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Boris Evgenyevich Raykov scientist, teacher, personality



Among a galaxy of "gold names" hertz-novtsev the worthy place is taken by a name of the outstanding scientist and teacher Boris Evgenyevich Raykov, one of founders of a domestic scientific technique of teaching natural sciences, the prominent historian of science, the full member of Academy of pedagogical sciences. In the long life of the scientist abounding with breaks, abrupt turns, udacha and unfulfilled dreams, one of the most fruitful there was a period of its work at the Gertsenovsky university (then still Pedagogical Institute). In 1921 — 1930 he managed department of a technique of natural sciences which those years became a kernel Petrograd — the Leningrad school of a technique of natural sciences. Further he returned to institute and worked in 1945 — 1948 at the same department as professor. Raykov left a bright mark in the history of the university and stories of domestic natural sciences.

In small article it is possible to cover only the main lines of the identity of Raykov and in the most general plan its contribution to science therefore for integrity of perception of materials of this publication it is enumerable the most important milestones and its stages vitally of a way. Boris Evgenyevich was born on September 21 (8), 1880, in 1888 — 1895 studied in a gymnasium, from 1899 to 1905 at the St. Petersburg university at natural office of physical and mathematical faculty (with breaks in connection with arrests and exile for participation in anti-government protests, passed of examinations without attending lectures). In 1905 — 1915 worked in Eight-great commercial school in the area "Forest" in St. Petersburg, from 1913 to 1920 in the beginning in combination and then as regular ra-

V.S. Volkov,

professor of department of history


the body shirt taught zoology at the university at the Psychoneurological institute founded by the academician V.M. Bekhterev. In 1921 — 1930 managed department of a technique of natural sciences at Pedagogical Institute of A.I. Herzen. In the night of May 31, 1930 it was arrested on fabricated charge of anti-Soviet activity, in March, 1931 it is sentenced to 10 years of imprisonment in labor camp, but for honest work it was ahead of schedule released in 1934. In 1941 — 1945 worked at the Arkhangelsk Pedagogical Institute. Having returned from Arkhangelsk to Leningrad, Raykov began to work again at Pedagogical Institute of A.I. Herzen as professor of department of a technique of natural sciences (in 1945 — 1948), and since 1948 and for the rest of the natural worked as the senior research associate in the Leningrad office of institute of history of natural sciences and the equipment of Academy of Sciences of the USSR. He died on August 1, 1966. He published more than 600 scientific works, including about 20 books on a technique and history of natural sciences.

B.E. Raykov came the developed and loudly declared teacher and the person with active living position to Pedagogical Institute of A.I. Herzen. On a student's bench, and even more behind a desk independently it got thorough education, developed at itself(himself) thirst of knowledge which defined his subsequent life. At division of students of that time into "academists" and "politicians" Raykov was more "politician" and was ready to offer study for the sake of participation in fight for freedom and the worthy life of people. He entered social democratic

a circle for what was exposed to arrests and exile twice. After return from the reference he without attending lectures passed examinations, in 1905 began to work as the teacher of natural sciences in Commercial school in St. Petersburg.

Pedagogical abilities, and at short notice were found in Boris Evgenyevich, relying on the ideas of the advanced methodologists (A.Ya. Gerda, P.F. Lesgafta, V.V. Poe-lovtsova) and on own experience, he developed the effective system of teaching natural sciences in which consistently realized a biological method (studying living organisms in the context of the nature surrounding them) and the principle of presentation. Laboratory works with pupils who made his name known among teachers of natural sciences become its "fad". It published several articles which strengthened interest in its experience. Teachers began to attend its classes: in the book of visits of classes in Forest school for 1913 — 1916 500 people who visited Raykov's lessons are recorded. Not accidentally therefore that when the university at Psychoneurological institute needed the teacher of natural sciences, its management invited Raykov who soon became an outstanding figure among teachers and students, and in 1916 held the vice rector's post. Among many merits of this educational institution before natural science and education we will mark out one, connected with activity B.E. Raykov — in it the country's first department of a technique of natural sciences was created. Boris Evgenyevich, showing extraordinary ingenuity, managed to equip a fine office of natural sciences.

Soon after the October revolution the university at Psychoneurological institute was closed. Raykov passed to work into the Second Pedagogical Institute created on the basis of the former teacher's institute. Here Boris Evgenyevich transported from the liquidated university the technique office equipment prepo-

giving of natural sciences. However work at the Second Pedagogical Institute was short: in 1921 it was attached to the Third Pedagogical Institute which received a name of Alexander Ivanovich Herzen. At the joint institute B.E. Raykov was elected the head of the department of a technique of natural sciences. Moved to Gertsenovsky institute and "a raykovsky dowry" as for fun called the office equipment accompanying his creator.

By the time of arrival to Pedagogical Institute of A.I. Herzen to Boris Evgenyevich 40 years were executed. Behind shoulders there was a fifteen years' experience pedagogical, scientific and organizational study. It was the Russia's first professor of department of a technique of natural sciences, the author over 200 published works. A question which tormented many intellectuals, his peers, "To accept or not to accept the Soviet power?" decided at it simply. Its political choice was influenced by its past — participation in fight against a tsarism, and, above all, the policy of the Soviet power in education, in particular, its relation to teaching natural sciences. The choice and the choice of the colleagues — teachers of natural sciences, he distinctly explained in the editorial of the first issue of the Estestvoznaniye V Shkole... magazine based and edited by it (1918, No. 1), and later in the memoirs: "... Pedagogi-estestvenniki apprehended revolution as great joy as release of our favourite subject from that humiliating, unequal situation in which it was in royal school — Raykov wrote. — Indeed, from persecuted, hardly tolerant subject, the educational natural sciences borrowed at the Soviet school if not dominating place, but in any case such situation which compared it to other main school disciplines — mathematics and humanitarian before -

mints. Those methods of teaching which we carried out at private and public schools on the sly at own risk, entered now life and became not only tolerant, but were approved and directly recommended. How was not to be happy and not to feed the most pink hopes for further development of naturalistic education at our public school?!" 1

Boris Evgenyevich estimated advantages of the new political system and through the fate of Society on distribution of natural science education (OREO). It was created by group of eminent persons of natural sciences in 1907, the prominent teacher V.A. Wagner, and Raykov — the secretary was its chairman. However to get permission of tsar's authorities to activity of society was business to difficult, and his creators it was necessary to found him in the form of natural department of the pedagogical museum of Head department educational institutions of the Ministry of Defence. And in 1918 without any obstacles it was registered as public organization, acquired the right to issue the Estestvoznaniye V Shkole magazine, and since 1925 and the Zhivaya Priroda magazine, etc. In 1921, after departure from Petrograd of V.A. Wagner, Raykov was elected by the chairman of OREO and headed it till 1929

At a meeting of the Academic council of Pedagogical Institute of A.I. Herzen where there was B.E. Raykov's election to a position of the head of the department of a technique of natural sciences, the rector of institute A.P. Pinkevich, having called Raykov's candidacy, said that it does not need representation. Really, many staff of institute well knew, respected and appreciated Raykov. To Boris Evgenyevich's pleasure, other methodologists of institute were his adherents. Cooperation with managers of departments of a technique of chemistry of V.N. Verkhovsky and physics techniques by P.A. Znamensky was especially effective.

Boris Evgenyevich carefully completed faculty members of department, proceeding from requirements of educational process. He gave preference to those whom well knew on practical work. The general technique of social science B.E. Raykov read, a private technique K.P. Yagodovsky and S.A. Pavlovich, a practical training in inanimate nature was given by N.N. Sidorov, classes in a nature corner were conducted by S.W. Gerd and N.S. Bersenev. In the organization of educational process an active role was played by O.A. Ba-ratova, G.V. Artobolevsky, N.D. Vladimirsky. They provided carrying out practice of students at school.

Many of them together with B.E. Raykov adjusted work of the pedagogical biological station in Detskoe Selo, and then and the Central city pedagogical biological research station which was located near institute in Demidovsky Lane which Raykov managed and on the basis of which students underwent estestvovedchesky practice.

From 1924 to 1930 it worked with also managing office of natural sciences of the State institute of scientific pedagogics which director was K.P. Yagodov-sky, the prominent methodologist.

Owing to the talent, commitment, devotion to promotion of natural sciences Boris Evgenyevich becomes the leader of the Petrograd and Leningrad school of a technique of natural sciences or as then spoke, the Leningrad direction. It was amicable community of teachers among which the names B. E were the most sonorous names. Raykov, G.V. Artobolevsky, G.N. of Boccia, V.N. Verkhovsky, V.A. Gerd, V.A. Dogel, V.L. Komarov, P.F. Lesgaf-ta, M.N. Rimsky-Korsakov, A.P. Ping-kevicha, I.I. Polyansky, V.A. Wagner, V.V. Polovtsov, E.F. of a tour, V.M. Shimke-vich.

If to judge by the content of their scientific and methodical works, performances in discussions, by experience of teachers of schools of the city, then

it is possible to make idea of the main lines of the Petrograd and Leningrad school of a technique of natural sciences. First of all are characteristic a support on the latest developments of sciences about the nature of it, use of methodologically significant ideas in the content of training. At the beginning of the 20th century of one of such ideas there was an idea of evolutionary development of organisms. The Leningrad methodologists recognized that a main goal of teaching natural sciences — formation of scientific, materialistic outlook at pupils and instilling of skills of observation in them and nature explanations. The Petrograd-Leningrad school of a technique of natural sciences was based on the biological principle (method) which assumed studying plants and living beings in the context of that Wednesday in which they stayed and which part were. In educational literature and teaching activity the teachers of this school realized "functional approach" which essence was that the structure of living organisms and their separate bodies was considered and spoke taking into account functions which they performed. P.F. Lesgaft, V.V. Polovtsov, B.E. Raykov called it "an oprichinivaniye of morphological structures". The Leningrad methodologists considered the leader research or as his B.E. Raykov preferred to call, a skilled and research method of training which, in particular, assumed comprehensive realization of the principle of presentation. In activity of teachers it found expression in laboratory researches and wide use of naturalists' excursions. The historicism, fidelity to the best traditions, continuity and innovation in scientific and teaching activity, collectivism and mutual respect, ability to solidary actions in protection are characteristic of scientific, pedagogical and, especially, moral principles of the Petrograd and Leningrad school of a technique of natural sciences

the ideas that visually it was found in the second half of the 1920th. The ideas developed by outstanding methodologists were successfully introduced at Pedagogical Institute of A.I. Herzen in training of future teachers and became widespread among school teachers thanks to activity of OREO, the magazines "Estestvoznaniye V Shkole", "Zhivaya priroda". Most visually these ideas are presented in scientific and methodical works of B.E. Raykov. In the generalizing, conceptual statement they found the embodiment in the book "Ways and Methods of Naturalistic Education" written to them in 1927 (because of arrest its edition did not take place and only in 1947 it was published under the name "General Technique of Natural Sciences"). The ideas of the Leningrad school of a technique of natural sciences became valuable property of domestic pedagogics. Consciousness of it explains that passion with which B.E. Raykov and his adherents spoke out in defense of the ideas when there was a danger of their replacement from school education.

Such threat arose in the mid-twenties when the National commissariat of education of RSFSR began radical reorganization of educational process at school by introduction of new curricula on the basis of so-called complexes and active methods of training. Instead of subject teaching and the cool and fixed system of the organization of educational process all circle of knowledge acquired by the school student was divided into three complexes: nature, work, society. Data on the separate industries of knowledge had to be distributed between these complexes. Most the natural sciences as it was scattered on complexes suffered at the same time and practically stopped being an independent subject. Besides group of the Moscow methodologists, mainly staff of the biological station of K.A. Timiryazev (B.V. Vsesvyatsky, B.V. Ignatyev,

M.M. Belyaev, etc.) made under the flag of connection of training with practice of socialist construction, the offer to strengthen an agricultural bias in teaching natural sciences that turned it from world outlook into an applied, utilitarian subject matter. Such approach was embodied in the programs prepared by them approved by the State academic council of Narkompros. At the same time Narkompros became is strengthened to introduce the "active methods of training" (Dalton plan, etc.) borrowed abroad. B.E. Raykov, K.P. Yagodovsky, M.N. Rimsky-Korsakov, dean of faculty of natural sciences F.E. A tour, the Moscow methodologists V.Yu. Ulyaninsky, V.F. Natali performed with reasonable criticism of the GUSa programs. B.E. Raykov considered counteraction to destruction of a worthwhile system of teaching natural sciences the civic and scientific duty. It developed criticism of programs and fetishization of an agricultural bias on pages of magazines, general meetings of the Leningrad and Moscow offices of OREO, at conferences and Narkompros's meetings. In a heated scientific and pedagogical debate his Moscow opponents suffered a defeat, and then B.V. Vsesvyatsky, B.V. Ignatyev, M.M. Belyaev transferred it as then spoke, to "the political plane". At a meeting of the Moscow office of OREO on November 14, 1926 M.M. Belyaev accused "the Leningrad current" of counterrevolutionism. B.V. Vsesvyatsky said that Raykov takes away teaching in "a foreign jungle", hinting at anti-Soviet emigration. B.V. Ignatyev called commitment of Leningrad residents to traditions of A.Ya. Gerd, V.V. Polovtsov "grobokopatelstvo". The same figures put the term "paradise-kovshchina" into circulation, and called B.E. Raykov's ideas counterrevolutionary bourgeois ideology. They had strong support from executives Narkompros M.S. Epstein and M.M. Pistrak. Napom-

to them that in 1928 — 1930 in the country the campaign of exposure of "wreckers" was launched, counterfeited provocative trials of groups of intellectuals took place: "Shakhty business", "Academic business", "Process & #34; Промпартии"". Vses-vyatsky initiated a performance against Raykov some employees (among them there was associate professor A.F. Benken) and students of Pedagogical Institute of A.I. Herzen with his charge of anti-Soviet activity. Poe-lovtsova to their "aiming" the staff of the Leningrad department of OGPU in the night of May 31 arrested B.E. Raykov, and then teachers of department of a technique of natural sciences and the central biological research station and also some members of OREO in other cities.

The investigation was carried on by A.N. Shondysh who tried to obtain from defendants of recognition that under cover of OREO the monarchic organization run by Raykov worked. Some of arrested under pressure of Shondysh "confirmed" that Raykov's activity was directed against the Soviet power and aimed to revive old bourgeois school. Boris Evgenyevich could mobilize all forces and refused to recognize the "recognitions" composed by the investigator. Sometimes the situation developed desperate, and he took measures to that at the critical moment to resort to suicide and not to sign "recognition". He took a metal rod from a toilet bowl flank, ground it about a concrete floor. The stiletto with which as Boris Evgenyevich considered, "at knowledge of anatomy it is possible to kill itself" turned out. It laid it in a crack in a wall and stuck with bread from a prison ration. Raykov himself and the companions did not find guilty. In the period of the conclusion he showed not only firmness, courage, but also nobility. The last can be illustrated with such fact. When under sentence of tsar's authorities it was sent to the Tver province, supervision of it was exercised by the police police officer V. Vsesvyatsky whose son he was

B.V. Vsesvyatsky, the chief accuser of Raykov who hid the social origin from the Soviet power. Was to Boris Evgenyevich to announce the data on the past of the persecutor which were available for him enough, that not only would be fired from educational institution, but it could appear in the prison cell, and its intrigues against Raykov could be regarded as intrigues of the class enemy. The evidence of such forecast was near: when Raykov was transferred from the single to the mass cell, he met the student Ni - the fishing arrested for concealment of a social origin (his father was the counteradmiral of the royal fleet). But professor Raykov did not use in such a way to save himself. On March 5, 1931 the sentence of "three" of OGPU was pronounced to him: 10 years of imprisonment in the camp for counteraction of the Soviet power in the sphere of education. On different imprisonment terms and references G.V. Artobolevsky, O.A. Bara-tova, N.S. Beresenev, N.D. Vladimirsky, E.R. Vygodskaya, A.P. Korneva, M.A. So-sipatrova and other teachers — the most part of employees of department of a technique of natural sciences and the Central city biological station were condemned. The department was actually crushed, A.F. Benken appointed her manager began to gather new shots, but in 1934 was fired for alcoholism. The biological research station was doomed to degradation and soon stopped existence. OREO was liquidated, the Estestvoznaniye V Shkole and Zhivaya priroda magazines are closed. During 1930 — 1931 the vociferous campaign of exposure "paradise-kovshchiny" was launched. The Petrograd-Leningrad school of a technique of natural sciences actually stuck to exist.

Boris Evgenyevich served undeserved sentence in the First Kemsky office of the Solovki camps in the beginning, and then in Medvezhyegorsk the camp on construction of the Belomoro-Baltiysky channel. He tested everything that fell to lot of inhabitants

institutions of GULAG. It managed to survive thanks to combination of circumstances, ingenuity and installation on life contrary to intolerable conditions. In the beginning he invented a way of destruction of bugs in barracks: on three kerosene stoves received from administration of the camp put densely closed tank with a flexible hose and hot steam processed walls. And when he designed "vosheboyka" (the act of its acceptance to use is stored in archive. — Century of V.), he was appointed the medical technician in a sanitary platoon, and then it was entrusted to it to organize from prisoners courses on training of junior medical staff. Later he headed sanitary and bacteriological laboratory. As he remembered subsequently, "it is good that I from the very beginning did not become limp and did not become puzzled as it often happens to the imprisoned intellectuals, and began useful practical business at once. The camp administration learned about me and made sure that professors are fit for something". Useful work on Belomorkanal formed the basis for early, in March, 1934, released from the camp. Knowing that many of released, having returned to native places, are exposed to arrests again, it remained in Medvezhyegorsk as the civilian especially as the criminal record was not still removed from it. Later he bought a lodge, and to it there arrived the wife with the son.

during B.E. Raykov's stay in Medvezhyegorsk many events took place. Let's mention two of them as they help to understand the subsequent life of Boris Evgenyevich. First, on August 25, 1931 the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) adopted the resolution "About Elementary and High School" which condemned as "manifestation of the anti-Lenin theory of dying off of school" those comprehensive programs of GUSa and methodical daydreaming which Raykov opposed in 1925 — 1928, for as it appeared in the camp. Actually at the highest political level his correctness was recognized. Aude -

nako he continued to pine up to March, 1934 in the conclusion, and only in 1940 according to the petition of the president of Academy of Sciences of the USSR V.L. Komarov the criminal record was removed from it. And secondly, fate brought together it with A.N. Sean-dyshem again. The former investigator in the matter of Raykov was fired for violations of legality from the Leningrad management of OGPU — People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs and directed to serve to the Medvezhyegorsky camp where still differed in the cruel attitude towards prisoners. Poe-lovtsova to the complaint which arrived for him from Moscow there arrived the commission and Shondysha sentenced to execution. Boris Evgenyevich responded to this event the poem (by the way, it is stored in RAS archive of poems much), which came to an end with such lines:

". I did not get used to believe in Carrying out, But I am ready to reconcile with it That managed also to you to try on the Shroud that you tried on another. So, Shondysh! The basement is low, Terrible shadows live in corners, Paul human blood is slimy. Bang! Bang."

Having provided this poem in the memoirs written in 1958 — 1959, Raykov recognized: "Feelings are bad, and terrible — most it is heavy to read the poem. Whether but I am guilty of all this?!" 2. Whether words "But I am guilty of all this?!" help to understand adequately many facts in the biography of the scientist.

In days of the Great Patriotic War Boris Evgenyevich with family was in Arkhangelsk where selflessly (the city was exposed to bombings) worked at local Pedagogical Institute as professor, organized natural and geographical faculties, was in 1943 — 1945 their dean, was engaged in studying history of natural sciences, prepared for printing the book "Essays on the History of the Evolutionary Idea in Russia". The national commissioner of education of RSFSR V.P. Potemkin who abruptly changed the fate of disgraced professor learned about his work in the Arkhangelsk teacher's college. It initiated assignment to Boris

To Evgenyevich an academic degree of the doctor of pedagogical sciences on set of the published works (on July 25, 1944) and his elections in 1945 as the full member of Academy of pedagogical sciences of RSFSR.

At the end of September, 1945 B.E. Raykov returned to Leningrad, was taken on as professors of department of a technique of natural sciences which was managed by P.I. Borovitsky, and at the same time began to work in the Leningrad office of NPA. It integrally was a part of department, having disseminated some caution to itself(himself). Surpassing members of department in the level of scientific qualification, he helped some employees to choose subjects of master's and doctoral dissertations, brilliantly gave lectures and showed to visitors of its classes, including teachers of department, skill and grace in carrying out experiments and preparation of bodies of animals, Amphibia and fishes. He revived the Estestvoznaniye V Shkole magazine, dreamed of reconstruction of OREO. On his misfortune after shameful August 1948 of a session of the Academy of agricultural sciences run by the blighter of biology T.D. Lysenko the fight campaign against "veysmanistov-morganist" was launched (and actually first of all against genetics). Old Moscow ill-wishers of B.E. Raykov managed to include his surname in the list of the "veysmanistov-morganist" who are subject to repressions. As a result Boris Evgenyevich was without explanation fired from LGPI of A.I. Herzen and the Leningrad office of Academy of pedagogical sciences. He with bitterness noted: "My pedagogical boat overturned". Some of his recent colleagues from Pedagogical Institute joined in his condemnation as "opponent of Michurinsk biology". In Boris Evgenyevich's consciousness it accumulated on memories of exposure in 1928 — 1931 of "raykovshchina", and he in irritation called pedagogical community "the goat smelly swamp" (and here

again its phrase is remembered: Whether "But I am guilty of all this?!"). After its relation with Gertsenovsky institute were normalized.

Thanks to assistance of the president of Academy of Sciences of the USSR S.I. who was well knowing it Boris Evgenyevich Vavilova was employed in the Leningrad office of Institute of history of natural sciences where worked in the next years. Here it created capital researches on natural sciences history: "Essays on the history of the evolutionary idea in Russia to Darwin", "The Russian biologists evolutionists to Darwin" (in 4 volumes), "The academician Vasily Zuev, his life and works", "Valerian Viktorovich Polovtsov, his life and works", "Karl Baer, his life and works", "Grigory Efimovich Shchurovsky, the erudite naturalist and the educator", "The German biologists evolutionists to Darwin", etc. Was published the collection of its pedagogical articles "Ways and Methods of Naturalistic Education". Assignment to it in 1961 an honorary title of the honored worker of science of RSFSR became worthy assessment of his works.

The natural science and pedagogical ideas of Boris Evgenyevich continue slu-

to live to the Russian prosveshchenets. In 1994 the Topikal publishing house released (the seventh edition!!!) B.E. Raykov and M.N. Rimsky-Korsakov's book "Zoological excursions" of 639 pages and with a circulation of 30 thousand copies. Presenting it to readers, publishers wrote: "B.E. Raykov and M.N. Rimsky-Korsakov's remarkable book is loved by many generations of domestic biologists. This fascinating textbook is interesting and useful as beginning, and to experienced naturalists. It gives joy of knowledge of the world surrounding us, shows its complexity, integrity and interconditionality, learns to be observant, it is better to understand, feel and preserve the nature" 3.

At faculty of biology of the Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia the memory of the academician B.E. Raykov is maintained. Its image takes the deserved place in gallery of portraits at faculty. Since the birth of Boris Evgenyevich the rector of the university professor V.P. Solomin prepared the anniversary publication for the 130 anniversary. In 2011 45 years from the date of B.E. Raykov's death will be executed. These memorials give a reason to comprehend its scientific heritage in the context of the present.

1. Archive of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the St. Petersburg branch (further — RAS Archive). T. 893. Op. 2. Unit hr. 5. L. 136.
2. RAS archive. T. 893. Op. 2. Unit hr. 26. L. 44.
3. B.E. Raykov, M.N. Rimsky-Korsakov. Zoological excursions. M, 1994. Page 3.
Clifford Edwards
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