The Science Work
Site is for sale:
Category: History

The Russian country transport in traditional festive ceremonialism of the XIX first third of the 20th century.

m. I. Vasilyev


Article is devoted to the analysis of the place and a role of the vehicles used by the Russian country people in traditional festive ceremonialism of XIX — the first third of the 20th century

M. Vasiliev


The author of the article analyses the place and role of transport means used by the Russian rural population in traditional festive ritualism in the 19th century and the first third of the 20th century.

Besides performance of economic and social functions in culture, national vehicles had the important importance and in the festive and ceremonial sphere. Despite considerable literature on the Russian and east Slavic calendar holidays (I.M. Snegirev, A.V. Tereshchenko, M. Zabyli's works - on, A.A. Korinfsky, V.I. Chicherov, V.K. Sokolova, A.F. Not Krylova, etc.) 1, this aspect was not a subject of a special research. The analysis of month -

that and roles of the vehicles used by the Russian country people in traditional festive ceremonialism of XIX — the first third of the 20th century is also devoted this work.

As show materials, the greatest value at the Russian peasants in calendar ceremonialism was played by winter vehicles. At the beginning of winter transport is used in calendar ceremonialism as a special form of the youth festivities which had love and erotic under -

the text, connected with the fact that the winter was the peak of wedding subject in an annual cycle festive kalendarya2.

Quite often the beginning of winter drivings on the sleigh coincided with the local festive calendar. So, in the holiday celebrated in the village of Kezhm on the Angara River "Kazan" (on October 22 on old style), before a party of the girl drive about on streets on poshevnyakh and "sledge", representing the wedding train: "a wedding go". Similar "uloshny" representation, by words A.A. Makarenko, is very transparently hinted that the time to guys "yes spozhenitets" 3 came.

The tradition of the beginning of winter drivings on the sleigh on Vvede-nye, Prokopyev or day Of Catherine which was followed in a number of places by custom "was more widespread to show young", including many elements of a wedding ceremony: transition through a threshold on vyvorochenny wool up to a fur coat, a name young, "knyaginyush-which", escort of newlyweds by train from guests-poyezhan, etc. 4

Broader scope of use of transport is characteristic of the holidays which were key in the winter calendar. The first festive cycle of year in which we see ritual and magic use of vehicles was the Christmas-tide symbolizing transition of old year to new which major attribute was a recognition by means of ceremonial actions of future harvest, family or personal sudby5.

In Kostroma lips. on the night of New year the girl went to the house where there lives a favourite guy and bit off a shchepochka from the sleigh. As a good omen was considered that nobody met on the road and did not call it. It brought Shchepochka home and went to bed with it. If in a dream she saw that guy, was considered that she will go beyond it this year zamuzh6.

The close option of this ritual was present at the Novgorod region: the girl wishing to learn the destiny bit off with teeth a shchepochka from own sleigh and

put it for the night under a pillow that arrived to it suzhenyy7. In this case "shchepochka" was the deputy of the sleigh and served as a magic subject by means of which future groom could "arrive" to the girl just as, for example, the crest defined actions of "the bewitched groom".

In a different way fortune-telling "moving of a shaft" in different directions was to hear scratches in the frozen together "wrapping": "what name "will creak", and the husband will be called (or the bride)" 8.

Absolutely other sense had widespread fortune-telling at the intersection of roads when guessing dropped to the earth and listened: if the hand bell ring, a scratch of runners or horse footfall was heard, so the girl this year will marry. At times that from where the scratch of the sleigh (wedding train) reaches had the importance. Was considered that the sound defined the party where the girl will leave zamuzh9. In some cases the nature of this sound — — symbolized the loaded or empty sleigh rich or poor supruga10.

Other sense was attributed to guessing when guessing "on crosses" fell during snow, carefully rose, and came in the morning to look at traces. On whose print passed the sleigh, that also had to leave


Reflection of the ideas of a Christmas-tide occurring in the national environment as time of revelry of evil spirit, is widespread at Russians, as well as at many European narodov12, the tradition of Christmas mischief and a ryazhenye. Among the objects connected with customs of this sort also winter vehicles which were not removed to the yard quite often acted. The owner at the house left the wood sledge (sometimes even with hay or firewood) — look for them behind the village or at the foot of a hill in the morning, or remove from a roof, heads fixed for the fad kryshi13.

