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Istoriya emergence and development of the main forms of activity of officer meetings of the Russian army



a. V. Tikhomirov

HISTORY of EMERGENCE AND DEVELOPMENT of the MAIN FORMS of ACTIVITY of OFFICER MEETINGS of the RUSSIAN ARMY

Work is presented by department of historical regional studies of St. Petersburg State University.

On the basis of the conducted research the author states the history of origin and development of the main forms of activity of officer meetings of the Russian army. In article features of the organization of work of military clubs (meetings) and stages of creation of a regulatory framework of activity of officer meetings of the Russian army are considered. During the work on article as the author new sources and literature on a subject of this research were used,

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which considerable part is made by messages on pages of periodicals.

A. Tikhomirov

HISTORY OF ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE MAIN FORMS OF OFFICER ASSEMBLIES& ACTIVITY IN THE RUSSIAN ARMY

Basing on the conducted research, author sets forth the history of origin and development of the main forms of officer assemblies& activity in the Russian Army. The article covers the organization of the work of military clubs (assemblies) and stages of creating the legal base of officer assemblies& activity. The author of the article uses new documents and periodical press on the subject under consideration.

The problem of emergence and development of activity of officer meetings of the Russian army by many researchers is analyzed only on the basis of standard and legal documents of officer meetings which main stages of development passed in the second half of the 19th century. At the same time the period formation of spiritual needs drops out of a field of vision of authors at the organization of leisure of officers who formed later the basis of activity of officer clubs (meetings) of the Russian army.

Some authors consider a prototype of officer meetings of the Russian army the St. Petersburg assemblies which are carried out at the end of 1718 - nobility assemlies [43, page 82] which at the end of the 18th century were transformed to gatherings of officers for carrying out evening. For such short meetings the place of collecting most often used the room of a part on duty. From messages in city newspapers it became known of creation in 1779 of club the headquarters - and subaltern officers of the Novgorod infantry regiment in Tikhvin [27], and in 1782 - Military club in St. Petersburg [8]. At the beginning of the 19th century in leyb-guard the Finnish regiment the small basement where officers could read books and newspapers was allocated, to play cards and to discuss in the circle news [9, page 372]. Thus, the areas of work, necessary for society of officers were designated

on the organization of leisure which gained further development when forming activity of officer meetings of the Russian army.

The main form of work can be considered the purposeful organization of collecting books and newspapers for satisfaction of spiritual needs of officers in the form of libraries. Perhaps, this activity also contributed to the fastest development of officer clubs (meetings). It is considered one of the first army libraries, the created in 1810, regimental library of leyb-guard of the Semenovsky regiment. On October 1, 1811 the regimental library of the Preobrazhensky Regiment in which creation more than 100 people participated was formed [28, page 12]. On August 10, 1832 the library of the Kronstadt sea meeting for which certain rooms were allocated was founded and contributions from each clubman for needs of library are entered. The staff of library consisted of seven people [19, page 24]. Already to the middle of the 19th century in many parts of army the activity of libraries was organized, at the same time their work provisions about officer libraries were regulated regimental [31]. Funds of libraries had a significant amount of various editions. So, the fund of library of leyb-guard of the Finnish regiment in 1866 contained 3223 names of books [9, page 376].

Completing of fund of officer libraries had several sources. Very often underwent replenishments of fund due to donation of personal books of officers of a regiment. Cases when officers bequeathed the books officer meetings or to regimental libraries were frequent. But nevertheless the main source of replenishment of supply available of libraries were monthly contributions of members of meeting to fund of library which were defined by additional rules of officer meetings. Besides, in some parts existed contributions at signing up in library of both members of meeting, and visitors [33, page 13]. Sometimes, separately from other expenses, commanders of parts allocated funds for acquisition of literature from internal funds of parts [2].

Creation of public clubs of officers which activity was based on the forms of work directed to increase in scientific and professional knowledge, the organization of leisure is characteristic of this period. So, at the beginning of the 1860th in St. Petersburg there was a circle of the officers-engineers, in time, free from service, gathering in the Peter and Paul Fortress for studying military and technical questions and deepening of professional knowledge [3, page 612].

In the middle of the 19th century some more forms of work among society of officers become widespread. One of them - regimental table (buffets). The organization of this form of work at the initial stage of formation experienced difficulties with rooms, service staff and means. So, in 1857 the commander of leyb-guard of the Finnish regiment reported on no what on the device in the camp of the general dining officer table the regiment of means had [9, page 374]. At that time some officers were so poor that in everyday life were forced to be content with soldier's cooking. The seventieth years became a turning point in establishment of the general officer dining rooms in regiments when table (buffets) at officer meetings began to be organized everywhere.

Other form of work - the organization of accommodation of officers in the territory of a part. In these cases housing was equipped in service premises for temporary stay of officers of other parts, and it was provided free of charge or for very low payment. In the border service such rooms were called as "shelters" which main goal was a granting for very moderate payment of housing for the officers coming on border. In shelters there were libraries, but entertaining events were not held [3, page 611, 612].

The organization of evening leisure of officers which turned on family evenings with dances and concerts, carrying out friendly dinners, arrangement of places for playing billiards, cards, chess became the most mass form of work. Not only close members of families of officers, but also representatives of other population groups were invited to such actions.

Practice of activity of officer meetings in the middle of the 19th century showed that the main actions of popular off-duty forms of work with officers of the Russian army took place in officer clubs (meetings) which activity was not regulated by the Defense Ministry. Therefore in 1869 at the Defense Ministry the special commission for development of a question of the structure of military meetings and military libraries was created. The report following the results of work of the commission and the approximate charter of work of officer meetings were published in 1871 on pages of the military press [45]. In materials it was noted that all meetings will be organized on the basis of the same documents, actions take place in premises of the Defense Ministry, meetings contain at the expense of the membership fees and money gained for holding paid actions, and work of these institutions was recognized as positive. Thereby the Defense Ministry confirmed the importance of such new public organization as a military (officer) meeting. And in 1873 in the order on Defense Ministry No. 8 it was recommended to release

to troops special funds for the device and content of officer meetings, general dining rooms and libraries [35].

On the basis of collected material the commission generalized the main forms of work of military (officer) meetings and definite purposes of this type of activity: to deliver to officer society of means for mutual rapprochement of his members and entertainment in time, free from service; to promote development among officers of military education and to reduce the price of life of officers. And on November 4, 1874 the general was accepted to the management standard and legal the document on the organizations of work of officer meetings of the Russian army and the fleet - the Charter of military meetings [46].

For achievement of definite purposes in premises of meeting the library, the dining room (buffet), fencing and gymnastic by halls with accessories, a game in chess, billiards and cards, lectures and conversations, war games, dancing and musicales and also rooms for temporary residence of officers of other parts were organized. In several years the special commission which main objective became preparation of the new standard and legal document on work of officer meetings taking into account modern living conditions and service of officers was founded. The temporary document was developed and entered to action by the order of the top military commander of guard and the St. Petersburg military district on August 26, 1881 for all parts of the military district as provisional regulations for officer meetings in separate parts of troops [34]. Unfortunately, some researchers mistakenly consider this Provision the main document on organization of future work of officer meetings of the Russian army till 1917 [24, page 47] But this document worked within three years only for officer meetings of the St. Petersburg military districts, and, after generalization of materials on work of these meetings, some articles of the Provision were changes. And only on September 15, 1884 the order on the Defense Ministry

No. 279 was entered the main leading the document - the Provision on officer meetings in separate parts of troops [32].

In the new standard and legal document main objectives of officer meetings were changed: to deliver to officer society of means for mutual rapprochement of his members and to maintain the correct friendly relations conforming to spirit and requirements of military service between officers; to promote development among officers of military education; to deliver to officers entertainment in time, free from service; to reduce the price of life of officers. Now relatives or acquaintances of members of meeting, both military personnel, and civilians could be guests of officer meetings. At the same time members of meeting should not have left a meeting while they were entered by them persons there. Members of meeting were responsible in every respect for the guests entered by them. Family of members of meeting and their acquaintances were allowed in a meeting only in the days and hours which are especially appointed for this purpose. The officers who invited in a meeting of the family or acquaintances presented them to the chief of a part or the senior from the present members. All rules of an officer meeting in the same measure are obligatory invited, as well as to members.

At the organization of activity of officer meetings the improvement of work of libraries of parts of the Russian army and fleet continued. According to the Provision on officer meetings in separate parts of troops [32, page 1089] the fund of library was formed from separate compositions and periodicals. In libraries there were alphabetic and systematic catalogs which were sometimes published by separate brochures [10] or inventories [29], separate additions to catalogs of libraries [1] were issued, in libraries the special book in which members of meeting included the wishes concerning acquisition of literature was created [32, page 1089]. The catalog of library of an officer meeting of leyb-guard of Hussars in 1896 contained razde-

ly: the Russian military, the Russian general, foreign military, the foreign general, periodicals [11], was also repeatedly republished [12].

The officer meeting not only rallied officers of a part (garrison) and provided carrying out leisure, but also over time became the center of public life of towns as the officer meeting was the natural and convenient location of meetings. Therefore problems of the organization and activity of officer meetings since the end of the 19th century were often discussed on pages of periodicals: magazines "Nedelya Stroitelya", "Voyenny zhurnal", "Voyenny sbornik", "Armiya i flot", "Voyenny kuryer", "Razvedchik", Sankt-Peterburgskiye Vedomosti and Russky invalid newspapers, etc. [44].

Among information dailies the Russky Invalid newspaper on which pages not only official statements, but also the historical information were repeatedly published was the leader in an overview of the activities of officer meetings of the Russian army for that period. Not accidentally, in 1911 by preparation of an overview of the activities of officer meetings of the Russian army the authors made numerous references to articles of this newspaper [3].

Deserves attention and other periodical - the Razvedchik magazine which constantly published materials on the organization of the main forms of activity of officer meetings. The author of article found more than hundred notes on this matter. Materials were devoted to subject and quality of military education, the hottest topics of lectures were discussed [5]: about a cavalry, about discipline, about Mountain Dubnik's capture the discussion about need of lecture work [23], the number [25] and duration of lectures [40], about problems of the organization of officer meetings in the remote garrisons [42] and quality of their work was held to the company of 1877-1878 [13], about the Japanese-Chinese war [6], [22].

In notes was narrated about regimental holidays in officer meetings [18], about the organization in officer meetings tova-

rishchesky dinners [4], amateur theatricals and musical and dancing evenings [5], about the organization of shops at officer meetings for "purchase of goods first-hand" [14], work of service staff [4], about conducting correspondence between officer meetings and various institutions [16].

Often dancing-parties organized also with the charitable purpose - for assistance to poor officers and their families [17]. In one of officer meetings during the season 8 musical literary soirees, 14 family and dancing and 3 amateur theatricals were carried out, at the same time performances were given in favor of society of Cross Benefit, "Red Cross" and "Rescue on waters", and already nobody could call with irony these theatricals amateur [18]. In Brest-Litovsk at the initiative of the chief of staff of the 2nd infantry division colonel Shishkovsky the concert in favor of society of "the White Cross" which raised considerable funds was given. Officers of local garrison, teachers of a pro-gymnasium and student chorus participated in a concert mainly [38]. In the Khabarovsk military meeting, concerts of a musical circle which part officers and officials of garrison (2-3 concerts a year) were [15] were arranged. Data on holding actions in the general officer meeting of Yukhnovsky and Yepifan reserve battalions [39] remained, is later during holidays of Christmas and Maslenitsa performances with participation of officers of this battalion were given [7]. Sometimes for carrying out musical and literary soirees actors of local theaters were invited. In the Kiev officer meeting, evening lessons on the German and French languages were organized for the wishing officers and members of their families. For training the administrative committee of a meeting invited the best teachers of the city [37]. Unfortunately, avaricious information notes do not allow to like spirit of the held events, but can do it vos-

to make look fat literary and art works in which officer meetings of a regiment became full heroes of the narration [21].

At the end of the 19th century in officer meetings one more form of work - the collecting and preservation of a collection of military objects of military units reflecting valor of brother-soldiers which was realized later in activity of the regimental museums arose [20, page 57]. In 1913 the draft of the Provision on the army museums which was sent for further discussion to the commissions of the category (office) of military archeology and an archaeography of the Russian military and historical society was prepared, and later it was published on pages of "The magazine of Imperial Russian military and historical society" for its discussion in officer meetings of army and the fleet [36]. Among the main offers there was an addition of the purpose of an officer meeting - to support and strengthen among officers century precepts of a part and belief in her valor and glory and also inclusion of the new section on the museums in Regulations on officer meetings in separate parts of troops [32]. But this offer was not realized as World War I began.

The main forms of work of officer meetings of the Russian army and fleet existed up to cancellation of officer meetings in December, 1917. Proposals of officers on additions and changes in the existing standard and legal documents were published in newspapers and magazines, changes on work of officer meetings which concerned also acquisition (alienation) of real estate of officer meetings [30] were accepted.

The research showed that, since 19th century, both commanders of parts, and officers of the Russian army were got everywhere by desire to arrange meetings or clubs of officers. And the most important - officer meetings received the distribution thanks to the fact that they proceeded from desire of the officers needing communication. This type of public organization was vos-

trebovanny for officer society of the Russian army. Therefore it is not accidental, many forms of activity of officer meetings of the Russian army found worthy continuation in work of structures of the Workers' and Peasants' Red Army, and is later in the Soviet Armed Forces and the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation. So, experience of the organization of cultural and leisure work was realized in activity of Officers' Clubs of various level and development of standardly legal framework the central institutions of cultural, Officers' Clubs and officer clubs; experience of carrying out lecture work in officer meetings of the Russian army allowed to continue an education system of officers at the organization of tactical and special and public and state podgotovka; experience of the organization of activity of libraries at officer meetings allowed to implement the program in library science; experience of the organization of the first museums at officer meetings allowed to continue further development of this form of work in activity of the museums, formation of museum type and rooms of military glory; experience holding the first commemorative events devoted to the heroic past of the Russian army is realized in basic provisions of the Federal law "About Days of Military Glory (Victorious Days) of Russia" today; activity of a system of Voentorgs and departmental hotels was based on experience of the organization of work of officer dining rooms and rooms of temporary residence.

In conclusion we will note that at the beginning of the 21st century in Armed Sil of the Russian Federation the Provision on officer meetings was enacted. Also it would be desirable to hope that officers of service of personnel and educational work, commanders and chiefs of all levels of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation will use experience of realization of the main forms of activity of officer meetings of the Russian army which allowed to make at the beginning of the 20th century this type of public organizations necessary not only for army, but also all society.

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