History of state and law. 2008. No. 8. Page 4-7
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