In a number of places the tradition of a Christmas sit-round gathering included sketches masked with ispol-

zovaniye of sled transport. In particular, at a ryazheniye "horse" by means of ropes or shafts attached the manual economic sledge ("firewood") on which "driver" sat to it. In such look masked stopped by in a log hut on "conversation". "Driver" at times had a stick tied with rags which he clapped the girls ("gave a bream") lifting vizg14.

At last, the automobile sleigh was quite often used in the European Russia in one of stages of the custom of shows of brides occurring in Kreshchenye15. Usually shows were held in the form of drivings in the sleigh of mothers with daughters on the central streets seleniy16. In the Kadnikovsky County Vologda lips. shows with use of the sleigh received more ritualizirovanny form: after a mass, in an environment of the crowds of the people standing on both sides of the street, girls on two went to the river to water-svyatye, standing in the sleigh. Here, without reaching to Jordan, the sleigh with girls became in a caret and turned into the important center of attention during the blessing of the waters. The special meaning of occurring was emphasized by the festive harness on horses decorated "as at weddings" 17.

An important role was played by transport in the Pancake week customs and ceremonies symbolizing the end of winter. The sleigh was widely involved in so-called wires of Maslenitsa. Where there was a tradition of production of an anthropomorphous scarecrow of a holiday (mainly, in the southern Russian, partially central and western provinces; in places in the North and in Siberia), the sleigh acted as means for its transportation and demonstration to inhabitants in the last days of festive week. Depending on option of wires of Maslenitsa, the regular draft or manual economic sleigh was used. At times sleigh specially ukrashali18.

In areas where farewell Maslenitsa was carried out without scarecrow (mainly Siberia and also the European North and partly a midland) and it replaced Paro -

diyny scenes and characters, the sleigh and a harness in such actions, in comparison with the first option of a ceremony, take absolutely other form. "First of all the fact that all attributes of the Pancake week train attracts attention... old, unusable stuff. Put a jade to the collapsing sleigh, on her hung up hand bells with which cows went, sometimes a horse covered with a bast mat, a sackcloth, and in Siberia to it even put on ripped trousers and pima front legs..." 19.

In a number of places the ritual and humorous ceremony of wires of Maslenitsa and a meeting of a post passed on "clean Monday" — the first day of the Lent. So, in the Cherepovets county Novgorod lips. (it was called custom of "wipe of a verticil") this day the girls dressed in suits "more ridiculously" harnessed the most decrepit horse, on the sleigh put the slouch with a verticil, and tied dirty towels or rags to shafts — "to wipe a verticil". In such look — "with pancakes" — they drove about on the village, causing the general laughter and shutki20.

According to researchers (V.Ya. Propp, M.M. Bakhtin, etc.), the reasons of similar representation are connected with archaic beliefs in which ritual laughter and mockery had important ceremonial value. Thus destroyed and banished the beginning evil, hostile to the person — winter and death which was associated with it. Therefore all attributes of wires had to reflect an old age and dying of become obsolete visually. In order that it sounded more convincingly, the satire and smekh21 was widely used.

In a number of places (especially in Siberia and in the European North) the form of wires of Maslenitsa was strongly affected by the Western European carnival which actively declared from Petrovsky epokhi22. The sleigh used here communicated together, imitating the ship or on the sleigh the small vessel with a scaffold or a mast for ryazhenogo23 was set.

In certain places the cargo sleigh or the economic sledge were used directly in a ceremony of burning of Maslenitsa. In northeast counties of the Novgorod province Maslenitsa represented the heap of straw laid on the old wood sledge or the sledge or the tub filled by straw and hay or a pitch barrel which was lit and, having undertaken shafts or a rope, took on the village with shouts "Farewell, Red Maslenitsa! The Lent comes!". Behind the village ashes were turned out during snow, the sleigh which sometimes lit up lowered under goru24. In the county of the Pskov province which was Kholmsk Maslenitsa represented the lit torch strengthened on Coca which kept one of the company sitting in the wood sledge of children and youth while several guys undertook shafts and with the "We Maslenitsa Took for a Drive, to Blinochka Covered a Hill..." song went on the village, seeing off thus a symbol prazdnika25.

