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Image of the USSR in France in 1945.



obraz the USSR in France in 1945

G.N. Kaninskaya

the 65-year term which passed from the moment of the end of World War II is represented quite sufficient to undertake reconsideration of events of promptly developing XX century in general, not excepting opportunities on this background to track what our winner country was represented by the French newspapers in 1945. In other words, in this context one of problems of the research field — an image of "another" in the international relations opens. From the methodological point of view this problem was more exhaustively opened in the report of the famous French scientist R. Frank made on the international congress of historians in Oslo in 2000 1 In summary form its main conclusions it is possible to reduce to five provisions:

— first, an image of "another" in the international relations always ambivalenten. Therefore in its substantial a component both positive, and negative representations adjoin, and self-identification of the people is followed by creation of representations about "bad" and "good";

— secondly, the image, on the one hand, serves as an instrumentalization product, and with another — manipulations;

— thirdly, images not only are created "from above", that is those who possess prerogatives of their designing, but exist and "from below", that is involuntarily arise in the mass environment;

— fourthly, in the course of folding of an image of "another" by all means there is a projection or its "prikidyvaniye" to "itself" or to reality at own country;

— fifthly, in the course of studying how any given image of "another" was formed, existence of connection of this process with representations, reflections and memories of the past, the present and budushchem2 is distinctly looked through. In view of the aforesaid, it should be noted two more important circumstances making specifics of perception and, respectively, representation of the USSR in the French press in 1945:

— it is necessary to consider that the general vector of development of relationship of France and the USSR gradually,

since the end of 1945, began to move towards transition from the allied relations to hostile in 1947. It is clear, that this drift was explained by logic of immersion of the world in a situation of "Cold War". In that communication, returning to a thesis about ambivalence in the image of an image of "another" in relation to our plot, we will note that in the French press the image of the USSR was drawn within a dichotomy: "the ally - the enemy";

— along with it, to influence on formation of ideas of the USSR in France the situation in France where fierce fight between the leading political trends and parties for establishment of the mode of the Fourth republic at that time ran high was added 1945. In this fight the leading roles were played and gradually there were opponents de Gaullists and communists. As a result, on the example of the attitude towards the USSR in France in 1945 not only the interrelation and interference of domestic and foreign policy is distinctly traced, but also and the fact that sometimes the domestic policy prevailed over how the French journalists of noncommunistic accessory wrote about the Soviet Union. In their correspondence such dichotomy often appeared: France is interested and actively stands up for the military alliance with the USSR, but is not interested in the close political union. And the head General de Gaulle appears as the zealous supporter of the union with the USSR in fight against Nazi Germany, but ardent "anti-Bolshevik" in what concerned the Soviet domestic policy therefore cannot approve the Soviet country in this plan in any way. Let's emphasize what told belongs not only

to de Gaulle. In strategy not only the French noncommunistic politicians, but also the western allies in general since 1945 the contradictory attitude towards the USSR was traced. In fact, it appears in the form of the following dichotomy:

— on the one hand, allies perfectly realized the importance of the USSR in defeat of Germany;

— on the other hand, they were already anxious with "threat of communism" and restriction Soviet

Galina Nikolaevna Kaninskaya is a doctor of historical sciences, professor of the Yaroslavl state university; e-mail: vestnik@mgimo.ru

influences in the post-war world and in the countries. Though it is worth emphasizing that in 1945 the positive perception of the USSR in the West reigned in the basic. In 1945 far it was not clear yet how there will be relationship of the West with the Soviet Union within post-war world order. For France accent shift in a dichotomy "ally enemy" distinctly will begin to appear since the beginning of 1946. The French researcher A. Lacroix-Reese connects it, first of all, with establishment of close connection between heads of two leading parties of France — MRP and SFIO, and the American Embassy in Parizhe3.

How the French press in 1945 treated an image of the USSR? In the first half of 1945, that is during liberation of Europe from Hitlerism, all most authoritative newspapers of France of that time wrote about our country very respectfully. These are dklal and communistic Yumanite, both socialist Popyuler, and neutralist Mond, and vyrazitelnitsa of the right views of Figaro and Karfur. Representatives of Provisional government of France in Moscow specially found in the Soviet press and sent for the publication to Paris messages in which in any, even critical, not to mention a laudatory form, the importance and peculiarity of the bilateral relations of "Kremlin" and France was emphasized.

Certainly, the most flatter publications proceeded from Yumanite where concerning foreign policy eminent persons of the PCF spoke: Marcel Kashen, Henri Marty, Raymond Guillo, Georges Konyo, etc. The first page of the newspaper close up gave information on advance on Europe first of all to the Red Army. About the western allies information looked more modest, it took less places. In February, on the eve of the celebration of day of the Red Army in the USSR, newspaper 20, 21, paid on February 23 special attention to illumination of this Soviet holiday, and on February 24 specially reported that as the French communists celebrated this date in the Myutyualite hall under the chairmanship of M. Thorez. The general meaning of these articles came down to the fact that "the tribute of the Red Army is a tribute to a feat of all USSR, to its government and also the head Stalin" (and his name vydelelyalos capital letters).

In process of approach of a Victory Day, the vostorzhennopochtitelny publications "Yumanite" about the USSR became more and more volume and laudatory. Stalin's portrait repeatedly was located on pages of the newspaper, "caps" newspapers contained such estimates as:

— "The Red Army of Stalin — the liberator of the German people";

— "The USSR is freedom pole for all people striving for independence", etc.

Articles and editorials came to the end with slogans

on type:

— "Long live Red Army!

Long live marshal Stalin!

Long live French-Soviet friendship!

Long live union and victory of all svobodolyu-

bivy people!";

or: — "Glory and infinite gratitude to the Soviet Union!

Eternal glory of the Red Army!

Unfading glory to the marshal Stalin!"

To be fair, it would be desirable to emphasize that you should not give especially extensive comments about the above-stated publications. Their texts are quite fair. And admiration of the Yumanite newspaper of a feat of the USSR is quite clear and deserved

Characterizing further its publications in the set direction, we will stop on other tool receptions to which journalists resorted.

If to return to what was told concerning a projection in the past when designing images rather interestingly will be to notice that Henri Marty, for example, drew a parallel between "the military genius and the revolution in military science made by Stalin, and the French strategists and revolutionaries Carnot and Seong-Juste" 4 times of the Great French revolution.

Concerning an internal situation in France of 1945, Zh. Canio wrote that "the celebration of victories of the Red Army will help to lift fighting spirit and patriotism" the French army; "to expose defeatists and saboteurs" and "to increase solidarity in society" 5. In other article he reminded readers of a word of Maurice Thorez, the Central Committees of the PCF told at a meeting on January 21, 1945 that "in the post-war world France will receive the role corresponding to its contribution to business of fight against Nazi Germany" 6.

In the newspaper the perspective view of the future of the country snatched. One of Marcel Kashen's articles appeared with eloquent heading: "Hands off the French-Soviet pact!". In it the author fought back the English and American journalists for Times and "Gerald Tribuen" writing about "duplicity" of policy the USSR in relation to Frantsii7.

It is possible to continue further citing reasonings of correspondents of Yumanite of this sort, however, in our opinion, already provided statements are enough to catch that associative projection to the past, the present and the future which influenced supply of materials about the USSR.

Along with it, in the publications "Yumanite" visually the mechanism of manipulation with internal political and ideological disagreements between communists and their opponents when forming an image of the USSR was shown. For all 1945 the newspaper reproached other periodicals, in particular, of the newspaper "Mond", "Komba", "Figaro", etc. that they "chilly" give material about victorious advance of the Red Army across Europe, about capture of Berlin, etc.

Authors of articles remembered to the Mond newspaper and what at the very beginning of the Great Patriotic War of the Soviet people that predicted: The Soviet Union will not take out the first burdens of war", and "Ukraine will disappear from the USSR" 8.

Raymond Guillo in one of articles wrote about such fact as "the insinuations of other newspapers directed against the USSR concerning improper treatment by the Soviet troops with the released prisoners in Poland, Hungary, East Prussia, Pomerania" 9.

Marcel Kashen condemned the Komba newspaper for the fact that "while the Red Army fights for rescue of France and the world", that, "instead of thanking the USSR, asks a question of that, kind of to internationalize the Baku oil" 10.

On pages of the newspaper the communists paid to decisions of conferences in Yalta, Potsdam and San Francisco much attention. To Yumanita welcomed all decisions made on them, regretting that "not all press unambiguously perceives them and comments" 11. In this case the fact that publications of other newspapers abounded with complaints to belittling by allies, and the USSR including, roles of France in anti-Hitlerite war meant. Florimon Bonte and Georges Konyo answered the journalists from Figaro arguing in such spirit: "The French are guilty that the harmful pre-war policy was thrown out from among Great powers", and America, England and the USSR, "since Yalta, showed true friendliness in relation to France and expressed a desire to include it in structure great" 12.

It is remarkable that before completion of World War II of Yumanite exclusively positively spoke of actions of allies and did not do any hints on existing among them disagreements. The situation began to change from the second half of 1945. As the reason for that events as Georges Bido and de Gaulle's visit to Washington and de Gaulle's interview which followed after it concerning this visit to the Times newspaper given on September 10, 1945 served on August 22-23 two such perceptible and rotary and sign for France

Speaking to the modern language, the above-mentioned events fitted into a mainstream of the divergences of allies which amplified at that time and began designs of the western block within the post-war system of the international relations. In these conditions the noncommunistic press increased the antisovietism, and Yumanita — respectively, the role of the defender of the USSR from the western attacks and criticism. For example, communists on pages of the newspaper answered those who condemned "the Soviet Stalin totalitarianism" that in "the USSR not tyranny, and the strong mode" thanks to which World War II was won that stability — one of essential signs of the strong mode which there is so not enough Frantsii13.

In turn, the noncommunistic press also only from the second half of 1945 changed tools of submission of information on the USSR we Will repeat a little that before completion of war the correspondents of this press involved exclusively positive registers, representing the Soviet Union. For example, enthusiastically wrote Figaro about the USSR in

communications with the conclusion of the French-Soviet contract. Here one of quotes: "The French people battle for our common cause in close cooperation and full mutual understanding with the people of the USSR released at the price of the huge victims and thanks to the courage and patriotism and also the ingenious head. It will be a victory of freedom" 14.

In the Mond newspaper, for example, the obvious reproach to the English authorities when it wrote that "the conclusion of the French-Soviet contract serves as demonstration of the fact that the USSR like sounded and understood an essence of the French offers and a position" whereas "British are still overwhelmed with thoughts of rivalry with France in the Middle East" 15.

At the same time fears about strengthening of the Soviet influence in the post-war world also flashed on pages of newspapers of the right sense. So, in the polemic developed on the Karfur pages at the beginning of 1945 between F. Mauriac and I. Ehrenburg concerning forgiveness of Germans, "especially from Austria, Bavaria which suffered much from Nazis much", at F. Mauriac the fear of "red threat" 16 obviously sounded.

It is necessary to recognize also that the element of truth in reproaches of noncommunistic newspapers from Yumanite how they submitted reports about advance of allied troops across the territory of Europe, nevertheless was. Editorials of the noncommunistic press about victories over Nazis began, as a rule, big headings about advance of Anglo-American troops, and then more in small print and in the second row, behind these reports, information on actions of the Red Army followed.

Also such fact is remarkable. Issue of the Mond newspaper of May 9 appeared under the general heading "Victory of Allies". On May 10 in the newspaper it was in detail reported how celebrated a victory in the USA, England and France. And only on May 11 the detailed description of a holiday in Moscow which was followed by the full publication of the address of Stalin to the Soviet people and the Red Army in this regard an event was given.

It is possible to ask a question, but whether similar selection of information on the celebration of a Victory Day was the Mond newspaper already begun to dawn evidence of formation of the two-block world — Western and East? It is obvious that the answer to the question posed can be ambivalent, that is both positive, and negative. However also the fact that statement of a similar question is a look from positions of our day and our discourse about interpretation of an image of "another" in wider plan and an image of the USSR in the noncommunistic press of France in 1945 is obvious — in narrower.

Other publication "Mond", of May 12 is meanwhile interesting. There article of the famous journalist Hubert Beev-Meri devoted to a conference in San Francisco with the eloquent name was printed: "About the Soviet-American rivalry". The author described and proved that this rivalry goes in three directions:

— in Europe — concerning spheres of influence;

— in the Middle East — in connection with accounting of a role of an oil factor in world politics;

— in the Far East where it is shown most strongly — because of distribution of communistic influence from China there. However, at Yu. Bev-Mary, did not cause

doubts that "the American-Soviet Union serves, more than ever earlier, as a necessary support for a cause of peace" 17. Several days later Yves Sezi, other journalist Mond made common cause with it. He wrote that "the future of the world and reconciliation of ideologies depends on two Big powers" 18. One of editorials Mond entitled "What wants the Kremlin?" tried to explain to readers of a position of the USSR as follows: "The policy of the Kremlin always proceeded from fear of emergence of the anti-Soviet coalition and aspiration to prevent its creation. This fear seems to us far-fetched and vain, especially in relation to today's situation. However it cannot be dismissed" 19. At the same time in the newspaper the thought that France is very interested in the strong allied relations persistently sounded, and "the future of Europe depends not on the German problem, and on consent between the USSR and the USA" 20.

Those parallels in history with which the editorial office "Mond" operated are interesting, interpreting the Soviet policy. It borrowed comparison of the situation with that which arose in the world in 1945 from the English magazine "Economist" that happened during the Vienna congress of 1815 where a leading role as wrote the magazine, the English-Russian antagonism played.

Mond agreed that the similar antagonism, only now acting through Soviet-English, began to have an effect also in 1945. But, having mentioned that after the Vienna congress the world in Europe was established almost for 40 years, the newspaper hoped that "and this time, it seems, the world was established for a long time..., and the USSR, having tested the huge victims in war, is anxious with an economic recovery and on aggression, despite the English-Soviet contradictions, will not go" 21. And in comments about celebration on November 7 in the Soviet Union Mond carried out the same thought: "The USSR which incurred so many victims in war for the sake of the world will do everything possible to overcome the difficulties which arose in relationship with allies" 22.

Re-reading Mond, it is easy to track as influenced the past and the present formation of ideas of the USSR, including internal political fight in France. One article, for example, concerned the fate of "the Slavic world" in connection with signing of treaties of friendship between the USSR and Yugoslavia, the USSR and Czechoslovakia which as the newspaper assured, also the contract between the USSR and Poland will shortly follow. Mond wrote: "Great Russia saved Slavs from slavery and ruin therefore it is quite clear and clear that today they unite under its management. The USSR should be organized in the future

and to make the Slavic world a support of the safety". Along with it it was suggested that "future federation of the southern Slavs can include in the structure Bulgaria" 23.

The traditional heading "Foreign News" in Mond acquainted the readers with the polemic developed in the Soviet newspapers "Krasnaya Zvezda" and Pravda on the attitude of the Soviet people towards Germans. In information it was reported that on pages of the first newspaper Ilya Ehrenburg supported the rigid attitude towards all German people whereas in the second newspaper the party ideologist Alexandrov urged to separate ordinary Germans from Nazis. Having regarded a discussion essence as "fluctuations of the Kremlin" concerning development of a course concerning prostrate Germany, Mond in the comment assumed: "The USSR would obviously like to see future head of Germany Pa-ulyusa", having made at the same time not absolutely broad hint that the soviet leadership is afraid, "kind of in the conditions of chaos of the first post-war months in Germany Trotskyist elements" 24 did not get the best.

reproached soviet leadership that at the time of the cabinet crisis in France which caused leaving de Gaulle's government, the Soviet Union did not state a regret about it With one more publication "Mond". The newspaper noted that the soviet leadership "obviously showed that to it it is more important than the relation with the PCF (communists criticized a government policy of de Gaulle by this time — G.K.), than with de Gaulle whom, on the contrary, treated in the USA and England much more favourably". Mond reminded that de Gaulle in 1944 signed the contract with the USSR, but not with England and the USA, and with obvious bitterness noted that "it turns out now that the Soviet leaders estimate de Gaulle depending on his relationship with the PCF" 25.

Ideological motives in representation of an image of the USSR gradually captured also the socialist press. In Popyuler since July, 1945, against the background of strengthening of anti-Communist attacks, the anti-Soviet rhetoric became aggravated. For example, on July 5 Leon Blum wrote that though the PCF "was exempted from material dependence and submission of the USSR", there is still a dependence psychological, tracing the roots back, on the one hand, to tradition, and with another — to ideological partiality" owing to what the Communist Party is deprived of criticality in relation to the USSR And on July 21 in Popyuler there was article where the concern about foreign policy ambitions of Stalin was expressed. There it was said: "One of its obvious purposes — to create the vassal states subordinated to the Soviet influence on the western borders of Russia. And in this case Stalin strictly manipulates the right of the people to dispose of the destiny".

According to some experts, the turn towards "the western block" was outlined in the French press in August-September, 1945. It was connected with de Gaulle's interview to the Times newspaper. In it, in particular,

the thought of need "contained to maintain in future Europe the American presence for ensuring balance of forces" 26 on the continent. Mond in one of the editorials entitled "Decline of Europe" emphasized that the American power "obliges to be present the USA at the European continent and has to be placed at service to the world" 27. The newspaper assured that it "Hammers in vain attacks the western allies for creation of "block", using this word in singular". It justified their rapprochement with the fact that at a conference in San Francisco "need of creation of regional blocs for the sake of preservation of peace" 28 was emphasized. At the same time the attention in article was especially focused that the word "block" should be used in plural. That is, the possibility east bloka29 was kind of acknowledged.

Mond at the same time did not disregard the celebration of anniversary of signing of the French-Soviet contract in the Shayo hall, not only having placed speeches of the Minister of Foreign Affairs Georges Bido, but also the leader of the PCF Marcel Kashen who complained that "someone does not protect the idea of this contract any more". Here performances Soviet were stated

ambassador Bogomolov, representatives of parties: MRP — Maurice Schuman, radicals — Andrée Mari and the socialist Deshenel. A peculiar prevention M. Schuman's words that "France always concluded the alliance with Russia when got into difficulties" sounded. He urged not "to wait for new Bir-Akeym or Stalingrad to remember the union, and to use it daily, but not on "great" holidays" 30.

Summing up the results, it would be desirable to note that else before the end of World War II in the French press such image of the USSR was actively operated approximately: "it is necessary to try to obtain consent with it in counteraction of the USA, but nevertheless it is necessary its power in the post-war world partially to limit to Anglo-Saxon influence". As for image of the Soviet Union in France in 1945, we will emphasize that it was year when in words the French government continued the cooperation line between allies, but already some diplomats, politicians and military began to think of the western union. And it, in turn, could not but be reflected in publications of the noncommunistic press connected with ruling circles.

1. The text of the report was kindly provided to the author by M.M. Narinsky.
2. Frank R. History of International Relations and Images/The Images of the Peoples and the History of Internetaional Relations. P. 597-598.
3. Lacroix-Riz, A. La transformation d&un ami en ennemi: L&URSS, le Quai d&Orsay, Washington et la presse entre l&alliance de guerre et la guerre froide, 1941-1948. In: Pratiques et cultures politiques dans la France contemporaine. Montpellier, 1995. P. 125.
4. L&Humanité, 21 février 1945.
5. L&Humanité, 20 février 1945.
6. L&Humanité, 4 avril 1945.
7. L&Humanité, 14 mars 1945.
8. L&Humanité, 24 avril 1945.
9. L&Humanité, 28 février 1945.
10. L&Humanité, 16 février 1945.
11. Ibid.
12. L&Humanité, 23 mars, 4 avril 1945.
13. L&Humanité, 24 octobre 1945.
14. Le Figaro, 13 décembre 1944.
15. Le Monde, 7 février 1945.
16. Carrefour, 11 janvier 1945.
17. Le Monde, 12 mai 1945.
18. Le Monde, 27-28 mai 1945.
19. Ibid.
20. Ibid.
21. Le Monde, 14 juin 1945.
22. Le Monde, 8 novembre 1945.
23. Le Monde, 17 avril 1945.
24. Le Monde, 20 avril 1945.
25. Le Monde, 20 decembre 1945.
26. Lacroix-Riz, A. Op.cit. P.128.
27. Le Monde, 21 décembre 1945.
28. Le Monde, 8 novembre 1945.
29. Le Monde, 12 décembre 1945.
30. Ibid.
Janet Ortiz
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