The Science Work
History
Site is for sale: mail@thesciencework.com
Category: History

Cultural sources of formation of the socio-political relations in the environment of the Ural Cossacks



PVshvstvo and culture

Nina GURSKAYA

CULTURAL SOURCES of FORMATION of the SOCIO-POLITICAL RELATIONS in the environment of the URAL COSSACKS

Article is devoted to the analysis of factors which promoted formation of mentality of the Ural Cossacks. In work the extent of influence of cultural components on development of the socio-political relations in the Ural army is considered.

The article is devoted to analysis of factors which promoted to formation of mentality of the Ural Cossacks. In the work the degree of influence of cultural components on development of sociopolitical relations in Ural troops is considered.

socio-political relations, political culture, old belief, customs, Cossack character; sociopolitical relations, political culture, old belief, system of values, Cossack character.

The answer to a question why the Cossacks aspire to autonomy at all times, idealizes the free socio-political relations, is in the potential force of the Cossack culture created under the influence of various sources. Culture and social system had close connection at all times. And formation of a certain political culture was result of such interrelation. We understand as political culture "a complex of ideas of any given national or socio-political community of the world of policy, about laws and rules of its functioning" 1. Political culture develops in the course of natural-historical development of society and reflects the general level of culture of the people. It is necessary to mark out the following features of formation of the socio-political relations of the Ural Cossacks: the first — long-term maintaining democratic principles of self-government; the second — strong religious influence of old belief; the third — the patriarchal way, specific cultural and spiritual traditions which are transferred from generation to generation as the system of standards of behavior. These factors, on the one hand, significantly slowed down military and organizational and administrative and managerial transformations in army, but, on the other hand, gave special specifics to formation of the socio-political relations.

According to N.G. Chesnokov, on the lower and average Yaik's coast longer, than somewhere in Russia, remained republican pravleniye2. This circumstance was affected by two interconnected factors: first, the Ural Cossack army was territorially strongly removed from Moscow, and secondly, it promoted strengthening of patriarchal way, so, the condition for maintaining cultural features and cultural wealth was created.

The important social and political value of the Ural Cossacks was the meeting equal, or a circle. The Cossack circle existed till 18th century. In 1772 Catherine I forbade to next

1 Fundamentals of political science: manual. — M.: The highest Shola, 1995, page 165.
2 N.G. Chesnokov. "Accepted me nicely": Ural trip of A.S. Pushkin. — Uralsk: Optima, 2003, page 8.

GURSKAYa

Valentinovna is a teacher of history of gymnasium No. 35, Togliatti of nina.gurs@yandex.ru

the government decision to meet on circles. And in the report of Military board brought on the royal statement the following was noted: "To army office and the Army Circle which on the Highest of your Imperial Majesty to the decree are already released not to be forever" 1. But as soon as there was an opportunity to revive an army circle after the February revolution of 1917, the Cossacks tried to recreate a former control system which in their representation became a political standard, public and cultural tradition: "... in Army old institutes — the Army circle and a position of the elective Army Ataman were restored. The army announced the autonomy" 2. Cossacks began to call the Yaikom River again, and army — Yaitsky.

A meeting, or an army Cossack circle, is a socio-political value which distinguished the Cossacks from other estates of the Russian state. Such form of government was their pride. But it had the pluses and minuses. The positive side was that important issues in community were solved by all army. Decisions were made by a majority vote, each of Cossacks had the right of voting. There were special customs of the invitation to a circle and carrying out it in which respect for Cossacks was traced. The army Cossack captain from suite of the ataman warned all about the forthcoming army circle. "Listen, atamans good fellows, all Donsko-Yaitsky army. Do not drink ze - Lena-wine neither gratuitous, nor bought: zautro the Circle will be" 3. There was also other way to warn people about a meeting. "If it is necessary to make important definition, or to announce the decrees received from vyshny court to the people, then toll in a bell at cathedral church." 4 "When the happy number of Cossacks will gather, the Army Log hut leaves the ataman accompanied by the suite consisting of seniors on -

1 I.I. Zheleznov. Ural residents. Essays of life of the Ural Cossacks//Complete works. T. 1. — Reprint edition. — Uralsk, 2006, page 279.
2 Yaik.py//http://www.yaik.ru
3 I.I. Zheleznov. Decree. soch., page 267.
4 Pallas P.S. Travel on different provinces of the Russian Empire. — Uralsk, 2006, page 33.

