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Local public administration of Siberia of 1822-1898: district administration and economic entities during the post-reform period

e. A. Sjemshchikov


Article shows activity of district bodies and institutions of Siberia during the post-reform period and their influence on economic entities in the cities and villages.

E. Syemshchikov


Siberian local governance bodies’ activities during the period after 19 February, 1861, and their influence upon town and village administrations are described.

"Establishment for management of the Siberian provinces" became 1822 the first legal document of autocracy which in a complex defined questions of political, administrative, national, sociocultural and economic arrangement of Siberia as a part of the Russian Empire. "The Siberian institution" established a new order of management of the outskirts, defined the place and a role provincial and regional

administrations in economic development of the territory of the region and extent of influence of a local link of local public administration — district on activity of economic entities and during the prereform and post-reform periods of development of Siberia.

An object of attention of the author are district bodies and institutions of local public administration of Siberia 1822-1898

The subject of study and lighting in this article was made by issues of relationship of district administration and economic entities during the post-reform period, namely: questions of the organization, arrangement and opening of markets, Torzhok and fairs and also construction of warehouses and hlebozapasny shops, institution of wine benches, clinics, pharmacies, libraries and other elements of infrastructure of rural areas and cities by economic entities. The author carries country societies, volost boards to number of economic entities as bodies of local country public management, town communities, merchant, petty-bourgeois and craft societies in the cities, institutions of the central departments, for example, the Ministry of Finance of RI of 1830-1855 and the Office e. and. century, for example, Altai mountain board.

In Siberia, as well as in all Russia, the state trade became the leading trend in economic development of the state. State policy on trade provided creation of favorable conditions by the imperial government for participation in trade of the main podatny estates of the Russian Empire. Quitrent articles and redemption payments for the former serfs and for peasants on lands of the Office e. and. century, taxes and taxes put the peasantry of all Russia, and Siberia including, "under a money power". The autocratic power was interested in increase in solvency of peasants and in increase in taxation. [17, page 98] In this regard the imperial government considered the major task every possible development of trade and participation in it of various estates and social groups. The policy of the center in otno-

trade sheniya in general, and exhibition in particular, during the post-reform period underwent some changes: the imperial government refused strict control of the organization and conducting trade, of establishment of Torzhok and fairs in provinces and areas of the empire *.

Till January 1, 1863 ** process of establishment of Torzhok and fairs in provinces, areas and the Districts of Siberia had long character, consistently taking place all levels of local, central and highest public administration of the Russian Empire ***. "Gorodovoye

situation" allowed to establish one fair, depending on the circumstances conveniences to citizens. The greatest number of Torzhok and fairs worked in the Tobolsk province. In general, in the Siberian provinces and areas the organization of Torzhok and fairs was defined by "Establishment for management of the Siberian provinces" and the general "Provincial establishment" 1775 and was imputed to provincial (regional) board. The initiative of establishment of a market, Torzhok or a fair proceeded from economic entity: country society, volost board of country public management or town community [1]. Country societies on descents in the presence of the rural head made public censures in which appealed to the district authorities to found in the village and to open a weekly market (on Fridays and Saturdays), Torzhok (trade in the determined days, but no more than three days in a row) or a fair.

Officials of district administration: assessors of territorial vessels, officials of district police departments, and then and the officials on country affairs appointed by the Ministry of Internal Affairs

The Russian Empire, considered applications of economic entities and defined how new, again established weekly market, Torzhok or a fair can or "cannot undermine business to the next markets, Torzhok or fairs" and submitted a petition to provincial board, having put to it a public censure of country rural society and motivated definition of the official of district administration. [2] The final decision on establishment of Torzhok or a fair was accepted by provincial (regional) administration and personally the governor (regional chief).

It is necessary to emphasize: the similar procedure of obtaining permission to establishment and opening of weekly markets, Torzhok and fairs became possible only since 1883 when the law of March 3, 1883. "About cancellation of duty-free trade at more considerable fairs" introduced exhibition duties on stationary forms of trade and established categories for fairs — categories. Trade duration was the basis for the category of any fair: Fairs lasting from 8 up to 15 days had the IV category; The III category — from 15 to 21 days; The II category — over 21 days; The I category — the Nizhny Novgorod fair had. The same law and "Rules" to it of April 26, 1883 from trade payments completely exempted rural short-term fairs by duration up to seven days which were carried by "Rules" to the V category of fairs.

Concerning the country population the autocratic power continued to pursue patronizing policy, however concerning merchants, petty bourgeoises and other podatny groups the tax policy remained the same. Imperial

the center believed that formation of an enterprise layer and the trade capital reached the maturity and they, i.e. merchants, petty bourgeoises, handicraftsmen and other podatny population groups, had to share the burden of the sales duties [18, page 101].

Relationship of economic entities on the lands of the Altai mountain district belonging to the Office e. and. century, in issues of torzhkovy and fair trade had the feature: subjects were under supervision of at the same time two dominating bodies: mining authorities and Tomsk civil governor. Despite the long nature of the solution of questions of opening of fairs in the territory of the district, after carrying out land management works on differentiation of rural and kabinetsky lands the Office e. and. century and the Altai mountain board managed to create the system of land and rent economy in the territory that promoted change in the relation to trade and stimulated discovery of Torzhok and fairs. The head department of the Altai mountain district in the conditions of falling of mining production was interested in complete elimination of shortages from peasants. Officials on country affairs of sites of the Altai mountain district on the basis of sentences of rural societies, for example, of villages Bochatsky, Horde, Medvedskoye, Maslyanino, Tyumentsevo, appealed to the Altai mountain board to allow market, torzhkovy or fair trade in villages of the Altai mountain district and on the basis of § 41 of "The Siberian establishment" and Article 463 of the general "Provincial establishment" petitioned before the governor for establishment and discovery of Torzhok and fairs [3].

In general the mechanism of opening of markets and Torzhok and establishment of fairs in Siberia during the post-reform period had long character, however was faster, than in prereform time: the highest and central state bodies of the Russian Empire actually did not participate in establishment of fairs.

The regulatory base regulating market, torzhkovy and fair trade in post-reform time differentiated areas of jurisdiction, for example, establishment of fairs and discovery of Torzhok and markets, and powers, for example, control of trade from bodies and institutions of public administration of the Russian Empire between the supreme and central bodies of the Russian Empire and local state bodies of Siberia, significantly changed terms of trade, strengthened a role of local, provincial and regional administrations in the solution of all issues of development and improvement of trade in provinces and areas, having transferred under the law from

5 June, 1900 (in the Altai mountain district — under the law of May 31, 1911) all powers for permission of market, torzhkovy and fair trade in maintaining provincial and regional administrations.

Provincial, regional and district (district) bodies and institutions of local public administration of Siberia considered escalating fair trade revenues and there were you -

to go initiators of establishment of new fairs. District (district) administration defined the dates of the auction at again established fairs, the opened markets and Torzhok, monitored observance of the dates of the auction at the old, settled fairs, exercised control of work of markets, Torzhok and fairs [15].

At this stage all economic entities participating in fairs, Torzhok and markets acted as object of legal and administrative influence from provincial, regional and district levels (district) local public administration of Siberia. Changes in legal regulation of trade led to significant growth of number of fairs in Siberia in general and in Western in particular that promoted increase in solvency of the population and growth of welfare of the Siberian village (see the tab.).

Opening of warehouses, pharmacies, new schools, clinics, libraries, wine benches and hlebozapasny shops in rural societies for providing "was other important field of activity district, and since 1898 — district administration... the correct and successful course of affairs in the places subordinated district, to the policeman and volost to managements" [14]. Country societies acted as initiators of establishment and opening of all listed above objects of rural infrastructure.

Economic entities 1861 1895 1903 1907 1911 1912

Tobolsk province 261 288 449 563

Tomsk province 24 68 466 568

Altai district 1885-1890 1891-1892

26 16

Contemporary records demonstrate: in April, 1882 the chairman of the Barnaul presence, district on country affairs, submitted for data to the Tomsk civil governor the copy of the resolution for No. 28 on delivery to peasants of Upper Chulym, Nikolaev, Lower Kuludinsky and Burlin-sky volosts in a loan of bread for crops and at the same time reported data on the remained grain stocks [4]. The structure of hlebozapasny shops and warehouses, construction of schools and clinics, a construction of churches, opening of wine benches and other objects of rural infrastructure were carried out on material and funds of rural country societies. The public censures of villagers certified by signatures of rural heads and the seals attached to them through volost boards came to private district administrations where were considered in territorial court, and since 1867 — in district police department. The consent of the district chief and where it was not

— the district district police officer connecting in one face of all officials of district administration was an indispensable condition for submission of the petition

about satisfaction of a sentence of rural society with the official on country affairs of the respective site the district as the civil governor or the regional chief [5].

In the cities populous as Tomsk, Tobolsk or Irkutsk, and averages — as Barnaul, Tyumen, Turinsk, Nerchinsk, Yakutsk, acted as economic entities town communities and also merchants and petty bourgeoises (societies), and other social corporations, for example, handicraftsmen and clergy. According to "Establishment for management of the Siberian provinces" 1822 questions

devices in the cities of bakery, wine and other shops, that is ". supervision in food of the cities..." (§ 112.

item 13), opening of pharmacies and clinics, that is "a .nadzor behind a medical part." (§ 112, item 12) treated areas of jurisdiction of city police; however the device of warehouses, opening of schools, schools and libraries made an area of jurisdiction of economic board of the cities and City Councils [16].

Due to the acceptance in 1870. "The policeman of situation" [11] in the cities of the Russian Empire and in Siberia, bodies of the municipal public government — City Councils and town councils began to be created.

City income and expenses belonged to areas of jurisdiction of town councils as executive bodies of City Councils. Income from city property and about-rochnykh articles was the main sources of local taxes in the cities; profits on the city enterprises; taxes and fees, otsenochnonalogovy, land and rent, tekhnikosanitarny and room and military fields of activity, issues of work, national education, public safety, providing citizens with food and legal paperwork [8, page 18, 22, 28]. According to the law appropriate supervision over lawful performance of duties by members of City Councils and justices was assigned to the civil governor (regional chief) who through provincial presence, (regional) on city affairs, controlled the municipal public government and had the right to repeal any resolution of City Council [9, page 30]. "Gorodovy situation" was entered 1870 gradually: in 1870

— in the cities of Krasnoyarsk, Tobolsk, Tyumen and Irkutsk, in 1871 — in To -

lyvan, Beryozovo, Chita, in 1877 — in Barnaul and Biysk. Tomsk and Omsk treated big cities (over 100 thousand inhabitants) in Siberia; nine cities belonged to averages (from 20 to 100 thousand inhabitants): Tobolsk, Kurgan, Biysk, Tyumen, Barnaul, Novonikolayevsk,

Krasnoyarsk, Irkutsk, Chita; to small (from 5 to 20 thousand inhabitants) — 15 cities; to the cities villages (less than 5 thousand inhabitants) — 14 cities. According to the estimates of researchers, in Siberia the small cities and the cities villages — 72.5% prevailed, the average cities there were 22.5%, big cities — about 5%.

Merchant, petty-bourgeois and craft societies in the cities had the class institutions and bodies of public management. The main function of class management was ". care about all affairs relating to estate" [13]. Class societies submitted to the city administration and were obliged to execute decisions of City Councils and justices, however, the members of the management of merchant, petty-bourgeois and craft societies of the cities were approved only by the governor (regional chief). Periodically merchant, petty-bourgeois and craft societies organized meetings for the purpose of permission economic (for merchant and petty-bourgeois societies) and production (for handicraftsmen) questions, for example: collecting taxes, delivery of "trust" or "approval" on commerce and industry affairs to members of merchants; an apportion of taxes and collecting, rekrutsky affairs, issue of passports, etc. — for member petty-bourgeois estate; the organization of shop production and preparation of craft shots — among shop handicraftsmen. Also petitions for the introduction in estates were considered,

it were presented to the city authorities of data on members of the societies. All these and some other issues resolved by societies reflected the degree of independence and independence of class corporations defined in the law in the cities and demonstrated in general the general orientation of policy of the imperial power on preservation of class institutes of traditional society.

Having certain material and financial resources, for example, in Tobolsk the merchant society owned the stone house, income from which was about 300 rubles a year, in Yalutorovsk the petty-bourgeois society owned Gostiny Dvor, in Kurgan the petty-bourgeois justice had a contribution in bank, income from which in 1887 was 834 rubles 73 kopeks, in Tyumen and Tobolsk the craft justices together with petty-bourgeois successfully and effectively for themselves resolved issues in the production sphere [6], class structures of town communities played an important role in life of citizens, performing function of social protection of members of the corporations. At the same time class structures of the Siberian cities and cities villages were the independent organizations — legal entities, both in economic and in social policy of the municipal public government acted as independent economic entities. The municipal public government submitted only to the governor, and in the area — to the regional chief. District chiefs and district police officers, officials of district police departments could not influence directly economic entities of the cities and cities villages and were forced to ask for the help the provincial (regional) authorities [7].

Economic activity was the main function of bodies of the municipal public government. Acceptance 1b 1B7G of g of the law "Gorodovy Provision" systematized June work of the city administrations, class corporations and citizens, defined legal status of all subjects of economic activity (economic entities). City Councils and town councils under the law began to act as the main subjects of economic activity, carrying out the accounting of all city property (including property of class societies), making the estimate of city expenses and income, managing collecting city taxes and collecting arrears, protecting the interests of citizens in courts, watching correctness of building of the cities and cities villages, allowing opening of traktirny institutions, restaurants and coffee houses, giving out if necessary to natural and legal entities of the reference, certificate, certificate and passport.

"Gorodovy situation" 1B7G of g considerably expanded the budgetary opportunities of the municipal public government. Introduction of a system of local taxes promoted connection of efforts of bodies of local public administration and the municipal public government of Siberia within execution of fiscal functions of the state. Class corporations in the cities — merchant, petty-bourgeois, craft — acted as the independent managing organizations (subjects), but within the municipal public government had the subordinated legal status and could work only through City Councils.

City Councils submitted to the Ruling Senate, and city

the head, chosen by a thought in the large cities, it was confirmed to the post by the Minister of Internal Affairs of the Russian Empire, to average and small — the governor. "Gorodovoye situation"

1B7G g entrusted to governors (regional chiefs) function of supervision over "correctness and legality" of actions of the municipal public government [19, page 3G1-3G2]. The district administration (with 1B9B of g — district) had no direct levers of impact on bodies of the municipal public government and could influence them through the governor (regional chief). On 191G of g in the Provinces of Siberia the small cities and the cities villages made: in the Tomsk province — 72.5%, in Yenisei and Irkutsk — on % B3.3, in the Transbaikal region — 57.5%. By 1914 in Western Siberia only nine cities from twenty four had full gorodovy management. In Eastern Siberia of such cities was eleven [1G, page 199-2G1].

In general bodies city and country public managements during the post-reform period acted as the main economic entities and created conditions for development of all layers of the corporations. The provincial (regional) administration and personally the governor (regional chief) had decisive impact on the cities. Extent of impact of a district (district) link on bodies of town community was insignificant; the district administration to 1B9B of g made decisive impact only on bodies of country public management — country societies and volost boards, exercising control and supervision of activity of these economic entities [19].

* The statutory act of January 1, 1863 the autocratic power allowed everyone ".bez distinctions of a rank and a state, a sex, age and estate freely to be engaged at own choice in trade or the industry.", but left without change of provision of legalization of May 29, 1814 about duty-free trade for all estates and kept the former procedure of establishment and opening of fairs and Torzhok in the Russian Empire.

** Legalization of May 29, 1814 exempted all subjects trading at a fair from payment of duties. On judgment of the historian T.K. Shcheglova, in this law it was talked not so much of freedom of trade how many about establishment of privileges for representatives of the trading estates.

*** During the prereform period the permission to establishment and opening of a rural or city fair gave the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the Ministry of Finance of RI. The decision on opening of fairs was approved by the Ruling Senate.


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18. In the same place.
19. In the same place.


1. GATO. F. 3. OP. 48. D. 24. L. 1.
2. GATO. F. 3. OP. 48. D. 24. L. 7.
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12. PSZ-3. T. 18. No. 15503.
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14. Uchrezhdenie dlja upravlenija Sibirskih gubernij. 1822. § 68, L. 14-15.
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18. Tam zhe.
19. Tam zhe.
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