Krom of wires of Maslenitsa, sled transport along with drag harrows played a large role in Pancake week drivings from mountains of children, youth and newlyweds and also women, and at the first they carried out game, and at the last — festive and ceremonial function.

It is considered that they were Russians' one of favourite entertainments in XIX everywhere — the beginning of the 20th century 26 the Available materials show that it is almost possible to call drivings from mountains povsemestnymi27 only till first decades of the 19th century while later they remain in the form of tradition mainly in the European North and in capital gorodakh28. In many places in the second half of XIX — the beginning of the 20th century this category of entertainments on Maslenitsa took very modest place, meeting incidentally as an element of entertainments when burning Pancake week kostra29.

The special ritual value and sense were made by Pancake week drivings ("rolling) on a sled and the sledge for newlyweds: they finally fixed them but -

the vy social status in public consciousness and also enhanced, according to representatives of traditional culture, fertility of the earth. The most difficult ritual (with an obligatory delay of the sleigh and kisses) was received by drivings of newlyweds in the Arkhangelsk and Olonets provinces. It carried name "assemblage", "salt saffron milk caps on a post" or "freeze" 30 here.

Certain rules regulated driving and unmarried youth. In some places the guy should not have ridden with one girl more than three times; in others — to the guy and the girl riding together "froze" the sledge too, forcing to pay off, as well as young people, kisses. In the last day of Maslenitsa in the Perm province the guy skativshy from the mountain the girl, could kiss her because of what this day was called "tselovnik" 31.

In Oryol, Tver and some other provinces the custom of "okatyvaniye" of young people happened not on the hill, and on the rural street. The essence of ceremonial actions probably consisted in final transfer by rural community of the rights for recently married girl to the husband. In a form the custom consisted of congratulations on Maslenitsa of hosts (or repayment of a ball-shelygi) and the treat following it after what the request to young people followed to go outside to take for a drive them. Depending on the nature of the treat offered them, it could be the harrow turned up by teeths or elegant sanki32.

The tradition of drivings from mountains at women (on the sledge, a sled and distaffs) made special magic sense. It was connected with custom "to ride on a long flax". In many places there was a belief that "if the woman slides from the mountain successfully, i.e. will not fall..., then it is considered for sign that at it this year the flax long and good" 33 will grow. In the Shenkursky County Arkhangelsk lips. it was accepted to ride such drivings stoya34.

At last, at Russians the Pancake week drivings on horses which became one of holiday symbols had huge distribution. Sources of similar drivings were probably especially prosy: elegant crews quite often became a part of a "winter" form of festivities when instead of summer foot walks of youth the sleigh as the most convenient vehicle in winter down the street was (there / back) used. And such form of Pancake week festivities could get the finished form before everything in the city where for this purpose there were great material resources (exit transport) and also the fact that here at times there were no comfortable hills which were more ancient form of Pancake week drivings at Russians. In development of this form of Pancake week entertainments also the social, prestigious factor of drivings on the sleigh showing welfare of riding had a big role.

The earliest mentions of Pancake week drivings on horses belong to the 18th century though their emergence here, certainly, is earlier. One of such mentions is the story by Andrey Bolotov about Maslenitsa in Bogoroditske (Tula lips.), relating to 1792. Telling about the "street masquerade on the sleigh" arranged to them with friends and acquaintances and about the effect which is had by this procession, he tells the following: "Why and it is no wonder that hardly we with processiyeyu I sow seemed in the city as from all directions to us people ran and the sleigh and all heaps and crowds jumped... increased formidability of a show. Some sleigh with the men and women driving through the city the big set was gathered dozens five or more, and pedestrian people. There was this on maslyanichny Saturday, after a lunch when all people walked and rode" 35.

The bulk of data on drivings on horses is the share of XIX — the beginning of the 20th century. Sources of the first half of century usually give us city drivings. And, they do not look such masso-yet

vy what became at the end XIX — the beginning of the 20th century. So, for example, in the largest center of the Urals — Yekaterinburg, in the driving keeping, according to the author, "an ancient type of such trips — driving by crowd or, local, "utugy"", participated up to only 30 — 40, sometimes up to 50 saney36.

In the second half of XIX — the beginning of the 20th century Pancake week drivings on horses are fixed everywhere, including in the village. "In some villages the driving happens on horses, and a horse ukrashivayut-sya tapes, are covered by jingles, and harnessed by all means in poshovn as the most honourable crew" — points to it one of korrespondentov37. Drivings on horses turn into the brightest and mass action of year: not without reason they became a peculiar business card of the Russian maslenitsy38. At the end of the 19th century in large villages Vologda lips. the number of riding reached 200 — 500 horses, and in some volost centers — up to 80039.

In a number of places the Pancake week drivings on horses gained magic value, as well as when drivings from mountains. According to V.K. Sokolova, similar function appeared at them under the influence of drivings with gor40. Possibly, this is true. However it is not necessary to diminish their role in XIX — the beginning of the 20th century: in a number of places of the European Russia and Siberia the ceremonial function of Pancake week drivings remained only in the form of drivings on loshadyakh41. As show materials, in some places the fact of similar drivings, in others — length of the passable way was important. The last could be realized both as real distance and as symbolical (/others, close/far; expression: "if to go on the village, then there will be a short flax and if in others — that long") 42.

And still in most cases in drivings on horses there was no ancient magic basis. As at the time V.Ya. Propp absolutely fairly specified, the opinion on connection of driving with the movement of the sun "is not true" 43.

Materials show that Pancake week drivings "around" were one of important components of street festivities which route was defined by planning of the settlement. In rural areas most often (as the one-street village was the most widespread) rode backwards-forward ("round", "guzhy"), in the cities and large villages — around adjacent to festivities streets ("around", "round") 44.

Sometimes around rode in order to avoid collisions and in the one-street villages which had the narrow road. In this case traveled over the village on boondocks and again were shown on the street. Where settlements were located on opposite coast of the rivers, drivings time were carried out down the river. Riding usually went the friend behind a druzhka, seldom overtaking each other, especially at two-way traffic. At the same time in a number of places the similar drivings ("skating rinks") turned into competitions of the goers rushing on huge skorostyakh45.

Despite the lack of magic functions, drivings on horses played an important social role and had the mass of local customs which were strictly observed by riding. The custom of "goshcheniye" of newlyweds among the bride's parents was everywhere widespread in Russia. Here they drove about on numerous guests. Leaving a horse, often covered her or the homespun blanket or a cape ("carpet") enclosed on a seat or serving as the shelter for legs and which is specially made by the bride to a wedding. In some places they became the sign, correlated to newlyweds. Having seen the horse covered with such "carpet" at any house knew that arrived molodye46.

Also drivings on horses had a strict regulation. So, newlyweds rode always in couples, unmarried youth — frequent groups of three — four people. According to the standard custom, guys had to roll not one, but many girls. Having given a ride to the girl three-four times on the village, the guy seated Wad Dra -

guyu47. In former Kostroma lips. the guy each circle had to ride with different devushkami48. In many places of the girl presented for it guys: in Nizhny Novgorod lips. the guy kissed them at parting, in Novgorod lips. — girls presented to them during the Easter on several yaits49.

Ceremonial function of Pancake week drivings on horses at Russians was traced also that they often received an additional, playful and naughty shade. Some of riding tied the brooms rattling when driving and causing general hokhot50 to shafts, a breast-band or an arch. In a number of places on a horse put on trousers. Sometimes instead of the sleigh used a trough, "trench" for feeding of the cattle or the "subsledge" for removal of the wood tied to rope tugs or to ogloblyam51.

At the end of winter the festive and ceremonial value of sled transport decreased and remained mainly on Far North. According to P.S. Efimen-co, in upper courses of Pinega festive drivings on the horses harnessed in the sleigh "with arches and hand bells hung to them in a set, jingles and sharkuna" 52 got a job in Fomino Sunday (April — May). Emergence of similar tradition is connected with a huge role of bell-ringing in easter ceremonialism, the peculiar intermediary preserving against intrigues of a devil and serving in communication by the person with bogom53.

Thus, winter vehicles figured prominently in the Russian calendar ceremonialism of H1H — the first third of the 20th century. The reason of it is in duration of the winter period in Russia and also that the peak of collective forms of youth communication and family and marriage ceremonialism caused by smaller intensity of work at this time falls on it. Also the fact that for the winter a half of the dates connected with the movement of the sun (winter solstice and an equinox) and the beginning of new year had was the important reason.

1 See, e.g.: I.M. Snegirev. Russian demotic holidays and superstitious ceremonies. — Issue 1. — M, 1837; Issue 2. - M, 1838; Issue 3. - M, 1838; Issue 4. - M, 1839; A.V. Tereshchenko. Life of the Russian people. - Part 4. - M, 1848; Part 5. - M, 1848; Part 6. - M, 1848; Part 7. - M, 1848; Russian people, its customs, legends, superstitions and poetry. SOBR. M. Zabylin. - M, 1880; Corinthian A.A. National Russia. All the year round legends, beliefs, customs and proverbs of the Russian people. - M, 1901; V.I. Chiche-rov. Winter period of the Russian national calendar of HU1-H1H of centuries. - M, 1957; V.K. Sokolova. Spring and summer calendar ceremonies of Russians, Ukrainians and Belarusians. XIX - the beginning of the 20th century - M., 1979; All the year round. Russian agricultural calendar / Sost. A.F. Not Krylova. - M, 1991; E.O. Bohn-darenko. Holidays of Christian Russia: Russian national Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar. - Kaliningrad, 1995.
2 V.I. Chicherov. Decree. soch. - Page 44-45, 112-113, etc.
3 A.A. Makarenko. Siberian national calendar. - Novosibirsk, 1993. - Page 81-82.
4 Corinthian A.A. National Russia. All the year round legends, beliefs, customs and proverbs of the Russian people. - Smolensk, 1995. - Page 448-449; V.I. Chicherov. Decree. soch. - Page 45.
5 V.I. Chicherov. Decree. soch. - Page 75, 88-114, etc.
6 V. Smirnov. National fortune-telling of the Kostroma region//Works of the Kostroma scientific organization on studying local edge. - Issue XLI. - Kostroma, 1927. - Page 55.
7 Field materials of the author across the Novgorod region, 1986-1992//Personal archive of the author,/N
8 V. Smirnov. Decree. soch. - Page 66.
9 In the same place. - Page 69-70.
10 Field materials of the author..., 1986-1992
11 In the same place.
12 See, e.g.: S.Ya. Serov. A calendar holiday and its place in the European national culture//Calendar customs and ceremonies in the countries of Foreign Europe: Historical roots and development of customs / Otv. an edition S.A. Tokarev, etc. - M., 1983. - Page 47-49.
13 See, e.g.: Winter drivings of the Novgorod peasants / Sost. M.I. Vasilyev. - Novgorod, 1992. - Page 22. In a similar way the youth in the southern Russia and on the night of Petrov the day falling on a so-called summer Christmas-tide arrived. They also collect everything that is not removed by owners to the yard, including carts, and arrange from them blockages on roads. See, e.g.: V. Sokolova. To the Decree. soch. - Page 253-254, 260.
14 Winter drivings... - Page 23.
15 Except it, it included shows in churches during a liturgy and on the river near Jordan.
16 S.V. Maximov. Evil, unknown and God spirit. - SPb., 1994. - Page 281; V.I. Chicherov. Decree. soch. - Page 112-113. The similar form of shows of brides occurred also in other terms, in particular, at the end of Pancake Week. See, e.g.: Moscow old times. Memoirs of Muscovites of last century / General edition, predisl. and primech. Yu.N. Alexandrova. - M, 1989. - Page 368, 446-447.
17 On: V.I. Chicherov. Decree. soch. - Page 113.
18 V.K. Sokolova. Decree. soch. - Page 22-27.
19 In the same place. - Page 30.
20 RAS MAE archive, K-at. Op. 1. No. 92. L. 22.
21 About it: V.K. Sokolova. Decree. soch. - Page 32.
22 See, e.g.: I.N. Bozheryanov. As celebrated and Russian Christmas, New Year, Kreshchenye and Maslyanitsu celebrates the people. Historical essay. - SPb., 1894. - Page 93-96, 104-105; A.F. Nekrylova. Russian national city holidays, amusements and shows. The end of XVIII - the beginning of the 20th century. - L., 1988. - Page 8.
23 V.K. Sokolova. Decree. soch. - Page 29, 32-34.
24 Winter drivings... - Page 38.
25 In the same place.
26 V.K. Sokolova. Decree. soch. - Page 43.
27 In a number of their southern Russian territories was not also in the first half the 19th century. So, on K.A. Avdeeva's memoirs, in the first third of the 19th century in Kursk only drivings on horses were made. See: E.A. Avdeeva. Notes about old and new Russian life. - SPb., 1842. - Page 61.
28 V.K. Sokolova. Decree. soch. — Page 12 —17, 38—39, 43—44; A.F. Nekrylova. Russian national city holidays... — Page 17 — 19.
29 See, e.g.: K. Ivanovsky. Gorodetsko-Nikolayevsky churchyard of the Palemsky volost, Ustyug County//Vologda provincial sheets. — 1880. — No. 12. — Page 1; M.I. Vasilyev. Winter drivings at the Russian peasants in the Northwest of Russia at the end of H1H — the first third of the 20th century (on the Novgorod materials)//the Person to unclear: Sb. the station is Novgorod, 1997. — Page 163 — 164.
30 V.K. Sokolova. Decree. soch. - Page 38-42.
31 In more detail about it see. Vytegra Konduzhi//Olonets provincial sheets. — 1874. — No. 27. — Page 339; V.K. Sokolova. Decree. soch. — Page 38 — 44.
32 V.K. Sokolova. Decree. soch. - Page 39; All the year round... - Page 444.
33 Highway (ustik) ov AA. Legends, customs, plots, superstitions and fortunetelling among the population of the Kadni-kovsky County//the Vologda collection. — T. 5. — Vologda, 1887. — Page 226.
34 V.K. Sokolova. Decree. soch. — Page 44.
35 Life and Andrey Bolotov's adventures described by him for the descendants / Vstup. S.M. Ronsky's article. P.L. Zhatkin's comments. — T. III. 1771 — 1795. — M.; L., 1931. — Page 519.
36 Siberian. Correspondence from Yekaterinburg//the Northern bee. — 1839. — No. 21. — Page 133 — 134.
37 Highway (ustik) ov And. Decree. soch. — Page 226.
38 REM archive. T. 1. Op. 2. No. 433a. L. 206; RAS MAE Archive, K-at. Op. 1. No. 92. L. 2, 23; V.K. Sokolova. Decree. soch. — Page 43, 45 — 46.
39 See: V.K. Sokolova. Decree. soch. — Footnote 57 on page 90.
40 In the same place. — Page 45.
41 See: V.K. Sokolova. Decree. soch. — Page 90; Winter drivings... — Page 36.
42 Winter drivings... — Page 36.
43 V.Ya. Propp. Russian agrarian holidays (Experience of a comparative and ethnographic research). — L., 1963. — Page 126.
44 Winter drivings... — Page 33 — 34.
45 In the same place.
46 In the same place. — Page 32.
47 In the same place. — Page 35.
48 V.K. Sokolova. Decree. soch. — Page 45; Winter drivings... — Page 34 — 35.
49 V.K. Sokolova. Decree. soch. — Page 45; Winter drivings... — Page 35.
50 REM archive. T. 1. Op. 2. No. 433a. L. 206; Winter drivings... — Page 35 — 36.
51 See, e.g.: Winter drivings... — Page 35 — 36.
52 P.S. Efimenko. Materials on ethnography of the Russian population of the Arkhangelsk province. Part 1. Description of external and internal life//Works of ethnographic department of IOLEAE. — Prince 5. — Issue 1. — M, 1877. — Part I. — Page 141.
53 In the same place. — Page 164.
Bachmeier Horst
Other scientific works: