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Category: History




Since ancient times to this day Russia is the state with

multiethnic and multi-religious society. In so ethnically it is also religious diverse society constantly there are groups which are not sharing a position of the existing power. It is natural that the question of national policy in public administration for Russia always was and the issue remains topical, especially in the conditions of formational and historical transformations since the state and religious relations often regulated also the state-national. From this point of view the modern situation is similar to processes in the history of Russia in the second half of XVII-the beginning of the 18th century, and H1H-HHvv. respectively.

In the last 15 years, as well as then, modernization of the state was connected with large-scale civil reform. Not unreasonably it is considered, that the high level of religiousness of all population groups was feature of the Russian Empire of the second half of the 19th century that indicated the importance of the state and confessional relations in the "society-the power" system and required special attention regarding public administration and regulation. The policy of the power in relation to the religions existing in the territory of Russia had, as a rule, system character therefore in the light of formation of modern sociocultural and national policy it is obviously important to understand social and psychological motives of dynamics of sotsialnoreligiozny activity of the population, in particular transition from Orthodoxy (official state religion) in oppositional to it communities.

So, most of ethnic groups and diasporas of Russia were konfessionalno and is religious uniform: over 98% of Russians, Ukrainians, Romanians, Greeks, the Komi, a mordva, Chuvashs and Yakuts were Orthodox Christians; almost all Kazakhs, Uzbeks, Kyrgyz, sarta, Tajiks, Chechens and Dagestanis - Muslims; over 98% of Poles and Lithuanians - Catholics; almost all Finns and Swedes - Lutherans and over 96% of Kalmyks - lamaist. Germans among whom there were 13.5% of Catholics were split into different religious groups; among Belarusians Catholics, including the former uniats, made 18%; among Latvians there were 18% of Catholics, 4.5% - Orthodox Christians,

the others - Lutherans; among Estonians of 13.2% made orthodox, other - Lutherans; 6-7% of the Volga Tatars and 24.6% of Circassians were Orthodox Christians, the others professed islam1.

The religious and ethnic structure of the Russian Empire in its demographic dynamics looked as follows: in 1867 Jews -

2.3 million people, in 1897 - 5.1 million (gain - 121%); Muslims - 4.1 million and 6.9 million people (gain - 70%); Catholics - 6.9 million and 11.4 million people (gain of-68%); orthodox - 54 million and 87 million people (gain - 61%); Protestants -
2.3 one million and 3.7 million people (gain - 57%); Old Believers and sectarians - 1.5 million and 2.1 million people (gain - 41%) respectively.

According to the Code of laws of the Russian Empire the system of the gosudarstvennokonfessionalny relations consisted of three hierarchical levels, to each of which there corresponded the volume of the rights, privileges and restrictions.

In Article 40 of Basic laws it was noted: "the belief which is taking priority and dominating in the Russian Empire is Christian Orthodox Catholic East confession".

The second hierarchical step so-called "tolerant" confessions which Catholics, Protestants treated, Armenian-gregoriane occupied, Protestant groups (Mennonites, Baptists) and also non-Christian faiths - Judaic, Muslim, Buddhist, and pagans. The category of "tolerant" confessions in itself also had very essential gradation. For each "tolerant" confession the separate legal regime was set, privileges were given some, and


others were discriminated.

Dissenters (Old Believers) and sectarians who separated at different times and on different treated category of the unrecognized religious societies which are at the lowermost step of legal hierarchy

1 L. Tikhomirov. Religious structure of Russia and obligation for the Russian state of historical religious policy//the Missionary review, No. 3, 1902, p. 435; A. Kappeler Russia is the multinational empire: Emergence: History: Disintegration. - M, 2000, p. 210.

Code of laws of the Russian Empire. T. 1, Part 1. Basic state laws, Article 40.

- SPb., 1892.

3 Cm: V.K. Pinkevich. Religious reforms in Russia in the period of the Duma monarchy (1906-1917). - M, 2000; V.V. Klochkov. Law and religion. - M, 1982.

to the reasons from orthodox church. In relation to this category the state up to the beginning of the 20th century stood on the church and initial point of view, i.e. looked at separation from the dominating church as on the crime creating threat to the state and society. Owing to this fact the Russian legislation did not allow legal existence "raskolnichy" and "heretical" tolkov1.

As criterion for establishment of volume of privileges served conditions ecclesiological (canonicity and apostolic continuity of church), dogmatic (distinction degree with orthodox dogma), doctrinal (the Christian or non-Christian communities), legality or illegality of origin (concerning Old Believers and sectarians) and, at last, it is obvious, the most important - state (the political importance of any given people included in the empire) 2.

The lavny principles of an imperial system of the state and religious and interreligious relations found the legislative embodiment in the article

44 and 45 of "Basic laws of the Russian Empire". So, Article 44 said: "Everything, the citizens of the Russian state who are not belonging to the dominating Church, natural and in citizenship accepted, also the foreigners who are in the Russian service or is temporary in Russia staying, - used everyone universal free departure of their belief and a church service on ceremonies of it". In Article 45 of Basic laws it was said that "the freedom of religion prisvoyatsya not tokmo to Christians of foreign confessions, but also Jews, Mohammedans and pagans: yes all people, in Russia staying, glorify the God-almighty different languages under the law and confession of the praotets, blessing reign of the Russian Monarchs, and asking the Creator of the Universe about multiplication of prosperity and strengthening of force of the Empire".

The state control system assumed existence of religious society and in the legislation did not allow an opportunity not to belong to any confession, i.e. the state recognized in each citizen of the person religious. Thereby it is right separate

1 V.K. Pinkevich. Decree. soch., p. 14.
2 M.A. Reysner. The state and the believing personality. - SPb., 1905, building 159.

Code of laws of the Russian Empire. T. 1, Part 1. Basic state laws, Article 4445. - SPb., 1892.

persons were inseparable from the rights of the religious community. Transition only to Orthodoxy by all inoslavny and inoverny without any restrictions was allowed. At the same time the law claimed that "as given rise in orthodox belief, and addressed it from other beliefs it is forbidden to recede from neya and to accept other belief, at least that and Christian" 1.

Transition of gentiles and persons of inoslavny Christian confession to other Christian religions was allowed only with the permission of the civil administration that was not required for transition in pravoslaviye2. Besides, it should be noted that transition from one confession to another could be carried out only "from below up", from "less tolerant" confessions to "more tolerant", but not on the contrary. So, for example, an exit from Orthodoxy was not provided by the law at all. Transition from inoslavny confessions could be carried out "up", i.e. in Orthodoxy, or on "horizontal" - in other inoslavny confession, for example, from Baptism in Catholicism. Transition to the "lower" step, for example from Catholicism in Moslem or the Buddhism, the law did not admit the principle. At the same time transition to Orthodoxy was most facilitated, and the persons interfering transition from inoverny or inoslavny confession to Orthodoxy could undergo criminal liability.

In the second half of the 19th century the state and church power continues to draw close attention to split, but only to order criminal liability for transition to split and its distribution. In the comments relating to otd. II \About heresies and splits" the II section "Codes about Punishments Criminal and Corrective", the opinion of the Ruling senate on the laws defining "crimes and offenses on split" was stated. According to explanation of the Senate: "Literal sense both articles of the Code, and consisting in the Charter about prevention and control of offenses (Article 48-72 on prod. 1876) clearly specifies that our legislation, distinguishing heresies and splits on degree of their harm, establishes on this basis and criminal liability of sektator which from this point of view can

1 The code of laws of the Russian Empire. T. 14, Article 36. - SPb., 1892.
2 N. Suvorov. Textbook of ecclesiastical law. - M, 1912, p. 515-523.
3 V.K. Pinkevich. Religious reforms in Russia in the period of the Duma monarchy (1906 — 1917). - M, 2000, p. 16.

to be distributed on three categories: 1) on the sects damaging belief, but less harmful in the civil relation (The code about punishments... Article 196); 2) on the sects especially mean both in the relation to protection of belief, and in the civil relation (Article 197) and 3) on the sects connected to furious cruelty and fanatical infringement of the life or others or with antimoral mean actions (Article 203)". Further in the item

It was noted 1 Article 197 that "the legislator, distinguishing heresies and splits on degree of their harm, treats that more strict distribution of dissenting sect, than more harmful she admits" 1.

According to the criteria established by the Synod less harmful treated to sects: 1) all rumors popovshchinsky, 2) from bespopovshchinsky rumors: the pomorets taking a prayer for the Tsar and marriage, netovets, or spasovo consent, hosting the sacraments of baptism and marriage in Orthodox Church. To "more harmful" belonged: 1) judaisers (community work days, zhidovstvuyushchy), 2) Doukhobors, Molokans, jumpers and shtundist, 3) switches, debauchees and other industries of a hlystovshchina (God's people, spiritual Christians), 4) skopets, 5) samokreshchenets, wanderers (sopelkovets, runners), strannopriimets, fedoseevets, filippovets and other small bespopovshchinsky rumors (aristovshchina, an aaronovshchina), 6) those dissenters-pomortsy who, taking a prayer for the Tsar, do not recognize marriage.

"Followers of the sects called Doukhobors, iconoclasts, Molokans, judaisers, and it is equal also others, belonging to heresies which, established for this rather, are recognized or in a consequence will be recognized as especially harmful, for distribution of the heresy and seduction to it of others, after perfect exposure, are exposed to deprivation of all rights of a state and the reference: from the European Russia to the Transcaucasian region, from the Stavropol province and the Transcaucasian region to Siberia, and across Siberia to otdalenneyshy places of it, for settlement especially from other settlers and old residents" 3. As before, any promotion of split (Old Belief) was forbidden. It laid the foundation

1 The code about punishments criminal and corrective/Prod. prof. N.S. Tagantsev. - 5e additional prod. - SPb., 1886, Article 196, 197.
2 The code about punishments criminal and corrective with explanations according to decisions of cassation departments of the Ruling Senate. - 4 additional prod. - SPb., 1873, Article 198-199.
3 In the same place, Article 197.

administrative practice for three next decades. Under the Criminal code of 1903 the printing and sale of "Old Belief" books were punished by a fine of 300 rub, and seduction in split was punishable by forced labor for a period of up to 10 let1.

Despite civil, strict criminal liability and prosecutions, nevertheless a part of the population went to "split" that is traced according to archive materials, in particular the Central Historical Archive of Moscow (CHAM). In most cases reports of priests on a situation in arrival where among other things they specified data on a condition of split in the territory entrusted to them got to the Consistory, conducted activities for admonition of dissenters in Orthodoxy and informed on transitions to split. Also in the Consistory from parsons, is more rare from district district police officers and police, information on distribution in arrivals and different counties of exercises and sects arrived. According to statistical data the number of dissenters increased by 10-12% each 10 years, but except natural increase of this social group also conscious change of religion took place. Cases of transition of the population from Orthodoxy in split for 1855-1904 there are more than 150. Generally in dissenters peasants, retired soldiers, occasionally small merchants moved.

The greatest interest in this phenomenon is attracted by motivations of leaving in split: people took this step consciously, accepting disfranchisement, danger of repressions, and many seduced in split or did not allow to accept Orthodoxy that involved still heavy responsibility. So, it is possible to allocate the following groups of motives.

1. Household motives - when at marriage of the Orthodox Christian(s) with the dissenter one of spouses at insistance of family of another turned into split (in most cases the church did not register such marriages, and newlyweds got married on a raskolnichy ceremony; children in
1 I.K. Smolich. History of the Russian Church. - M, 1997, t. VIII, Part 2, p. 148-149.
2 CIAM, t. 199 (Moscow Provincial statistical committee), op. 2, 39, 66, 68, 107, 144, 401.

such marriages were brought up in tradition of split) 1. Here it is necessary to refer those affairs where moving of relatives on permanent residence to relatives conservatives is considered, in this case moving, as a rule, accepted belief new semyi2.

2. Population conflicts with local clergy. "During my trip around the diocese, I noticed that the people do not love clergy and are weighed upon it. In many arrivals I had to hear such speeches from the people: "priests are our enemies, robbers and devastators". What will be if speeches become the general, universal. And all trouble is that there is no salary, and priests are forced to bargain with the people for each occasional office. Not many are happy that they give; the majority extorts, bargains and because of the bargaining quite often makes scandals" 3. Also in funds of the Consistory there are a lot of documents on Volokolamsk, Mozhaisk, etc. to counties where the facts of punishments of priests and the pricht for the way of life discrediting church contain. Often in such situations a part of parishioners turns into split, without changing belief in own eyes.
3. Actually sermon of split and sectarianism its carriers. ". Recently among employees the false doctrine extends to stations Ramenskoye of the Moscow and Ryazan railroad Bronnitskago of the county... It is in what rejects veneration of saints of icons and need of visit of Orthodox Churches. The chief distributor of this doctrine is the retired private Stepan Vasilyev coming quite often from Moscow under the guise of the bookseller of the Sacred Writing." 4. "The tailor Mikhaylov is struck with paralysis, but does not leave the pernicious activity. It, according to testimonies of the priest Karpov, has especially big meetings on the great holidays eve at night" 5.
4. Political motives of leaving in split. The chief prosecutor of the Holy synod K.P. Pobedonostsev presented 05.02.1900 the church and state importance of a question in "A short essay about measures of fight against the Russian split and
1 In the same place, t. 203 (Moscow Spiritual Consistory), op. 337, 57, 27; op. 289, 22; op. 380, 7.
2 GARF, t. 109, op. 3, 1516.
3 In the same place, 1471
4 CIAM, t. 203, op. 377, 36, l. 2.
5 In the same place, op. 357, 10, l. 9 (about).

a review of measures state, since Peter the Great, directed to split restraint as opponent of the government", noting: "Split on the spirit was represented by fanatical opposition and church and the government, and therefore it is not surprising that to it as to the ready tool, the antistate elements began to adjoin, acting through Herzen, Bakunin, Tchaikovsky, etc.; with assistance of hostile to us then the Austrian policy, they helped split to create the illegal pseudo-hierarchy by means of which split and was organized already, representing to themselves hostile church in the middle of Church in the state.... In view of all this it is necessary, still not late, to take from the state drastic measures for elimination of great national temptation from the false hierarchy which arose and operating with deception which seeks to put openly in the opinion of the people itself to the place of legal hierarchy" 1.

5. The most significant motive nevertheless is the latent speculative attachment of the Russian people to "drevle-Orthodoxy". Expressed this position at the beginning of the 1860th. Moscow prelate Filaret: "... dissenters in the actions do not give to the government the account and, on spirit of the proselytism, will never be differentiated with Orthodox Christians. From that there is a considerable number (up to 600 thousand) fluctuating between Orthodoxy and split. These people still go to an orthodox church service, do not expel themselves from Church, are afraid of legal liability, to them the clergy still has access, their secret evasion from Orthodoxy has no nerve yet; but at ease of laws all of them will become fast and irretrievable production of split, and their obvious falling away will specify a way by another" 2.

The metropolitan Filaret appeared the rights: after publication 17.04.1905 of the Royal Decree to the Senate "About elimination of stesneniye in the field of religion and strengthening of the beginnings of toleration" the persons which were formally registered as Orthodox Christians had a legal opportunity to leave the dominating church without prejudice to the civil rights. Thereby the field of the state coercion was for the first time narrowed,

1 Russian state historical archive, t. 821, op. 133, 1, l. 7.
2 A meeting of opinions and responses of Filaret, Metropolitan of Moscow and Kolomna, on educational and to church matters of state / Under the editorship of Savva, the archbishop Tver and Kashinsky. - M, 1887, t. V, Part II, p. 465-466.

of the dominating status of Orthodoxy applied to maintenance among the religious communities of Russia. It meant that dissenters to whom the name "Old Believers" was from now on appropriated and sectarians got practically the same religious and civil rights which believers of "inoslavny" and "inoverny" confessions had in Russia.

Contemporary records demonstrate that only in the Moscow province by 1910 the Orthodox Christians began to pass into Old Belief with dozens and sotnyami1. Leaving in split of considerable groups of the population is connected with the emotional and irrational reaction based on tradition with social and political instability in the country, with hope to find a consolation and justice in return to the idealized past. The national discontent with socio-political activity of church and temporal powers which is going back to inseparable from an archetype "Sacred Russia" to an archetype "Kitezh hail" (national Jerusalem, Zion) forced and forces both individuals, and separate justification which avuirovaniye occurs under the sign of return by belief "Golden Age" - ancient piety when tsars, both grand dukes, and patriarchs were kind guardians about the destiny granted to them by God is religious the adjusted groups to protest actions. And if not piety of the authorities is so obvious, to national piety has to reject them, protecting-keeping the truth and the truth of belief spiritual and social opposition as in it - belief - guarantee of life.

Sociocultural, church and civil split by the existence broke off unity of Orthodoxy as universal Russian religious-national identification of the people, essentially narrowed the maintenance of the concept "Russians", characteristic of that era, in polyconfessional obshchestve2.

In modern socio-political conditions, with a total "humanitarian and liberal" spekulyativizm, an injurious oligarkhizm, group imperialism and a social anomy, the power in Russia more and more faces problems of national self-identification and unity. With removal of the bans on freedom of speech, religions in the 90th

1 CIAM, t. 203, op. 759, 986-1088, 1245-1305, 1388-1510, 1563-1694.
2 A.Yu. Bendin. Toleration and problems of national policy of the Russian Empire: (the second half of XIX - the beginning of the 20th centuries) - Mn., 2007, p. 19.
20th century (law of RSFSR "About Freedom of Religions", 1990; The Federal Law "About freedom

conscience and about religious associations", 1997) arisen "genre

variety" social-group political and active strata, instead of

former religious and social and indifferent society, puts before

the power a task in a special way, historically competently to realize the place, a role and

importance of the state and confessional relations as regulator

national policy and ensuring ethnocultural integrity of the country.

Alexey BATURKIN is the graduate student of department of the state and confessional relations of RAGS under the President of the Russian Federation

Stevens Peter
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