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Traditional choreography in the festive and ceremonial culture of Russians of the Omsk Priirtyshje (the end of XIX XX vv)

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Article came to edition 01.09.09

UDC 130:793.31

L.Ya. Nikolaeva, the graduate student of OmGU of F.M. Dostoyevsky, Omsk, E-mail:



On the basis of the conducted research the place and functional and semantic purpose of traditional choreography in structure of festive and ceremonial complexes of Russians of the Omsk Priirtyshje in the period of the end of the XIX-XX centuries are defined. In the course of the culturological analysis a number of functions of traditional choreography reveals (ceremonial and magic, social, regulatory, communicative, psychological, esthetic, entertaining and game and others). In a research those genre groups of traditional choreography which functioned in the context of Christmas an evening, in a spring and summer cycle of holidays are considered mainly.

Traditional round dances and dancings represented an integral part of prazdnichnoobryadovy complexes for a long time. Inclusion of choreographic forms in structure of holidays and ceremonies is caused by their connection with ceremonial and labor actions and regulated certain temporary (calendar, daily) by borders, allocated spatial zones,

differentiation of performing structures. Their confinedness by the major annual holidays - to Christmas, Maslenitsa, Easter, Petrov to day, the Trinity is quite natural. Every holiday it was noted by special structure of the choreographic forms corresponding on character to the substantial party of ceremonial action. On the Christmas-tide it were game round dances, dancings masked, for Maslenitsa - Pancake week street round dances, for Easter, the Trinity, Ivan Kupala, Petrov day - numerous "circles" with circular and ornamental drawings of the movement of participants. Quite often choreographic forms came to the forefront, were leaders in structure of a holiday. From here, it is no wonder that they occupied the most part of some festivals, enough long on time as, for example, round dances for the Trinity. By the end of the 19th century dancings became the prevailing entertainment on holidays and festivities. Unlike round dances, dancings were not strictly dated for a certain date of the calendar therefore a set of dancings of every holiday varies depending on the general dancing repertoire of the area. Round dances and dancings were entered in the general structure of national fun and other types of amusements submitted to the same rules, as. So, for example, in most cases round dances, dancings and games on annual holidays practiced only after a razgovleniye and lunch rest, and in a number of traditions - after "icons resemble" [1, page 47]. Space-time restrictions extended to choreographic forms, so, for example, it was impossible to dance out of places specially allotted for this purpose, the ban on dancings existed during posts, on the eve of holidays, Sunday.

In general, traditional choreography in the Russian festive and ceremonial culture at early stages represented ritual and magic actions, the main function-onalnoy orientation of which was the belief of the person in the ability to influence the nature, the world around, the caused aspiration to provide fertility of fields and fertility of the cattle, good luck on crafts, health and

wellbeing of people. At the end of XIX beginning - the 20th centuries obryadovomagichesky function of dance gradually begins to lose the advantage and to be forced out by others - regulatory, communicative, emotional and psychological, esthetic, entertaining and game. However as leaders the communicative and entertaining and game functions characteristic of all types of traditional choreography are allocated. The main semantic orientation of choreography providing it viability in the context of a ceremony is defined as establishment of communicative communications of the person with the "other"/other world and also communications in society, i.e. communication and entertainment of the Siberian youth by means of dance. In structure of the vast majority of traditional holidays the numerous round dances and dancings were favourite entertainment of youth, making a complex of festive entertainments together with traditional songs, games.

Considering traditional choreography in a winter festive cycle, it should be noted that a considerable set of dancing playful ways presented youth Christmas evenings, having exclusively pleasure value. As M.M. Gromyko notes, Christmas evenings differed from other entertainments of this sort "in the greatest variety of games and forms of art creativity of country youth (choral, choreographic, theatrical, poetic) and also the maximum heat of festive fun" [2, page 243].

In structure Christmas evenings are widely presented all forms of choreographic creativity of the Siberian youth: game round dances, pair drivings different braznye types of traditional dancing, late dances (quadrilles, idlers, Poles and so forth). Dancing action Christmas evenings provided alternation of slow dancing forms with dancing figures, mobile and difficult on construction: mass dancings were replaced

solo, dancings with the mixed cast men's or female folk dances, round dances quadrilles. It is noted that change of nature of choreography also was connected with division Christmas an evening on two stages - before arrival of guys-. If the first stage was characterized by execution of slow round forms, then the second was noted by emergence of an accordion and, respectively, dance tunes and playful ways. Game round dances, dancings and dances

mixed up with actions of ceremonial, ritual origin: guessing, ceremonial games and games of masked.

Christmas evenings were carried out not only for the purpose of amusement of youth, but also for the purpose of more close acquaintance of guys and girls of different settlements as holidays were youth gostevaniye time at relatives from the neighboring villages. As a rule, round dances and dancings were the most popular and convenient forms for establishment of primary contacts. They promoted process of inclusion in youth group of beginners and "strangers", their consolidation with it. The leading role in the choice of the marriage partner and establishment of marriage contacts on Christmas evenings was allocated for game round dances which in the explored region there was a set: "Geese floated", "Because of a garden the garden blossoms", "By a bosk Thorn's path", "my Shkatulochka", "Oh and to whom evening", "The sleepiness sits", "Evening, evening, in the evening", "Yes on an evening of maids is a lot of", "Here went, came", "Oh, I lay for mom on the furnace", "The deer under a bush sits", "I on a pebble sit" "I roll a ring", "In a tower of a board are thin", "That for good fellows yes for good", "On a stool a kupchik", "A scarlet ribbon to a wall lnyot". A main objective of game round dances was the choice of couples and the constant change of the partner (search of couples) assumed according to the scenario of many round games that allowed participants evenings "naturally" quickly to get acquainted with each other. Search of couples in some round dances was followed by demonstration of participants. Most often it concerned girls, but in a number of round dances the advantages ("gait" "to become") were shown to attendees by guys ("Went, there passed Ivan"). Game round dances with kisses which accompanied almost each game were the most attractive for the Siberian youth, of course. In all round dances the kiss in a circle acts in a love and marriage context [3, page 9]. Strictly ceremonial nature of a kiss during the considered period was lost, it had rather game character.

The motive of the choice of couple was dominating in the dancing and game repertoire Christmas an evening. Quite often point to it also names of the game round dances connected with symbolics of "marriage", "wedding", "the choice of the bride": "Our Petenka marries now", "Still who wants to marry", "At us Kolenk to marry", "At us Vanyushk to marry", "Still, Kolenka, choose to yourself the wife". In all options, as a rule, the meaning of a round dance consisted in "perezhenivaniye" of participants, endings of round dances could vary.

Within game round dances with love and marriage subject the choreographic behavior of participants promoted rapprochement of couples: guys and girls strolled in couples, holding hands; drew with conditional gestures attention to themselves; touched each other by hands, exchanged kisses. Choreographic means in round dance the young people studied communication ethics, beauty of the relations [4, page 55]. The choreographic behavior of participants of game round dances was "a peculiar school of culture of communication of residents of villages who were united by uniform dancing action" [4, page 56], means of dance to the younger generation skills of communication took root, dancing traditions, dancing ethics, an emotional spirit of round action were transferred. Within youth evenings important for society in general function of training and education of youth in the system of traditional knowledge was carried out: here in playful way to it norms of a moral psychological, esthetic order, here it took root

gained certain skills of communication in ordinary and ritual life and also in the sphere of art.

Dancings and dances were especially favourite occupation on Christmas an evening besides game round dances. The dancing repertoire an evening was rather extensive. It included various types of dancing: "siskin", "siskin with a kiss", "piedmont", "the general piedmont", "gipsy dance", "mistress", "tripack", "box", "bald", "mirror". At the end of XIX - the beginning of the 20th centuries in the repertoire Christmas an evening the dances created under the influence of city dancing culture began to take an important place: "krakowiak",

"Polish butterfly", "mad butterfly", "asterisk", "падеспань", "тустеп", "Parisian", "waltz", "foxtrot". From this group of dances into the forefront the quadrille in which evenings could begin and terminate acted. By the beginning of the 20th century the quadrille becomes main on evenings, having replaced many traditional round dances and dancings which filled with themselves almost all to an evening earlier.

The majority of dancing dance tunes of forms in structure the evenings were initially connected with a sensuality. So, for example, E. Fuchs considered that "dancing was always transferred to rhythm language by a sensuality, it represents courtings, refusal, a promise, execution of promises. A subject of all dances - symbolization of one of these elements or set of all elements of a sensuality" [5, page 191]. On an evening many dances can be characterized as dances of courting, flirting which gave an idea of ethics of the family relations and communication of young, unmarried couple. Always in national dances the performers followed steady rules of conduct, so, "there was quite clear boundary legal, and they were broken very seldom. Both parties, both men's and women's, tried to observe chastity" [6, page 125]. Thus, dancings and late dances with love subject were in fact the authorized courting form. These dances helped youth to seize sexual magic, ability to attract an opposite sex, supplied with necessary life experience, played the increasing role of prewedding communication of guys and girls.

In general, round dances, dancings and dances in structure Christmas evenings, first of all, symbolized unity of youth group that was shown in the existing of local types of these types of choreographic creativity which was expressed in an originality of composite construction, original vocabulary, a manner and the nature of execution, sometimes in a peculiar name. Choreographic forms Christmas an evening were closely connected with certain types of youth communication. So, for example, pair dancing was directed, first of all, to the choice of the partner and demonstration of the settled couples, and some of its versions were a form of rivalry and a showdown between members of youth community. Different types of a folk dance had competitive character in traditional choreography: the one who knew more knees or chastushkas won. Solo dancing was intended to show the advantage dancing, its superiority over rivals. Dancing under a chastushka was the communicative act in which there was "showdown" between partners. Mass dancings and group dances symbolically united all participants of an event, promoted rapprochement of youth.

In a Christmas festive cycle the evenings were the place where there was a culmination of a youth game - special life full age during transition to an adult state. Proved this situation on extensive and various ethnographic material T.A. Bernshtam. According to her the winter Christmas stage of a sit-round gathering "was the final stage of the annual game after which there came the wedding season" [7, page 245]. Summing up the results, it is possible to draw a conclusion that the choreographic component in structure evenings was one of traditional ways of communication of the Siberian youth and had pronounced wedding character which meaning consisted in preliminary selection of marriage couple.

Spring cycle of holidays and ceremonies one of the most developed. Large number of holidays, their rich symbolics, a saturated complex of representations - all this is caused by importance of this period in the national agricultural calendar. The spring is comprehended as time of updating of the nature, the beginning of new natural and economic cycles. The most significant complexes of ceremonialism of spring are grouped around Christian holidays of Easter and the Trinity. They marked porubezhny time - transition from winter by spring, from spring by summer. Basic elements of spring ceremonialism are connected with symbolics of new life and fertility. The spring period was especially rich

various round dances. In the Omsk region the round dances which received the name "circles" began to drive by the all-Russian tradition since Monday of easter week. The majority of the round dances of a spring cycle widespread in villages of the Omsk region had ceremonial sources. The ceremonialism in general was directed to acceleration of arrival of spring and "awakening" of the reproducing functions of the earth, plants, animals and people. In particular, it was connected with appearance of new generation of the women capable to reproductive activity. The round dances which were carried out till the St. Thomas' Sunday were under construction mainly on agricultural subjects [8, page 215]. In the spring, according to ancient farmers, it was necessary to help the fastest blossoming of the nature, and magic acts, one of which, along with various games (grandmas, a siskin, in a ball), driving on a swing, was circulation around in a round dance, were for this purpose made ("And we sowed a millet", "I sow-blow white lenochek", "Hey, my peas garden, field"). The St. Thomas' Sunday everywhere was a time of the spring weddings which were coming to an end by May therefore the special part in round dances was assigned to the girls and young men who reached age of consent. Round dances of this period corresponded to their marriage intentions since were followed by songs with wedding motives and were associated with a condition of their transition to category of "adults" ("Beside a bosk", "And you, luzhya", "On the street, a mamonka"). During spring awakening of the earth commemoration ceremonies were important. In the Omsk region, as well as everywhere, on Tuesday Fominy week, in Parental day which in the people was called also Radunitsy all went to graves to the died parents. Round dances were a component of funeral ceremonies to Radunitsa. So, in the village of Andreevka of Sargatsky district during visit of the cemetery the elderly women drove a round dance around in which center one sat with a distaff [9, page 40]. The round dance with lamentations in funeral ceremonialism of Radunitsa is developed as "calling" the died parents on graves. In it the special ceremonial and communicative orientation of "radunitsky" round dances connected with establishment of the relations between the world live and the world "other" (world of ancestors) is found. Drove round dances for the St. Nicholas Day: "Stand, my well with water", "From a pine forest, a pine forest", "In the Don forests" whether "And you are a dawn, my zorenka", etc. At the same time round dances of a spring festive cycle had no special distinctions and strict temporary confinedness, and therefore any of them could meet throughout the entire period. In the spring ceremonial actions connected with a meeting of spring, with awakening of the earth, the leading part in round dances was assigned to the young married women and girls who reached puberty as in women's ceremonial functions ideas of close connection of a feminine with elements of the earth were reflected [7, page 146]. Spring maiden round dances were related to transition of girls to the category of the women "ready" to matrimony and motherhood.

The end of spring and the beginning of summer marked the Christian holiday Trinity - the most mass national summer holiday in Russia up to the beginning of the 20th century which indispensable accessory, along with other forms of entertainment, were round dances and dancings. A large number of round dances was characteristic feature of a Troitsk festive cycle. The basis of Troitsk round dances was formed two connected among themselves, but divided in action time: "twisting" and "razvivaniye" of wreaths in the forest, usually on birches. In the Omsk region the girls "twisted" wreaths on Thursday before the Trinity - the Semik, and "developed" together with guys for the Trinity. Twisting of wreaths on a birch is nothing but some kind of guessing. Most often guessed about a marriage, about health, about the future of the family.

Troitsk round dances with "twisting" of a birch by tradition executed only girls, guys in these round dances were not allowed ("There is my round dance", "curly Beryozonka", "In the field of a beryozonk stood", etc.). However in the second part of ceremonialism there was an association of girls and guys. There was a big group of Troitsk round dances which main feature was their mixed character: "In

a billiard pocket", "A drake, catch up with a duck", "Be braided a wattle fence", "I sow-blow", Kostroma, "Deer", Golden Gate, Utitsa, "To shake poppy". It should be noted that round dances with the mixed list of participants, as a rule, had game character. The game round dances characteristic of spring ceremonialism, apparently, were connected with the ancient rituals held to time of a ceremony of initiations. They were directed to transition of participants to the status of sexual partners and potential mothers. Round dances of a semitsko-Troitsk cycle finished the spring round period.

However in villages with the mixed structure of the population where natives of Belarus and Ukraine prevailed, drove round dances and on Ivan Kupalu ("And on Ivan, and on Ivan Kupala", Kupalochk, etc.). Round dances in structure of a holiday of Ivan Kupala had the matrimonial focus which is combined with agrarian motives. Comparison of round dances of a semitsko-Troitsk festival and round dances of a holiday of Ivan Kupala allows to draw a conclusion about real-stvovaniye similar lines in structure and pragmatics of the majority of round dances Troitsk kupalskoy ceremonialisms: same-sex (female) structure of round dances, fragments of fortune-telling, love and marriage subject of the songs accompanying round dances, movement of girls down of rather sacral center ("birch", the mythical character of game round dances - "Lizard" and so forth). All these components Troitsk kupalskikh round dances in general promoted ceremonial action - a prizyvaniye of an ideal marriage.

Distinctive feature of spring and summer round dances is the variety of forms of spatial arrangement and movement of participants. Except the circular and linear constructions characteristic of round dances of a winter festive cycle, also ornamental meet: "spiral", "snail", "snake", "vorotets", "basket", "шен", various lines ("rank", "wall", "column",

"arrow"), etc. The choreographic structure of round dances of a spring and summer cycle is closely connected with their communicative orientation. Circular round dances and games were intended first of all for intra group communication that was distinctly shown during the festive festivities when each youth group formed "circle". "Chain" round dances ("Be braided a wattle fence",

"The black raven drank water") were also directed to intra group communication and performed function of connection, "binding" of her members, using symbolics of "perepletaniye" and "svivaniye" of a moving chain of players. This type of round dances and also type-setting round dances ("And you, my dawn, a zorenka") could be used for establishment of primary contacts and education of temporary game group. "Chain" and type-setting round dances were open also for "external" intergroup communication as a peculiar way of neutralization of "stranger", his inclusion in the structure of the settled collective or group. In calendar and family ceremonialism this their property could be applied in the magic purposes to maintenance of natural and social and vertical communications at the rounds, ceremonies of a vyprovazhivaniye and farewell finishing the calendar periods and cycles. "Ordinary" round dances ("Lengthways yes on the small river", "Hey, my peas garden, field") were directed, first of all, on "external" communication and performed function of representation of group and establishment of primary communicative basis at contact with "strangers" [1, page 138-139].

Thus, in the Omsk region there was a steady tradition of playing of round dances, both in winter, and during the spring and summer period. Round dances of the winter period were played indoors (log hut) and were connected with tradition winter an evening, especially on the Christmas-tide and Maslenitsa, spring and summer round dances were found on the street - in the settlement, on its village fence, on the high coast of the small river, on meadows. Important feature is the lack of essential differences between the spring and summer and winter round repertoire. There was a certain group of round dances with more or less strict temporary confinedness, but the majority of round dances, most often game, could

to be used during any period. So, for example, many game round dances executed on Christmas evenings were not calendar and ceremonial, executed them also on usual winter evenings. And their confinedness is commented as feature of northern traditions: the game action accompanied with the song was dated in areas to the south of Moscow for spring agricultural calendar holidays, in the north - to winter, Christmas. Feature of their execution during the Christmas period was the fact that all of them were played, that is were followed by movements: girls, some or with guys, went ranks, curled a chain, bowed each other, kissed, etc. In option when there was a connection of a song with the movement, they were perceived in the people as Christmas. The game round dances recorded in northern areas of the Omsk region had Christmas confinedness: "Went, there passed Ivan", "I bury a ring", etc.

It should be noted an essential difference in pragmatics of the Siberian Christmas and spring and summer round dances. It is explained both by seasonal climatic conditions, and local traditions of the organization of calendar and ceremonial and marriage cycles with which the round and game complex is closely connected [1, page 32]. For example, usage to organize weddings during the autumn and winter period became the reason of shift of marriage emphases on the Christmas-tide and Maslenitsa. Therefore focus on marriage subject is characteristic of Christmas options of game round dances. From here wide circulation of round dances with wedding symbolics: "Our Petenka marries now", "At us Kolenka marries", "At us Vanyushka marries" and so forth. During all Christmas cycle the round games including sensuality elements were performed. Such games as "Lizard" (Yashenka), and "Deer", T.A. Bernshtam considers a perezhitochny form of ceremonies of transition - obtaining marriage ability where mythological images of the Lizard and Deer are a machismo embodiment [10, page 17-36]. V.I. Chicherov also wrote about the erotic, "pre-wedding" nature of the majority of round games on Christmas an evening: "The song and game complex of Christmas merrymakings is characterized as a ceremony with marriage subject" [11, page 180].

The spring and summer cycle of round dances is the most ancient layer ceremonial igrishchnogo folklore, originating in the pagan and early Christian periods of development of Russia. Therefore round dances of this cycle were much more often connected with expansion of ceremonial meanings: calling rain,

vyprovazhivaniye of "nice fellows", ritual and symbolical registration of transitional calendar dates, etc. [1, page 56-57]. The spring and summer round dances characteristic of the Omsk region though have the specifics, nevertheless are closely connected with the love and marriage subject which is loudly sounding during this period. So,


for example, in a number of villages of Sedelnikovsky district the round festivities for Easter opened a game round dance "And we sowed a millet" in which the combination of a subject of work and love is traced. The maintenance of a similar round dance of the Russian North is not limited only to display of labor processes, it displays East Slavic legal, household and marriage customs. "Its agrarian and magic

the essence was pushed aside by the idea spring merrymakings - the idea of a courtship and extradition of girls in marriage" [12, page 403]. Thus, Christmas and Troitsk kupalskiye round dances and round games represent in fact an integral part of the corresponding festive and ceremonial complexes and also precede marriage ceremonies (courtship and a wedding) [1, page 44]. In the Omsk region the round dances existed prior to the beginning of the 20th century. If initially practically all age groups of the country population, from teenagers to people of mature age and even old men took part in round dances, then by the end of the 19th century only one youth began to go to "circles". Eventually round dances gain partly ceremonial, partly razvlekitelno-game character. So, for example, some Christmas and troytsko-kupalsky round dances which do not have already ceremonial value kept ritual and magic symbolics (round dances with "birch", with wreaths and so forth). In such quality they remain for long time in national Siberian tradition. By the beginning of the 20th century the concept about a round dance as ceremonial action was completely lost, it was perceived as a certain form of youth leisure.

Thus, traditional choreography, being a part of national and general culture of the people, acts as one of structure-forming components of the majority of holidays and ceremonies which main purpose consisted in the magic impact on the world around allowing to achieve its most favorable state for people around. At the end of the last century the researchers paid attention that calendar customs and ceremonies, gradually losing magic sode6rzhaniye, since the XVIII-XIX centuries begin to be perceived as entertainment, amusement, an entertainment. If at the beginning dance was one of components of various ceremonies - agrarian, labor, then subsequently it was allocated from a ceremony as the last gradually began to lose the magic function and gained independent development. Over time a part of ritual and ceremonial dances lost the magic value and began to be used for entertainment, that is in life. To the middle of the 19th century some of dances still kept connection with ceremonial actions, though is not always conscious, but already by the end of XIX - the beginning of the 20th century passed into the category of entertainments.

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Article came to edition 01.09.09

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