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Category: History

Legal bases of creation and functioning of police agencies in the Black Sea province at the end of XIX beginning of the 20th century

a. B. Kantsev


Work is presented by department of history of the right and the state of the St. Petersburg university Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation.

The research supervisor - the doctor of jurisprudence, professor E.D. Protsenko

In article the author describes how there was a mass settling of the Black Sea coast by migrants in the second half of the 19th century. And what consequences it involved. Legal basics of creation and functioning of police are in more detail covered.

The author of the article describes migrants’ mass settlement of the Black sea coast in the second half of the 19th century and consequences aroused by it. Legal foundations for creation and functioning of police bodies are viewed in detail.

Historically continuous course of any processes (economic, political, social, demographic, etc.) does necessary continuous studying their retrospective, causes requirement for the union of these processes with history. This union is not less important as studying any country and its certain regions is represented incomplete and even impossible without comprehensive analysis of these processes today.

After carrying out in life in 1861 of peasant reform and rapid development of capitalism there was a mass influx of the obezzemelenny peasantry on the South of Russia, in particular to the Kuban region where a large amount of "the working markets" was created.

At the same time there is an active process of settling of the Black Sea coast.

In 1866 the government approves the Provision on settling Black Sea

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districts and about new establishment of the cities of Novorossiysk and Anapy1. According to this Situation, all territory determined by borders of the rivers of Tuapse, Bzyb and to Greater Caucasus Range was allocated for civil settlements. In the same Situation the procedure of management of the city and the mechanism of powers of authority made a reservation. The chief given the rights and duties gubernatora2 headed the Black Sea district. In 1888 as the county the Black Sea district was a part of the Kuban region.

The flow of migrants to the district amplified at the beginning of the 90th of the 19th century in connection with the beginning of construction of Novorossiysko-Sukhumskoye Highway in 1891-1892 and with the hunger which covered the central provinces of Russia. By January 1, 1894, according to Krayev-sky, in the Black Sea district consisted on guardianship of male souls radical (i.e. accepted to the settlement) - 8373; non-residents - 99773, apparently, the last was much more.

In 1896. The Black Sea district was transformed to the Black Sea province with the center in the city of Novorossiysk. Occupying 6455 square versts by the sizes, the Black Sea province was the smallest in area province of Russia, with the population, on a census of 1897, 57,478 people, at population of the Kuban region in 1,979,595 chelovek4, including in the Novorossiysk district - 34,908 people.

Materials of a census allow to track also process of subsidence of the alien population in the territory of the province. The most part of natives of the European Russia settled in Novorossiysk (22.6 of 60.7%) and its district (23.7 of 60.7%); 34 of 60.7% of migrants of the Central Russia lived in rural areas. Immigrants from the Caucasus were also mostly absorbed by the Novorossiysk district (10 of 16.1%), and more than a half of them lived in the cities (9.1 of 16.1%). From the general flow of all migrants to the province of 65.6% settled in Novorossiysk and

the district and 61.7% in rural areas. The second place on migration development for - nimat of the item Sochi and its district (22.4% of all immigrants). The share of non-local natives from the total number of the population makes in the Novorossiysk district 80.1%, in Sochi - 70.6%, in Tuapse - 55.1%5. Thus, Novorossiysk and district absorbed the main part of migrants as human resources exactly here were more demanded, there was an active road construction, the young industrial enterprises grew, city infrastructure was created.

Analyzing population census materials, it is possible to draw a conclusion that in the Black Sea district (province) there was a change of types of activity, the state forcedly encouraged population shift to the region.

All this involved as positive trends: increase in education level and literacy, a big share of working-age, and negative, one of which was increase in number of the committed crimes. For example, the general share of violent deaths increased of 1897 by 1913 in dynamics of the general mortality on the province from 5.4 to 7.4%6.

Due to growth of the population also the staff of police was increased. Organizational and regular arrangement of the Novorossiysk city police and the tasks facing it were defined by Situation of March 10, 1866. "About settling of the Black Sea district and management of it".

On February 15, 1867 by the order of head department of the Deputy Caucasian were approved for the city of Novorossiysk of a position of the chief of police - the major

V. Ya. Sherekhovsky and the secretary of police - I.M. Osadchiy. Besides, by the same order it was instructed "to open nowadays Black Sea district court as a part of the chairman, two members and the secretary, with public prosecutor's supervision in the person okruzh-

leg of the prosecutor and Anapa policeman of the solicitor" 7. By position the chief of police corresponded to the mayor (in comparison with the cities having public self-government).

To formation of City Duma (up to 1896) all affairs of internal life of the city, besides the judicial and police officers, the police knew. To the chief of police in the help were annually chosen from residents on two deputies, two candidates, two jury appraisers for participation in affairs of municipal economy.

Reduction in life of policy of the tsarist government, execution of orders of the higher authorities, adjudications, the organization of protection and an order in the city, implementation of development of municipal economy and education were the main objectives of city police. The power of the chief of police extended to all institutions, the enterprises, departments and adjoining the city poseleniya8.

The police office consisted of one secretary in the beginning. The similar staff of police was sufficient only initially. Due to the happening demographic processes in Novorossiysk under the Decree of Head Department of the Deputy Caucasian the position of the police police officer was in addition entered on April 6, 1867, and then in regular arrangement there was the clerk's position as owing to execution of the duties the chief of police had no free time for acceptance of due participation in work of the office consisting of one sekretarya9.

In 1876 the structure of the municipal police department was the following: chief of police, police officer, assistant to the police officer, secretary of police, assistant to the secretary of police. In addition police service in the city was carried out by the police team (lowest ranks) created at the beginning of 1871 10 which part two corporals and eight ryadovykh11 were. Vpo-

the investigation this team from the lower ranks increased to 20 chelovek12. Also for record keeping and execution of necessary documents, official papers copyists whose number was not constant could be attracted and depending on the volume of work from 2 to 4 people hesitated.

In March, 1895 the royal decree for Novorossiysk enacted the Guo-patrimonial Provision according to which it was necessary to form public management - City Duma. All lot of work on the organization and implementation of the Novorossiysk's first elections, from drawing up the register of electoral having property qualification to the announcement of the chosen vowels (deputies of City Duma), was carried out by the police headed by the chief of police. With establishment on January 1, 1896 in the Duma city the City justice became its executive body, respectively, all affairs on an economic part of the city turned from maintaining city police into maintaining City upravy13.

From this point city police of hundred - la to carry out the direct obligations for protection of public order up to March, 1917 as in the conditions of low social and material supply, and in the conditions of the becoming aggravated operational situation: in 1903 in the province 403 crimes, in 1905 - 668 crimes, in 1907-792 crimes, in 1912 - 915, in 1913-921 were committed. At the same time the share of serious crimes, such as murders, robberies, drawings wounds, mutilations, thefts, among all crimes on the province for all years was the highest.

Realities of today cause practical interest of modern Russian society in obtaining full-fledged knowledge of those processes which historically predetermined legal bases of creation and functioning of law enforcement agencies of that or

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of other region and also character and level nyat source and nature of many of pro-crime. Objective knowledge about- bly, arising on the way of development on -

shly is opened by the reasons, help on- shy society.

1 GAKK. T. 318. Op. 2. 2062. L. 4.
2 PSZ. SOBR. 3. T. 15. No. 11455.
3 To a question of colonization of the Black Sea province (From the report on a business trip of the official of special instructions, the Valid Councillor of state Krayevsky). SPb., 1897. Page 13.
4 The population of the Kuban region according to the second copies of a census of 1897 years / Entrance of an edition of L.V. Makedonov. Ekaterinodar, 1906. Page 546.
5 First general population census of the Russian Empire. Ekaterinodar, 1896. Page 2; The First general population census of the Russian Empire. Edition of the Main Census commission. SPb., 1896. Page 4-6.
6 Solovyov of W.V. Naseleniye of the Black Sea province (district) at the end of XIX - the first quarter of the 20th century of SPb.: Lenizdat, 2006. Page 56-58. S. 146.
7 NF GAKK. T. 4. Op. 1. 3. L. 2. The circular of the Deputy The Caucasian No. 1255 of February 15
8 NF GAKK. T. 4. Op. 1. 179. L. 46.
9 In the same place. 3. L. 6 (about) 30; 6. L. 5.
10 In the same place. 17. L. 161.
11 In the same place. 180. L. 10-11, 14, 17.
12 In the same place. 33. L. 65, 185, 199; D. 187. L. 17, 91-92, 28, 25; D. 136. L. 52 (about).
13 In the same place. 192. L. 277; 527. L. 356.
Sally Robertson
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