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Preparation of the USSR for transformation of the Subcarpathian Russia to the Transcarpathian Ukraine


Preparation of the USSR for transformation of the Subcarpathian Russia to the Transcarpathian Ukraine

The Red Army came to an end of 1944 to the territory of Transcarpathia, i.e. the frontier of 1939 was passed. Release from the German-Hungarian occupation of lands of allied, even friendly Czechoslovak Republic because by then a year as the Treaty of friendship, mutual aid and post-war cooperation between the USSR and ChSR was signed began. In the second echelon military connections were followed by civil authorities and retaliatory and repressive bodies of the Soviet power. For ideologo-political orientation in a local situation for them research opinions about Transcarpathia were prepared.

It is clear, that a strategy was developed in Moscow, tactical decisions were made in Kiev on the basis of the intelligence data.

The specifics of a situation were that unlike already freed Volhynia and Galichina where the Soviet power had some experience of 1939-1941 and where there were contradictions about - and anti-Communist character, the Polish-Ukrainian interethnic armed struggle, in Transcarpathia before the Soviet bodies very difficult ball of more versatile contradictions appeared.

It is, first of all, interstate Czech-Hungarian antagonism. Here the position was clear: Czechs are allies, and Hungarians are opponents, members of the pro-Hitlerite coalition, especially, in 1944 Transcarpathia was occupied by the German parts. Further - contradictions between representatives Russian and Ukrainian interwar emigrations, settled here, i.e. carriers "imperial great Russian" and "nationalist samostiynitsky" ideologies. They were equally hostile to the Soviet power, but "are already closer" ethnically. It were, so to speak "the" enemies, however, who had equally a great influence on local community. And, at last, the attitude towards local community - to "Russinians autochtons" who were separate and disoriented by above-mentioned forces. Among Russinians

there were both "madyarofila", and "chekhofila", and "Russophiles", and "the Ukrainian nationalists". The Russinian the Greco-catholic church to which the Soviet bodies had the certain relation was more or less cementing basis. The Russinian identified himself with the Greek-Catholic. Being going to destroy Greek-Catholicism, it was automatically necessary or to destroy ethnic "rusinstvo", or to replace it with "the Soviet ukrainstvo".

The document published below is stored in archive of the Central Committee of the Communist Party (Bolsheviks) of Ukrainy1. These are 26 pages of the typewritten text directed by the national commissioner of National Security of the Ukrainian SSR Savchenko addressed to the head of Ukraine Nikita Khrushchev. The document is entitled as "The report of the agent of "GUShchAK" on the Transcarpathian Ukraine". Giving preliminary estimate to the document which, undoubtedly, should be introduced for scientific use, we consider it necessary to notice once again that the text this not hand-written, but, therefore, not author's. With high probability it was literaturno and is ideologically edited in NKGB. For example, the addition to A. Voloshin's characteristic "the German agent" is very characteristic of NKGB in their assessment of the political person. Concerning "the agent of "GUShchAK"" it is possible to assume that it was the Russinian, it is obvious from of Mukachev. In the text events and the people connected with this city are most in detail described. As an agent there was the philologist with a good education, perhaps, a writer.

Top secret Central Committee of the RC (b) of Ukraine to companion N.S. Khrushchev

I send you the report of an overseas source of "GUShchAK" on the Transcarpathian Ukraine characterizing the historical past, political and economic situation, the Ukrainian nationalist movement and political parties existing before liberation of the Transcarpathian Ukraine from the German-Hungarian invaders.

Application: in the text

National commissioner of National Security of the Ukrainian SSR


On November 22, 1944

No. 2286/with

Top secret


1. Short historical essay.

The Transcarpathian Ukraine is the area located on the southern slopes and the foothills of the Central Carpathians and partly Nizhnevengerskaya a bottom -

mennost, it is inhabited by Slavs from time immemorial. At the end of the 9th century the Transcarpathian Ukraine was a part of the Magyar power of a dynasty Arpadov. Since then until the end of the 1st imperialistic war the Transcarpathian Ukraine was a part of the Hungarian kingdom. The Russian scientists before world war called it Ugrian Russia, or still - the Transcarpathian Russia.

After disintegration of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy the Soviet Hungary declared about granting autonomy to all people of Hungary, including to Russinians (the Transcarpathian Ukrainians so call themselves) therefore the state called "Ruska Kra_na" was created.

Were a part of the ministry: STRIPSKIY, BONKALO, Irenaios KONDRATOVICH (the priest, lives in the Region of Yovra-Dorma near Uzhhorod now) and others.

"Ruska Kra_na" existed only 3-4 months, however, it was the bright period in the history of the Carpatho-Russian people. The people, having learned about overthrow of the power of exploiters and priests, began to demand the partition of the earth and democracy. On places the commissariats headed by commissioners from peasants and workers were created. Commissariats first of all started distribution among peasants of the landowner-usurious earth, to explanation of essence of a question of national self-determination.

At this time in the West the new Slavic state - the Czechoslovak republic which promised Russinians autonomy too was created. Slavophile elements in "і" were stronger than Rusk_y Kra§n madyarofilsky owing to what it was included in structure of the Czechoslovak republic.

The agreement signed by Masarik in Philadelphia 26.10.1918 and the representative of emigration of the Transcarpathian Ukraine in America - Yu. ZHATKOVICH formed the formal basis for inclusion of the Transcarpathian Ukraine in structure of the Czechoslovak republic. Under the influence of the growing communistic movement and under an impression of the introduction of troops of the Soviet Hungary on the territory of Slovakia (June, 1919) and promises this agreement under pressure of the Entente was confirmed to Russinians of full autonomy from the Soviet Hungary with the Saint-Zhermensky contract with Austria 10.9.1919 in g and Trianonsky with Hungary 4.8.1920 of g

The Transcarpathian Ukraine, being in structure of the Czechoslovak republic as the autonomous region, the Subcarpathian Russia or Rusinsko was called Czechs.

Czechoslovak the government of the promised autonomy did not give. Instead practiced old, centralist policy of the former Austria-Hungary. ChSR of fellow countrymen appointed by the president - governed the region

sky president. The people elected only the governor deprived of any administrative and political rights. The chekhization of bureaucracy, schools, literary and scientific life of edge was strongly carried out. Interests the Russinian were in every possible way infringed.

Petty bourgeoisie Transcarpathian Ukraine, playing avtonomistiches-ky slogans, completely was under the influence of the Czech petty-bourgeois and bourgeois parties and in fight against the Communist Party and revolutionary moods of workers and farm work served as an agency of the Czech colonialists.

Being colony of the Czech capital, the Transcarpathian Ukraine had for Czechoslovakia great strategic value because it lies on the transit way to the Balkans and the Middle East.

the First governor of the Transcarpathian Ukraine. Having made sure that Czechoslovaks concerning the Transcarpathian Ukraine pursue imperialistic, colonizer policy, Zhatkevich, having thrown the post, left back in the USA.

Anton BESKID, the doctor of philosophy, the patriot and the Slavophile was the second governor. After Beskid's death K. GRABAR, the former head of Uzhhorod where the relative of professor Grabar, the director of the Tretyakov gallery in Moscow lives and now, was elected the governor.

After the Munich agreement of 1938 when Czechoslovakia was forced to give to Germany the Sudeten region, Hitler along with military and diplomatic preparations for occupation of other territories of the Czechoslovak republic developed active work among the ethnic minorities which were a part of the Czechoslovak republic.

At the same time the discontent of natsmenshinstvo with national policy of Czechs was used. Slovakia and the Transcarpathian Ukraine under pressure of Germany received full autonomy on what it was only possible to count within the constitution of the bourgeois-democratic state what then the Czechoslovak republic was. At the same time Hungarians and their agency in the Transcarpathian Ukraine stirred up the activity.

Created headed by the leader of the avtonomist hidden madyarofi-fishing, Andrey BRODIY the government, copying the Genleyna methods, pursued policy of accession of the territory of the Transcarpathian Ukraine to Hungary and put forward the idea of a plebiscite. 26.10.1938 according to instructions of the prime minister of Czechoslovakia of the general of SYROVOGO Brody was arrested, instead of it professor Augustine VOLOSHIN, the leader of Ukrainian nationalists of the anti-Magyar direction, the German agent is appointed the prime minister.

2.2.1939 , according to the Hungarian arbitration, the southern part of Slovakia and the Transcarpathian Ukraine with the cities of Mukachevo, Uzhhorod, Beregevo, and 22.2.1939 of g were attached to Hungary. The Prague parliament approved the constitution of the Transcarpathian Ukraine, established the name of the region "Karpatsk Kra_n".

All political parties were dismissed, and the so-called "Ukrainian national association" is based, military protection of edge, called "Karpatska S_ch", under command of the Ukrainian nationalist of GRENDZhA-DONSKOGO is organized. From Prague a significant amount of emigrants nationalists who began to carry out the nationalist ideas of the German fascism actively was restored.

15.3.1939 the German troops began occupation of the territory of the Czechoslovak republic and announced the territory of the Czech Republic and Moravia under protectorate of Germany. In the same time Augustine Voloshin declared "independence" of the Transcarpathian Ukraine and declared himself the president. Between the Czech troops of the general Prkhal and S_chyyu receding to Romania the armed struggle since "Січ" tried was started you will disarm Czechs and to get to yourself weapon, however, unsuccessfully.

With the consent of Germany and Italy the occupation of the Transcarpathian Ukraine by the Hungarian troops began. The people persistently resisted, but left by "government" which together with command "S_ch і" ran away on the eve of fights, were not able to constrain pressures of the surpassing and well armed forces of Hungary. Thus Hungary in payment for friendship with Germany and Italy received the Transcarpathian Ukraine.

In the beginning Hungarians tried to attract to themselves Russinians with generous promises, but, having made sure that the people of "liberators" meet by a bullet, began to pursue policy of cruel terror, first of all, against emigrants, sechevik and the intellectuals of the Ukrainian direction.

The baron E. Perenny was appointed the Regentsky commissioner, and at the head of local government there was BRODIY and its assistant to FEN_ CEC Stepan, the deputy of the Hungarian parliament, the party leader of the Russian nationalists again. As opposed to the Ukrainian anti-Magyar current the Russian emigration was rehabilitated and strongly the madyarization of the device, schools, etc. began to be carried out

Soon owing to the carried-out zhestokost the temporary authority Brodiya and Fentsika began to fall, their place was taken by ILNITsKIY which began the management with an appeal to "brotherhood, the world and love".

However the policy of Hungarians continued to remain steady. Any manifestations of cultural life were still paralyzed, libraries were taken out to Hungary where were processed on paper,

schools and newspapers were closed, all Ukrainian at schools was considered as treason to the state. The financial situation of workers became exclusively difficult.

The Russinians pursued by the authorities began to run away in the USSR. In 1942 the authorities opened the secret organizations of the Ukrainian youth setting as the purpose accession of the Transcarpathian Ukraine to the Soviet Ukraine, in Uzhanshchina the communistic organization was revealed. The strip of repressions and the hidden mobilization on East front began. The German occupation of the territory of the Transcarpathian Ukraine in 1944 was met by local community hostilely. The people of the Transcarpathian Ukraine looked forward to arrival of the Red Army. It was confirmed by the enthusiastic reception accorded to the Red Army which entered in the territory of the Transcarpathian Ukraine.

2. Political and economic situation

The Transcarpathian Ukraine was annexed to strangers on nationalities to the states for a long time, its history in many respects differs from the history of other Slavic lands.

Russinians never had is right, opportunities to create the policy and to independently resolve an issue of the language. In these questions it is always solving and leading others impact was had.

The cultural and political backwardness of the Transcarpathian Ukraine is expressed in Mikhail Luchkaya's words: "Russinians have neither grammar, nor policy therefore have neither reason, nor honor".

What is ordinary called policy in the Transcarpathian Ukraine is fight of Greco-catholic church for the existence. A story about great fight of the people for the social rights is silent, and it was considerable in the life of people. Only in implementation of church interests the Russinian saw the cultural and political life. The question of fight for the Slavic language was on the first place, including here and a problem of the native school as means of fight against romanization and a madyarization.

Fighting for the religion, language, Russinians actually fought for existence of the people which were intended to be eradicated and, together with it, to bury also the right to own the Transcarpathian Ukraine.

Historians of the Transcarpathian Ukraine consider the moment of awakening of the Transcarpathian Ukraine 1848 when the Russian army of PAShKEVIChA passed the Carpathians and Russinians learned that Russians the same people, as well as they, one belief and language.

The leader of Russinians since 1848 is the talented politician A. DOB-RYANSKY, the commissioner appointed Russians. He strongly works on restoration of the rights of the fatherland "for the people, belief and language". Temporarily

it manages it, but when Hungarians come to the power again, the oppression amplifies with a bigger force.

From now on at Russinians the belief about need of unity with Russians does not die. The Russian period and in learning of Russinians begins.

I. RAKOVSKY creates Russian grammar, the "Church newspaper", contrary to the Austro-Hungarian authorities, publishes also in Russian. Writers of FENTsIK E. and I. SILVAY, etc. publish in Russian the works which even the subject approach the Russian literature. It is characteristic, as. Rakovsky begins to be suspected later in connection with Russia. To him confidentially order to refuse Russian. Later he tries to run from arrest.

Before world war in the Transcarpathian Ukraine the aspiration is shown (by an example of Galicia) to write in national Ukrainian. Yury ZHATKOVICH, the writer and the historian, Irenaeus LAGEZA, the writer, Augustine VOLOSHIN, the teacher, write already in local Ukrainian with traditional on Transcarpathian Ukraine the Russian spelling. It is necessary to attach to them also doctor G. STRIPSKY who all the life works on monuments of karpatoukrainsky literature and fights for national language.

During this time and the violent madyarization moves ahead. At schools, even church, learn in the Hungarian presented in the Hungarian national spirit with bright expression of contempt for all Slavic. Even priests and teachers among relatives begin to apply Hungarian.

Earlier karpatorussky scientists, without finding an opportunity to show the talent in the homeland, went to Russia. But now they become on service to the Hungarian science. Though in many national consciousness did not die away. So, for example, the law professor of ILLYaShKEVICh at the Debrecen university though wrote only in Magyar language, considered himself "the convinced Russinian" (as the politician was a strong madyarofil). Professor of the BANKALO, GODINKA university write both on Hungarian, and in Ukrainian languages, both ardent madyarofila (live in Budapest). The others already forgot the native speech and the letter, for example, professor of ORTUTAY.

It is a characteristic example of the triumphing madyarization which took away from the people not only all intellectuals, but even workers and handicraftsmen who after resettlement to the city forget Ukrainian and turn in the Magyar. At heart the people hate similar persons and with contempt turn away from them. Especially children were submitted influence of a madyarization. The people reluctantly send the sons to schools, being afraid that they will forget belief of the fathers.

In 1916 was given the order on replacement of the Slavic alphabet Latin and combination of the Russian holidays with Roman Catholic. But the people opposed this order: on Magyar "fasting" ate fat, worked even on the biggest holidays. In easter days none of peasants carried to consecrate Easter. Were content with the fact that houses according to the Russian books prayed. Some priests through gendarmerie forced the people there is a fat in the Russian post and to go to church during Roman Catholic holidays. Peasants in the village Bill-kakh when by him by force wanted to appoint the Magyar's head, rose and about 20 of them fell in fight against gendarmerie. Similar moods caused the beginning of process, known in the world Maramo-rosh-Sigetskogo, so sensational at the time even in the former tsarist Russia.

Also the social situation of the population was difficult. For poor people of laws did not exist. Misters disposed of them as wanted. The lawlessness and an arbitrariness thrived. The uncivilized, fallen people could not resist even to the most ordinary drunkards. Usurers disposed of its economy at discretion. So, for example, if the peasant did not want to sell a harvest from the garden to this usurer, set fire to his house or farm buildings at night. Usurers did everything at discretion. They fraudulently took themselves from peasants almost all best fields and meadows. Usurers turned peasants into the slaves. Robbery of the peasantry by usurers was the reason of mass resettlement of peasants to America. The Hungarian authorities bribed by usurers looked at these actions blindly, sometimes even helped of the People liberated from the corvee oppressing it was even more enslaved by usurers.

Gendarmes, officials, beginning from the highest and up to the lowest, carried out the same task of the Hungarian government: "to pomadyarshchit", move, strangle the Russinian. Him everything was possible, for them there were no laws; went to prison, beat to death, plundered whom wanted. To complain of them was crime.

The people intimidated and oppressed lost faith both in itself, and in the forces. Only songs poured out the grief, but also it was forbidden to sing in Ukrainian, and the people sang in a jungle where nobody could overhear it.

If the peasant came on some question to the authorities, scoffed at it, beat as the savage, banished, calling it "will be mus" (the smelly Russian). There is a joke how the official, presenting delegation the Russinian to the Austrian tsar who was going round the possession said: "Your majesty, here a transitional step between the person and a monkey". One German book carried the name "Odicha-

the ly people in Europe - Russinians". DRAGOMANOV and V. Hnatiuk, collecting folklore of the Transcarpathian Ukraine, expressed Russinians as the people which will shortly disappear, and about which there will be only memoirs. Hnatiuk even published the book (Yu. Zhatkovich with own notes translated) famous E. Egan who put into practice a number of the reforms improving life of Russinians. In this small book all social disasters of Russinians which fantastically affect the reader are described. The author of the book for his intentions to improve life of Russinians was killed during the travel. Kayndl, the famous scientist-ethnographer, in the scientific remarks mentioned awfully serious condition of the Russinians investigated by it. He wrote in one place that the Ukrainian intellectuals turned away from the people, she is ashamed of that state to which these people fell. The Russinian worker is exploited in such degree that the profit of the employer is more earnings of the worker. The worker is forced itself to ask work, and the employer pays him so much how many he itself will want. For a year the resident of the Transcarpathian Ukraine eats exclusively vegetable food, without knowing absolutely some milk and fats.

Russinians before accession to the Czechoslovak republic elected the ambassadors ("kivet") to Austro-Hungarian parliament, but elected those who were appointed by it by the authorities. Actually, not they chose. They never saw the ambassador and gave votes, receiving for it vodka and salty fish. Other situation was after accession to Czechoslovakia.

Such is there was life of Russinians before world war. So art and political literature represents it. It is the most difficult period in life of Russinians. There is no ray of hope on the future, at all mysterious this word A is felt. Dante, repeated by one carp-torussky poet: "Give up all hopes" - and the last words from the same poem where he speaks about fast death of one of Slavic tribes - Russinians.

"Slavs, sing the anthem farewell,

light a torch funeral".

All this affected character of the Russinian. Hatred to a pansky layer in which he sees the oppressors, or to their helpers, contempt for social inequality and all oppression — characteristic feature of the Russinian.

There are no other people which kept such deep contempt for social oppression as Russinians, and reflected in so gloomy paints this hatred to oppressors in the folklore.

But despite this the Russinian is kind, he is sensitive to others troubles, property at him not on the first place. Still so far

in character of Russinians there were echoes of communal farms of ancient communism.

Russinians have real heroes who fought for its equality and justice: DOBOSh, PENTYa, ShUGAY-LEPEY, etc.

To understand political life of the Transcarpathian Ukraine, it is necessary to consider first of all its cultural awakenings and aspiration to seize public and cultural life. It had decisive influence on the course of political life.

The Transcarpathian Ukraine freed after falling of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy culturally came to be in a difficult situation: it had no intellectuals, and workers and peasants were too not cultural. What remained of the past was insufficient, unsuitable to new requirements. Then Russinians are come to the rescue by the galitsiysky Ukrainians sent by the power of Czechoslovakia, and later the Russian emigrants. They organized and channelized new life in the Subcarpathian Russia.

Ivan PANKEVICH and Czech I. PAWNS were engaged in the school device of edge. Organized high schools with Ukrainian, gymnasiums in Uzhhorod and Beregov, Justa, Mukachev. Two seminaries for education of teachers in Uzhhorod and Mukachev were created. Professors of gymnasiums were in most cases the Russian or galitsiysky emigrants who arrived to the Transcarpathian Ukraine from Prague or from abroad, and they brought with themselves at the same time the same disputes and disagreements which were full in the homeland. These disagreements continued to live also in the Transcarpathian Ukraine. They impart them to the pupils, local country youth which came from villages and accommodated in the boarding schools which are available at schools. (In Mu-kachevo there was a boarding school of "the school help" of "the grandmother of revolution" of BREShKO-BREShKOVSKOY).

In the hearts of the Transcarpathian new intellectuals "the new ideas" revived, those which lived in pre-war Russia or Galicia, and, along with these, also disagreements, first of all on language accessory of Russinians appeared.

In Uzhhorod the cultural association Prosv_ta, as in Galicia, for the purpose of the edition of books for the people and in general carrying out cultural and educational work was based on the population on villages. Augustine VOLOSHIN headed to "Prosv_t", but actually the Ukrainian emigrants filled with it. At the same time on villages the revival, national and educational work, so-called Kagantsyuvann (circulation in the people to bear to the people "kaganets", a light source), for which, probably, there was so much freedom, at the same time and need anywhere and never as at that time in the Transcarpathian Ukraine begins.

Besides, the first steps of the basis of science and the culture of Russinians were taken. PANKEVICh issues the scientific magazine Subcarpathian Russia, and later "The scientific collection" in which it printed many various materials about scientific research of the Transcarpathian Ukraine. For children the Nash Rodnoy Kray and Venochek magazines under edition of the local teacher A. MARKUSh and "Bee" under edition of the emigrant S. Cherkasenko (famous Ukrainian poet) were issued. Except all these persons, active part in business of education was taken by galitsiysky writers V. PACHOVSKY, M. PODGORYANKA, the teacher A. ALISKEVICH, etc. For teachers of PANKEVICh wrote grammar of the "Russian" language (Ukrainian in the etymological direction) and began to issue the Uchitel magazine. The Prosv_ta theater in which actors of the Ukrainian theater from troupe SADOVSKOGO took part only, this theater in the Transcarpathian Ukraine was organized enjoyed wide popularity.

Emigrants carried out the cultural and educational work is absolutely isolated, without being considered with any traditions. They even derided these traditions, it caused at the time some reaction, from Prosv_ti Stepan FENTSIK — future head of Russophiles ran. Representatives of the great Russian direction organized "Alexander DUKHNOVICH'S Society" which part mainly local aboriginals, so-called autochtons - E. SABOV, I were. KAMINSKIY, S. FENTsIK and others.

Representatives of the great Russian direction demanded introduction at schools of literature and language of karpatorussky writers of DUHNOVIChA, Evgena FENTSIKA, SILVAYa, etc. (i.e. introductions of Russian with the Ukrainian pronunciation). They found to themselves adherents from among the senior intellectuals.

All this caused strong language fight which extended even to the simple people. The Russian emigrants (former White Guards), somehow POPOV, the writer, and others which came to Transcarpathia from Prague concentrated around a gymnasium in Mukachev, together with "Society DUHNOVIChA" demand introduction of the Russian literary language, throwing the fight for language on Wednesday of the people. The people understand these questions poorly and therefore easily come under influence of various currents.

Soon emigrants seize the press of "Society DUHNOVIChA" so that in it there is no place left for karpatoruss at all in spite of the fact that a lot of things were published under their name (for example, FEN-CIKA).

"Society A. DUKHNOVICH" begins to publish various books and first of all the Russian grammar of SABOVA (great Russian) and on -

uchno-literary magazine "Karpatsky Svet". In magazines the Russian emigrants - scientists place articles, but first of all articles relating to a language question are printed. Their main edition is "the Karpatorussky collection" in honor of the president of MASARIKA, but in it all articles, except two, are written by the Russian scientists-emigrants. The same can be told also about ten volumes of "the Naukovy zb_rnik of Prosv_ti".

The main slogan of dukhnovichevets was: "Ukrainians were not, is not present and will not be - it is empty fiction". But Ukrainians with former persistence proved, referring to decisions of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences and the Russian scientists that their language is independent language, and the adverb of Russinians is Ukrainian adverb. (VOLOSHIN, PANKEVICh - the Ukrainian side, and the Russian side - SABOV and G. GEROVSKY). This question was the main thing for both directions. No force could reconcile them. One party was ready to destroy another if had an opportunity.

Except a language question, both directions paid a lot of attention to fight against a chekhization, fight for autonomy, even fight against national darkness, but first place was won by language fight. The "National catechism" published by "Society A. DUKHNOVICH" has such point: "Remember that your biggest enemy is an ukrainizm and communism which destroy everywhere!" At one congress of "Society DUH-NOVICHA" one young Ukrainian shot at the chairman of "Society DUHNOVIChA" - the old honored cultural worker of SABOVA.

Emigrants White Guards directed all this fight. They were authoritative in similar questions and were initiators of this fight. Russinians at that time had no rather strong intellectuals yet. Their intellectuals - teachers, priests - could not be compared to the Ukrainian or great Russian university professorate. And therefore the Russinian only assented and agreed with any given belief inspired in him.

Various political trends of emigrants filter on Wednesday the local intellectuals, and it is divided into various political groups, as well as emigration.

The Ukrainian direction at the beginning adhered to ideology of the Ukrainian populism with its ethnographic party: love for the poor ordinary Russinian, his customs, ceremonies, for education of the people, for the folk song. The intellectuals which graduated school set as the purpose to go to the people and to learn it, to collect its songs, to organize reading rooms, choruses and so forth. The Ukrainian nationalism then did not live in that look what it appears later in the Transcarpathian Ukraine yet.

The Russian emigration in the Transcarpathian Ukraine lived traditions of old tsarist Russia led by "the grandmother of revolution" Breshko-Bresh-kovskoy, Natalia Shkirpan, Petrov — the former royal censor in Poland, Popov, Nezdelsky, etc. The Russian emigration hoped for restoration of a tsarism in Russia, on fast defeat of communism. With the same hopes they began to bring up also school youth which gets under their influence completely, becomes romantic, proud, begins to look down on the peasant and the worker.

Gradually the Prosv_ta association, as well as "Society A. DUKH-NOVICHA", especially after the organization of reading rooms in villages, cease to play an important role. They are only limited to collection of debts for the built people's houses.

Before arrival of Hungarians to the Transcarpathian Ukraine the cultural life was felt, then everything broke. Any meetings, even drama performances were banned. Only the "Russian national theater" of M. Lugovoi which gave up to 100 representations in a year survived; subsequently it was also liquidated by Hungarians.

Instead of more than 20 daily newspapers issued at ChSR, numerous magazines, brochures and books, remained:

The Karpatskaya Nedelya newspaper was edited by the Dr. of PEMETOM, the priest, madyarofily, at active cooperation of ILNITs-KOGO. The newspaper was written in the native language, eulogized the Hungarian government and its orders, proclaimed "the Hungarian-Russian braterstvo". For an obvious madyarofilstvo many did not want to read it.

In Russian the daily newspaper "Russkaya Pravda" - body of BRODIYa under the editorial office I. KERCHA was issued. It is the only newspaper, very brisk and live which supported the interests of the people of the Transcarpathian Ukraine.

The Karpatsky Golos newspaper was body of FENTsIKA, was written in Russian. This newspaper conducted sharp anti-Soviet promotion.

Economically life at Hungarians in the Transcarpathian Ukraine worsened to incredibility. There was a general unemployment. Pathetic earnings could be received only, working in the forest and that not in all places. The situation of workers and peasants became extremely difficult. The bread was not, to buy there was nothing. Besides there came lean year, all hopes for earnings in harvest-time on the Hungarian field failed. There were enough the jobless poor. Besides, taxes doubled, food prices and things rose in price, the quality of goods considerably decreased. The people which grew culturally and strengthened economically for lifetime of ChSR had to come back to sa-again

to fashion bast shoes and clothes. The severe need is suffered by students, many of them leave school.

Cultural decline and economic need closely intertwined and hard affected the people of the Transcarpathian Ukraine. The help could not be expected, hopes for the better future - any. Situation every day worsened. Then many, especially from the jobless intellectuals and people pursued by the power run away in the USSR.

Hungary encouraged by promises of Germany and Italy begins the strengthened preparation for war against Romania. Mass conscription began. Already difficult situation of the people worsened even more. To the Transcarpathian Ukraine, especially in its east part, the Hungarian troops came. Disagreements between Hungary and Romania come to an end in peaceful manner - Hungarians occupy Transylvania. After that life becomes more tolerable. Due to war, requirements of workers for cleaning of roads, for work in forests increased. The attitude of Hungarians to Russinians becomes slightly best and moderate. Russinians begin to get used to the worst life and try to adapt to new conditions.

At this time the Russian direction for the devotion of Hungary before occupation and during occupation acquires the right of the Dukhnovi-cha language (brought closer to the Russian literary language). The canon and professor of divinity became the chief of school department Yu. Marin. Before accession of the Transcarpathian Ukraine to Hungary he was not engaged in either cultural, nor political cases. Now he was elected suddenly the chief of school office. It was clear for the Hungarian authorities that he was the person and consequently will execute all their desires. In this regard they were not mistaken. The MARINE started action at once. It closed a number of schools, exclusively strictly treated the teachers who did not obey the authorities. For receipt in schools at it only children of priests used a patronage.

Yu. KONTROSH, the person of flegmatichesky character who did not act on the public arena at all became the school reviewer. He was able to promise much, but further it did not go. Rebert Suare became the secretary, obvious madyarofit, "honestly" being full the functions.

Supervision over national schools was undertaken by M. CHEGIL, "for Czechs - chekhofit, for the Magyar - madyarofit".

National education of I. Bellast came down to the fact that all people of the Russian direction — a madyarofila. The director of the Mukachevsky gymnasium M. Popovic wrote according to this requirement and grammar of karpatorussky language now (partially Russian grammar with local pronunciation). On this grammar had to

to study children at civil schools and gymnasiums. At schools it was possible to teach only karpatorussky literature, but teachers illegally taught also the Russian literature. All Ukrainian at schools was considered as treason to the state. Was to bring the Ukrainian book in school enough or even accidentally to drop a line Ukrainian as this "criminal" was immediately deleted from school.

To the writer V. PIPASh (the peasant from the Kosovan Glade) was succeeded to deceive censorship, to publish in Ukrainian the small collection of folk songs and stories in the city of Tyachov. Pupils who sold these books were removed from school as "distributors of an ukrainizm". The children studying on POPOVIC'S grammar started talking suddenly such spoiled language that people just could not hear them a talk without indignation.

This grammar was not pleasant even to teachers who published the critical book about it under edition of the karpatorussky erudite philologist Dr. G. GEROVSKY. The school office intended to publish on the basis of this grammar textbooks for elementary and high schools, but published only books for reading for national schools. Textbooks were translated from Hungarian very ineptly, the mixed language. However, these books were not published since the new order about language and the translations appeared. Processing of books in the language relation was undertaken by "the Subcarpathian scientific organization".

But nevertheless traditions were stronger novovveden

Peter Mark
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