hodny atamans and Cossack captains, enters the middle of the Circle, i.e. in inside handrail limiting the Circle takes off a cap, the suite does it the same, puts a mace to legs and I will notch — the sign of atamansky advantage — low exchanges bows wherever one wishes..." 5 Having said a prayer, the ataman began to state the main point for which all are called. Cossacks expressed approval or disagreement shouts: Ljubo — "Not Ljubo" 6. Such traditional organization of army was perceived as the guarantor of general equality and freedom. If ".kto from elective chiefs, at least and the army ataman, did not justify the confidence of the people, the people without ceremony deposed that and turned into a primitive rank. Thus, the mass of the people of all initial faces necessary for it brought out of the circle of and then when they became for neya unnecessary and furthermore harmful, absorbed in itself" 7.

A negative side was the fact that such form of government had a big share of randomness of opinions and decisions. In 1737 about it V.N. Tatishchev wrote in the report in the Senate: "The set where and when hearing decrees excess, abuses and shouts happen comes to their circle, and often it happens that the ataman is not able to appease. The fact that they and for board of the charter have no law, any for court, arrive on a svoyevolstvo is worse than everything, without arguing that it is useful for them or is harmful: on custom, execute for bezdelny affairs death, and important neglect" 8. V.N. Tatishchev offered one of establishing order options — reduction of an administrative top. The Ural Cossacks had many elective atamans who had elective assistants — Cossack captains and desyatniki9. And only over all over them the elective army ataman towered. V.N. Tatishchev also

5 I.I. Zheleznov. Decree. soch., page 267.
6 A.I. Levshin. Historical and statistical review of the Ural Cossack army. — SPb., 1823, page 19.
7 I.I. Zheleznov. Decree. soch., page 268.
8 RGADA, t. 248, Senate, prince 1167, l. 2-4 (about), 10-16 (about), 40-42, 45-61.62-76 (about), 98-103, 142-143, 160— 164 (about), 168 — 172 (about), 175-180, 469-501, 537-538 (about), 581-588, 626-629, 630-665, 699-727 (about); prince 1164, l. 30-37, 41-42, 47-49 (about), 372-374.
9 A.B. Karpov. Ural residents. Yaitsky army from education of army prior to a census of the colonel Zakharov (1550-1725). In 2 books by the Prince 1. - The reprint edition from the book 1911. - Uralsk, 2009, page 82.

suggested to enter accurate hierarchy, and to transfer decrees for execution according to ranks that the last, at last, would become at Cossacks in respect.

Customs and the Cossack character were important components of the socio-political relations of the Ural Cossacks and also acted as the factors which influenced formation of political culture of community. These two interconnected components received common estimates of researchers during the different periods of history. Till 18th century of opinion generally had critical character. For Levshin yaitsky Cossacks, first of all, fierce robbers. He emphasizes their improbable, exclusive ferocity. So, according to Levshin, the Cossacks who for the first time were to the Urals (1580) "quickly attacked the Shed, burned out it and in fury not only tormented living inhabitants, but even, breaking off graves, peeled the dead" 1. "Customs these yaitsky Cossacks are stubborn, proud, brutally zlobstven-na" 2. Across Levshin, the Ural Cossacks (it is about the 16th century) "stopped extensive trade of Russians, aziatets and British", it is more than that, they "plundered ambassadors as well as merchants" 3. They had no objective idea of court: ".zaimodavets could the debtor, having tied a rope to the left hand, to drive and beat until it collects by a wordly handout required on payment to a debt number of money, or his friends will redeem. if the creditor makes a mistake, and will tie the debtor by the right hand by which are ordinary christened, then the creditor becomes through it guilty, and cannot already demand a debt" 4. Also punishments which were accepted on a circle were not less severe: ".v a sack yes in water..." 5 or execution. N.F. Savichev noted ".samy various ways of punishments and executions which practiced in army up to the last third of the 18th century" 6. Women and men were especially strictly publicly punished for theft, adultery, alcoholism, a buntovstvo, treason and cowardice. Levshin specified on

1 A.I. Levshin. Decree. soch., page 10.
2 RGADA, f.36, 505/1, l. 36 (about).
3 A.I. Levshin. Decree. soch., page 9.
4 Pallas P.S. Decree. soch., page 35.
5 A.S. Pushkin. Pugachev's rebellion history. — SPb., 1834, page 6.
6 N.F. Savichev. Ural old times. Stories from

seen and slyshanny. — Uralsk, 2006, page 21.

the fact that crimes of a Pugachev's Rebellion were caused by the character of the Ural Cossacks, their primordial habit to robbery and bloodsheds. "The Ural Cossacks, citizens of tsars of Russians, were so violent, as well as the Cossacks who were not recognizing over themselves dominions of Russia yet". The son of senator A.I. Bibikov, the representative of noble outlook, considered orders and life of the Ural Cossacks as "inveterate superstition and rough ignorance of the people in this extensive and remote country" 7. Really, "life full of alarms and dangers and collision with neighbors developed in Cossacks, on the one hand, courage, bravery and an udalstvo, and with another - cunning, roughness and cruelty" 8.

However the Ural Cossacks deserved also positive reviews. "By sight they are furious, but in soul there is a lot of dobra" 9. The nature of daily classes demanding dexterity, daring and force developed that remarkable type of the strong, hardy person who is observed only between Cossacks.

In the 19th century assessment of the Cossack character and the Cossack customs significantly raised. A.S. Pushkin treated Cossacks with respect.

V.I. Dahl, M.L. Mikhaylov wrote about kindness and hospitality of the Ural Cossacks. "Contrary to obstacles and the bans the Ural Cossacks, showing the character and temper, sought to defend the communal, army traditions". It was expressed in various performances and not contents (in 1698, 1718, 1720, 1738, 1760, 1763, 1769, 1770, 1772, 1773-1775, 1803, 1874) 10.

For this reason the Ural army very long existed as community, after all put on in a regular military form and and remained in the weight at Old Belief positions. The religious belief bearing deep spirituality, mass of knowledge and ideas of the world had, thus, huge force.

As a rule, Old Believers were for -

7 A.A. Bibikov. Notes about life and A.I. Bibikov's service. - SPb., 1817, page 243.
8 K.V. Danilevsky, Rudnitsky E.V. UraloKaspiyskiy edge. - Uralsk, 1927, page 186.
9 L. Sorokina. Different views on one phenomenon//Meeting: cultural and educational work, 1991, No. 2, page 28-29.
10 Yaik.py//http://www.yaik.ru

chinshchik and ideologists of many Cossack revolts against attempts of the authorities to reform any given aspects of life Cossack voyska1. As well as all conservatives, Cossacks feared drawing up any registers, private papers, requirements of wearing a uniform.

To army positions after split of church the Cossacks chose only staroobryadtsev2. But at appointment of officials the government of such condition, naturally, did not exist. Of course, the army ataman and his environment were orthodox Christians, but they were not Old Believers as could participate in actions of the state value in which church rituals of the dominating belief were used.

At Catherine II the Military board began to appoint to command positions in the Ural army of officers of active armed forces that caused discontent of Cossacks and quite often led to the conflicts. "Cossacks strong stuck to an old regime in spite of the fact that between them captains, ensigns and corporals whom they to the .neena very much recognized began to appear." 3

The ideologist of the Ural Cossacks, the writer I.I. Zheleznov noted that not at once and the appointed managers could ".ot-

1 S.K. Sagnayeva. Historical aspects of formation of consciousness of the Ural Cossacks and modern problems of self-identification of Cossacks//Cossacks Renaissance: hopes of fear. - M, 1998, page 46-58.
2 N.M. Shcherbanov. "I went to Uralsk.". A.S. Pushkin in Cisural area. - Uralsk: Optima, 2003, page 33.
3 I.I. Zheleznov. Decree. soch., page 273.

to decide from customs, legends and views of the people. The same wide-brimmed homespun coat, the same brusyany log hut from a polatyama, the same house situation, the same property and a druzhestvo, the same lack of any external luster and gloss, the same belief in sanctity of a beard and posts, the same disgust for narrow uniforms, for a marching, for an extract." 4

Of course, over time the structure and the maintenance of the socio-political relations in the environment of the Ural Cossacks changed. However throughout centuries a peculiar type of the Cossack mentality was created.

Today it is possible to observe how the Cossacks advocate the interests of the community, referring to experience of the socio-political relations which were created during a pre-Pertine era. Modern political views rely on the principles of political culture of the past. On the one hand, this feeling of group of people with special culture; with another is an idea of itself as about special military estate in the Russian society and the state; the third is aspiration to self-government. It proves the fact that the spiritual heritage of the Ural Cossacks was not finally obsolete in national memory. Culture became the main source of revival of the Cossacks. Now the main problem of modern Ural Cossacks is the dissociation which can be overcome, leaning on uniform cultural heritage.

4 In the same place, page 282.
Chloe Eustacia
Other scientific works: