The Science Work
Site is for sale:
Category: History



Leonid KURAS


Influence of revolution of 1905 on growth of national consciousness the Buryat is shown in article, holding national congresses and emergence of protoparties - old Duma members, progressionists, Westerners and extreme populists was a consequence of what.

The influence of revolution of 1905 on the rise of national consciousness of Buryats, which is expressed in national congresses holding and beginnings of protoparties, such as old parliament members, progressives, westernists, and extreme populists, is shown in the article.

revolution of 1905, national movement, congresses Buryat, progressionists, old Duma members, Westerners, extreme populists, lamsky clergy; revolution of 1905, national movement, congresses of Buryats, progressives, old parliament members, westernists, extreme populists, lama’s clergy.

The Republic of Buryatia is preparing for the celebration of the 350 anniversary of voluntary accession to the Russian state within preparation for which the IV Vseburyatsky congress will take place. At its meetings the problems of a sociocultural unification the Buryat, the living in different subjects of the Russian Federation, development of the Buryat language and other problems will be considered. In this regard history of the Buryat national congresses which played an important role in rise of the national movement the Buryat at the beginning of the 20th century is of undoubted interest

Revolution of 1905 made significant changes to life of indigenous people of Siberia and promoted rise of the national movement. Revolution proved to autocracy that the Siberian foreigners not obedient and loyal "children of the white tsar", an autocracy stronghold. They made demands of freedom of national self-determination and other revolutionary slogans. Besides, revolution made active and lifted a role of lamsky clergy. Association of the patrimonial aristocracy, Buddhist clergy and young Buryat intellectuals promoted emergence of a new stage in the national movement the Buryat — a stage of holding the all-Buryat congresses in 1905 — 1906 which played a noticeable role in the national movement. In comparison with congresses tayshey1, they differed in wide geography and wide representation.

On April 26 — 30, 1905 for the first time in the history of the Buryat people in Chita the congress the Buryat of the Transbaikal region, and on August 20 — 26 the same year — a congress the Buryat of the Irkutsk province took place. The main decisions of congresses were caused by need of introduction of local government, a protection of land grounds from their withdrawal in kolonizatsionny fund, compulsory education of children to the diploma, destructions of restrictions of inclusion in the highest and average educational institutions. At these congresses the idea issued in the requirement about national autonomy for the Buryat was for the first time put forward.

The first congress took place from April 26 to April 30, 1905. Researchers noted that made the bulk of its participants glad

1 Taysha is the patrimonial aristocrat, the head of local government drill — a steppe thought.


Vladimirovich — and. N, professor, chief researcher of department of history and culture of Central Asia of Institute of a mongolovedeniye, buddologiya and tibetologiya of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science

Wai aristocracy. Participation in a congress of representatives of the national intellectuals — the teacher of Institute of east languages, the medical officer B. Yampilov, the translator, the Kyakhta boundary commissioner Bimbayev, the teacher B. Ochirov, students of the St. Petersburg higher education institutions B. Baradin and Ts. Zhamtsarano was significant. Contrary to the ban of the authorities which allocated for it only an educational and consultative mission the congress set as the purpose discussion of urgent questions "public self-government, freedom of religion, national education, the property rights to the lands belonging to them (Buryats) and so forth" 1.

The question of national self-government in which discussion the active part was taken by representatives of the intellectuals was the major. With their help the congress "very thinly coped with the project of self-government over which the ban of the governor about inadmissibility of return to a patrimonial system hung". Formally the congress proceeded from the territorial principle. The lowest administrative unit accepted not the aimag, and buluk. The territorial "foreign justice" from representatives of buluk was accepted by the following administrative unit again; but the thought which territory naturally coincided with former department had to become the third — uniting — instance. Thus, agreeing generally with the territorial principle, the congress restored patrimonial structure of management. For expression of interests of all drill and Tungus of the Transbaikal region the institute of periodic congresses from representatives (from 3 to 5) from each department was entered.

In the field of court the project of a congress provided selectivity of 3 categories of court: honourable arbitration; foreign court (court of first instance); a congress of foreign judges from representatives of foreign courts with the special elective chairman (second and final instance). He offered a kodifitsirovaniye of common law and legal proceedings in the Buryat language.

On the land question the congress supported legal registration of possession of the earth and an obmezhevaniye and also for

1 Revolutionary movement in Buryat Mongolia during revolution of 1905: sb. dock. / under the editorship of P.T. Haptayev. — Ulan-Ude, 1955.

to a prirezk of lands under the state and quitrent articles to some societies.

In the sphere of national education at the schools which are financed local government it was decided to enter general compulsory education to the Mongolian diploma. At the following step it was supposed to make schools as ministerial where, along with teaching general education objects in Mongolian, also Russian would be taught. The decision of a congress cancelled all restrictions at inclusion in the higher schools on religious sign and also state grants were entered.

As for a cult, the congress petitioned for cancellation of different restrictions, release from duties of regular clergy and for an official name of lamaist Buddhists. Also the resolution under which the lands allocated under the law of 1853 to regular clergy were selected in favor of schools and pupils at datsans was accepted.

The congress recognized as necessary to issue literary and economic newspapers in Mongolian without preliminary censorship and to form fund national prosveshcheniya2.

Analyzing the project approved by a congress L.Ya. Shternberg noted that he "would give to Buryats sufficient natsionalnokulturny autonomy" 3.

Other important event in the political relation was the congress the Buryat of the Irkutsk province where the national movement was even more intensive, than at east drill. The congress took place on August 21 — 26, 1905 in Irkutsk. At it there were 77 delegates of most the Buryat departments of the province. Took active part in work of a congress and M.N. Bogdanov — one of representatives of the young Buryat intellectuals submitted for discussion the project of a land reform. Decisions of the Irkutsk congress had in many respects something in common with decisions Chita. Here too the question of national self-government and autonomy was one of main. However, in

2 National Archive of the Republic of Buryatia (NARB), t. 483, op. 1, 75, l. 1.
3 L.Ya. Shternberg. Foreigners (Overview). Buryats//Forms of the national movement in the modern states. Austria-Hungary. Russia. Germany / under the editorship of I. Kastelyansky. — SPb., 1910, page 616.

difference from Chita, the Irkutsk congress designed bodies of new national self-government as territorial institutions; the twenty-year prescription of elimination of steppe thoughts at the Buryat of the Irkutsk province, probably, left a mark on such decision.

After Chita and Irkutsk some other congresses, the general and private and also meetings and meetings followed. On January 10 — 15, 1906 the meeting the Buryat — future representatives of party of progressionists took place. At the end of spring there took place the All-Transbaikal congress which brought up a number of questions from which the question of immediate suspension of any infringement of lands the Buryat from treasury and an office, about assumption of the representative from Buddhist clergy in the State Council and granting the rights to priors of datsans was the major.

Among Transbaikal are drilled by congresses also falls were spent during the summer

1906 . Along with national congresses, in 1906 there took place various conferences and congresses of teachers, groups of clergy, political figures of the different directions. Most interesting and considerable were congresses of the professional political organization of teachers and figures of national education in 1906 who set the tasks of implementation of education and nationalization of school, national revival drill, achievements of national self-determination and autonomy. Congresses considered the major practical task need to make the Buryat language teaching language. In this regard the question of the alphabet was the most essential. Including the draft of the Russian alphabet offered by the Ministry of Public Education not corresponding to the Buryat phonetics, congresses assumed as a basis the Mongol-Buryat alphabet in A. Dorzhiyev's edition.

However the tsarist government ignored resolutions of the Buryat congresses of 1905 — 1906. It forced to equip the Buryat deputations to Chita and St. Petersburg again. Petitions contained, as before, requests for cancellation of laws on the land device and volost reform and also for an approval of the decisions made by congresses. Any of requests was not satisfied, except for permission to the Transbaikal Buryats to have the

representative in the II State Duma. However even Buryats attached to such insignificant concession of tsar's authorities great value. On November 25, 1905 the Verkhneudinsky Listok newspaper with delight wrote about it: "The deputation is lucky a joyful message: it is promised to it to include in a thought of one certain representative from the Buryat of the Transbaikal region" 1.

On places where the revolutionary wave came from the center of Russia, there came the time of meetings and propaganda. And when the authorities became puzzled, the period of attendance actions and protests began. Buryats closed the existing governing bodies, restoring old. So, Buryats of 11 childbirth of Horinsky department at a meeting in the village of Aninskom decided to open on December 19 — 20, 1905 a steppe thought, having abolished all official posts new vlastey2.

Congresses of 1905 — 1906 showed the increased political level of the national movement. However, being consolidated around strategic objectives of national revival and self-determination, participants of the movement disaccorded on tactics and means of their achievement.

Two groups created even during preparation and holding congresses represented in fact rudiments of the political organizations. The first, called old Duma members, stood up for return to national self-government under Speransky's Charter, seeing in it a basis of autonomy, solidarity and protection against denationalization. This group headed by Vambotsyrenov who was tayshy Horinsky department accurately formulated the views on November (1905) a congress in Verkhneudinsk. Ts. Zhamtsarano noted that among heads of this group the most part was made "by unselfish extreme populists and behind them there were sympathies of the huge most of the people".

The second group, very not numerous, called itself party progressive drill. The acting professor of East institute G. Tsybikov, the deputy of the II State Duma B. Ochirov, the doctor B. Yampilov were her organizers. In

1 Revolutionary movement in Buryat Mongolia during revolution of 1905: sb. dock. / under the editorship of P.T. Haptayev. — Ulan-Ude, 1955, page 165.
2 F.A. Kudryavtsev. 1905 in Buryat Mongolia. — Ulan-Ude, 1936, page 51.

group the people with education who are close standing to administration and also representatives of the patrimonial aristocracy entered. Making common cause with old Duma members in issues of land management, education, they radically divorced them in a question of self-government. Progressionists supported national self-government as zemstvo on democratic principles. Between progressionists and old Duma members, according to Ts. Zhamtsarano, there was a deadly hostility.

Along with these political groups, the left wing of the national movement appeared. Westerners and extreme populists were his brightest representatives. The program of Westerners in essence was assimilyatorsky. They proceeded from inevitability of economic evolution which will carry away all old economic and social foundations of the Buryat life and together with them — all individual-national lines of the Buryat people. Therefore any work on preservation of the Buryat nationality, according to them — the phenomenon not only useless, but also harmful.

Extreme populists represented the complete antithesis to Westerners. The program at least of this group was broad self-government, preservation and development of the existing agrarian system, nationalization of school, establishment of the general Mongolian writing. In the national and cultural relation the revival of the Buryat nationality because of the European education was their final ideal that had to become a basis nationwide and all-Mongolian objedineniya1. Obviously, the program of this political group formed a basis for charge of figures of the national movement of a pan-mongolism in the next years.

Thus, by 1905 in the national movement there were different views on the purposes and problems of the national movement. The fact of education poly-

1 A.A. Elayev. Buryat people: formation, development, self-determination. — M, 2000, page 115.

tichesky groups during the national movement and also their activity and confrontation among themselves were reflection of ideological and economic processes in the Buryat life. So, arisen during the sjezdovsky discussions (especially at two teacher's congresses) the dispute on advantages of Latin and Mongolian alphabets had deeper background, than disagreements on writing problems. Behind these disputes there was essentially important, in terms of the Buryat, a question of whether to be guided unconditionally by the Western European culture or by cultural association with Mongols together to conduct cultural work.

In the relation to this question at different groups the general trends penetrating red thread the national movement, and further — process of formation of national autonomy and natsionalnogosudarstvenny construction in the national republic are traced. The value of congresses was as well that they were an important stage in consolidation of the Buryat nationality in the nation, as confirmation to what can serve the proposal on association of all the Buryat made at the Irkutsk provincial congress.

After defeat of revolution of 1905 —

1907 the national movement began to decline. The Buryat populists were engaged in generally educational activity. At the initiative of Ts. Zhamtsarano, B. Baradin, A. Dorzhiyev in 1910 in St. Petersburg the first Buryat publishing house Naran (Sun) representing a peculiar laboratory was organized. In publishing house, "special Buryat alphabets" were for the first time tested, the first attempts of romanization of the Buryat writing became, there were books on a social and political thought, literary works, etc. But also during recession of the national movement drill, proceeding till February, 1917, persistent search of ways of social and economic and cultural development of the Buryat people was carried out.
John Roberts
Other scientific works: