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Category: History

New scientific and technological revolution and modern world


An Qinian

Today when the modern world already entered a globalization era, scientists of many countries seriously reflect how to learn this world. In my opinion, the central question consists in deep understanding of the new nauchnotekhnichesky revolution which took place in the XX century, and that influence which it rendered on the modern world here. It is a key to understanding of why the modern world entered a globalization era and also the problems facing it and trends of its development.

I. New scientific and technological revolution of the XX century

Is 20th century a century when science and technology gained revolutionary development which began with physics and is based on the new results achieved during the revolution in it. And when call "an age of physics" 20th century, it is true. In the 19th century and even earlier knowledge of a material world generally remained at the level of substance, the most representative in this regard was the mechanic Newton (of course, to it existed the physicist Galilei). Thanks to the law of universal gravitation and also three great laws of mechanics she offered the explanation of interaction of bodies of the objective nature which satisfied all and also occurring under its impact of changes. At the end of the 19th century many scientists came to a conclusion that researches in the field of physics reached the limit and in this field of science already nothing can be opened. However at this time it was revealed that some material objects can radiate beams unknown before, and their weight can decrease. Understanding that former knowledge of a material world is doubtful came.

There was a contradiction with the doctrine of classical physics. According to representations of the last, the world consists of atoms which are indivisible, atoms have weight, matter of a neunichtozhim. Within similar theoretical understanding the discovery of radioactivity meant that atoms can be destroyed and consequently, and matter can be destroyed too. This problem stimulated study atom by many physicists of structure. In the 30th of the XX century opened a new "brick of space" - elementary particles; the structure of atom was found, it is found out that it consists of a kernel and electrons rotating with the high speed around it bearing electricity; in turn the atomic nucleus consists of the protons bearing positive electricity and the neutrons which are not possessing it; as a result there was the latest physical theory - quantum physics.

Age of globalization 2/2009 30-39

An Qinian. New scientific and technological revolution and modern world highway

It was revolution in the history of development of physics, it deepened ideas of scientists of a material world. Before a research were conducted at the level of substance, later - at the level of atom, now, after discovery of structure of atom and creation of quantum physics, they passed to deeper, than atom, level of elementary particles. It not only led to considerable deepening of ideas of the world, for example knowledge of material unity of the world, origin and evolution of the Universe. The fact that this revolutionary development of the physical theory considerably increased ability of mankind to use and transform a material world (including ability of transformation of atoms, moreover, of creation of new) was more important, led to revolution in the field of the equipment. It was shown mainly in three sign results.

The first - creation of an atomic bomb.

At the beginning of 1945 the USA created an atomic bomb and on August 7th and 9th the same year dropped it to Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The enormous destructive force of an atomic bomb shook the world and substantially promoted completion of World War II. Creation by the having enormous capacity of an atomic bomb is directly connected with the new knowledge of scientists of structure of matter gained by them during the revolution in physics. One of the chief representatives of quantum physics, the initiator of creation of an atomic bomb A. Einstein was frightened of its enormous destructive force. A. Einstein is a great physicist and also the outstanding thinker and the philosopher. Being an acute person, he understood that for the first time in the history the mankind began to have force able to destroy the whole world. From this point the ability of mankind to transform the nature rose by unknown height.

The second - an invention and use of computers.

During World War II for creation of new weapon the American scientists started studying the latest computer facilities. Matematik von Neumann in 1946 created the project of the computer which appeared in 1949

The invention and use of the COMPUTER led to still rapid progress of computer and information facilities which began in the second half of the XX century and continuing. Success in creation of the COMPUTER is also result of revolution in the field of physics. Exactly thanks to the fact that the physics in the knowledge of matter could reach smaller, than atom, level, electronics was created and there was an opportunity to use its achievements for collecting, processings and dissemination of information. The new equipment allowed to replace partially abilities of a human brain, it much more raised possibilities of the person in the speed of calculation of operations. Thanks to it the mankind bought the important tool for studying difficult theoretical and technical questions and mastering by them, expanded space for researches, considerably increased abilities of mankind on knowledge and transformation of the world.

The third - detection of structure of a double spiral of DNA.

When studying heredity it was revealed for a long time that human life is defined by hereditary genes which comprise dezoksiri-

bonukleinovy acid which is in a cage kernel chromosome, that is DNA. However the structure of a molecule of a double spiral of DNA was opened only in 1953 by D. Watson and F. Crick. As a prerequisite for this opening revolution also served in physics. Revolutionary development of physics led to emergence of different types of microscopes and other experimental equipment thanks to what for researches in the field of biology and chemistry the scientists received such effective tools which it was difficult for them to imagine earlier. Discovery of structure of a double spiral of DNA was result of use of these tools. This opening allowed to conduct researches in the field of biology at the molecular level, on this basis the bionics, biotechnology - genetic engineering appeared. It means that the mankind seized the mysteries of life and that it can transform voluntarily consciously species, moreover, can create in the laboratory way the living beings who were earlier not existing in the nature. Life is the most difficult that exists in the world; thanks to discovery of structure of a double spiral of DNA the ability of people to learn and transform the world rose by the inconceivable height as the person had an opportunity to create new life; in a sense it is possible to tell that he became "emperor".

In the XX century a large number of other important technical inventions, for example emergence of new materials and the space equipment, etc. was made, all of them are anyway connected with revolutionary development of physics, allowed to overcome limited opportunities of the person concerning the nature and opened for him space for new development.

II Influence of a new scientific and technological revolution in the XX century

The new scientific and technological revolution had extremely great influence on development of the international community in the XX century. It is possible to approach this influence from three parties.

First of all its most direct influence is that science and technology become the first productive force or, in other words, production becomes a scope of science and technology. It occurs because the information equipment, microelectronics, biotechnology and also new materials get more and more important role in production, the results achieved by them much more surpass daily experience of people, experience of the workers who are directly participating in production. Without discoveries made by scientists in laboratories the new progress in the equipment and technology is impossible. Today's production of goods becomes more and more the sphere of practical application of results of science and technology which become the factor playing a crucial role in production of goods. Workers and peasants - workers who directly participate in production - already play a peripheral, minor role in it.

Further. Direct result of the above-mentioned changes is the fact that criteria of determination of quality of a social order change that causes deep social reforms in many socialist countries. Before emergence of a new scientific and technological revolution at assessment of a social order usually proceeded from this whether it can stimulate in considerable scales

activity of the workers and peasants who are directly participating in production of goods. At that time production had extensive character, the specific weight of science and technology was low and therefore the size of production potential depended on a ratio of the enclosed live work (production activity and consciousness of workers and peasants) and also "dead" work (the products made by workers and peasants before). The reason why the Stakhanov movement during industrialization in the Soviet Union could have the great stimulating influence on development of national economy, was that the social order created after the October revolution allowed operating masses to realize itself owners of the state owing to what there was an unprecedented labor enthusiasm. The new scientific and technological revolution leads to application in production of science and technology. Therefore its opportunity to stimulate development of science and technology in big scales becomes the basic quality criterion of a social order and also with the fastest speed to turn their results into direct productive force. This large change brought with itself a number of deep social consequences.

On the one hand, it poured in new forces in capitalist build. Before World War II it was at first sight clear what system has superiority - western, capitalist, or Soviet, socialist. At that time societies and economies of the Soviet Union best of all told the economic crisis in the Western world and amazingly fast development which arose in the late twenties and the beginning of the 30th what system is more preferable. However situation changed after World War II, especially in the 70th of last century. As in the capitalist world there is a competition, to gain advantage in the market, each capitalist sought to update the production equipment in every possible way. It very much stimulated development of science and technology. It is necessary to add that the private property on means of production also promotes acquisition of the new production equipment by the capitalist because for this purpose it does not need approval of any other persons, it immediately turns it at the enterprise into direct productive force. Therefore the capitalist world began to endure "the second youth" - there was a rapid growth of productive forces, the living standards of the population considerably increased. Besides, a narrow framework of the national states was already not able to satisfy requirements of the productive forces which reached the high level of development. The multinational companies began to appear as if spring sprouts of a bamboo after a rain, and gradually develop the uniform world market and the international economic system having lines of integration.

On the other hand, the socialist system which achieved brilliant results in the Soviet Union lost the former superiority. It occurred because the system created in the 30th of last century had such features as high concentration of the power, public property on means of production, planned economy, distribution on work. At the existing system there was no political democracy, there was not enough freedom of thinking and also a possibility of exchange of views with foreign colleagues therefore it was difficult for intellectuals to conduct researches in science

and technicians of creative character. Between the enterprises there was no market competition, their task was only in implementing the plan lowered from above they had no need and the power initiatively to develop and update the equipment. As the enterprises were not independent in decision-making, even in case of the new equipment and technology their application had to pass through multistage approval of bureaucratic instances therefore they could not become direct productive force in time. All this led to the fact that the outlined lag of the Soviet economy from western after the 70th of last century became big, the Soviet society entered the period of stagnation and gradually it appeared at a disadvantage in the competition to the West. The model of Stalin socialism with high extent of centralization fell into a difficult situation. New nauchnotekhnichesky revolution forced all socialist countries to go on the way of reforms. The original deep reasons of reforms in the Soviet Union and China consist in it. The new scientific and technological revolution showed that the existing earlier socialist system already came to the historical end. Marx said: "Steam, electricity and a selfaktor were incomparably more dangerous revolutionaries, than even citizens Barbes, Raskayl and Blanca" 1.

Marx is right. However in this case not capitalism, but socialism of Stalin model was the object of social revolution caused by progress in science.

Ways of reforms in various states as, for example, in Russia and China, differ from each other, however their main direction is identical. It is that the reforms undertaken in both countries are focused on transformation of science and technology into the first productive force, creation of conditions for development and use of science and technology, and for this purpose it is necessary to turn planned economy into market, from the highly centralized power to pass to political democracy. It is clearly looked through in the reforms undertaken in all socialist countries. But Russia began the reforms with creation of political democracy, and China put the priority construction of market economy and development of production. China not only forms market economy at home, but also actively enters the large world market. In the 80th of last century it, making use of experience of Hong Kong, Taiwan, South Korea and a number of the states of Southeast Asia, having chosen as the accurate purpose creation of economy on the "loan of two from the outside" model (the capitals, the equipment and the market from abroad), began very much to seek to enter into big network of the world market.

At last, the third party of influence of a new scientific and technological revolution on the modern world is emergence of a wave of globalization. As we already noted, the new scientific and technological revolution which occurred in the XX century considerably deepened knowledge of mankind of the nature that considerably increased opportunities for its transformation. Continuous emergence of new power sources and new materials, high extent of automation of the worldwide information network, continuous updating of vehicles, disembarkation of people

1 Marx, K., Engels, T. Half-N of SOBR. soch. - M, 1958. - T. 12. - Page 3.

by the Moon, etc. - all this increases possibilities of the person, the globe becomes small, even the concept "world village" appeared. In the concentrated expression these changes represent revolutionary progress in the relation of productive forces of mankind. As it was already noted above, the capitalist states founded on market economy created favorable conditions for application of scientific and technical innovations and new achievements in science and technology. They used the historical chance provided by a new scientific and technological revolution, as a result material productive forces began to develop quickly. To find space for advanced productive forces, these states brought a wave of economic globalization to life. At the same time the former socialist states began to turn one behind another to market economy, for the benefit of own development they needed to connect to the large international market, and they actively joined a wave of economic globalization. As a result the requirements and mutual interest existing in the capitalist and former socialist states led to the fact that creation of a uniform world big market economic system became an insuperable historical trend. Now the wave of economic globalization swept the whole world, it defines everything. Along with it relations between various states of the world in political, cultural and other areas also become more and more close.

of the Problem of globalization attracted interest of people of various countries. There is a lot of reasons of its emergence, however eventually everything comes down to new nauchnotekhnichesky revolution of the XX century.

III New scientific and technological revolution and zigzags (breaks) of a human civilization

Globalization about which we speak today at the heart of the has global economic integration, this creation of a uniform market economic system in scales of the whole world. We deal with unprecedented distribution on a global scale of market economy, and a role of the main manager in this world market economic system is played by the capitalist states led by the USA. It is well-known that during the long period of time put an equal-sign between market economy and capitalism. Therefore many people consider that globalization is a victory around the world of a capitalist system, according to the American scientific Japanese origin of Fukuyama, it means the end of story. However actually similar glance is superficial. The wave of modern globalization in huge degree is beyond ideological opposition of capitalism and socialism, it is a turn signal of a human civilization, symbolizing that the industrial civilization existing within more than seven hundred years since the age of Enlightenment approached the historical end. Both capitalism, and socialism - and that and other system pay attention to development of science and technology, to their use for development of industrial production and increase in material wealth. Values which are denied by a globalization wave are values of an industrial civilization.

2 At a research of problems of globalization the scientific community of the Soviet Union used the concept "global problems", in modern Russia it is replaced with other concept taken from western

Up to the present the bourgeoisie by which it is cast closely in the lot with a capitalist system was the main creative force of an industrial civilization. The feature of this system is that here everything is subordinated to requirements of the capital which essence is increase, boundless most increase. Only therefore the industry, having replaced agriculture, becomes the main form of production of goods of mankind, and boundless expansion of production of goods becomes the main feature of a capitalist system and all industrial civilization. Why the capitalist system can have similar properties? It is defined by the main value orientations of people in bourgeois society.

The movement of Education which arose in H1U of century criticized suppression by Christianity in the Middle Ages of human nature, it proclaimed that the person is the center of life, put forward the ideas of humanity. The approval of justice and rationality of material desires of the person and aspirations to receiving material pleasures for their satisfaction was inherent in humanity. The satisfaction of material pleasures demands existence of enough money for what it is necessary to develop production. Therefore individual handicraft work is gradually replaced with handicraft workshops and industrial production with wide use of cars. The difference of the industry from agriculture is that it on the basis of knowledge of the nature, using cars, will consciously transform it. Therefore formation and development of the industry strongly stimulated development of science and technology owing to what the role of scientific mind of rationality considerably amplified that led to emergence in HUS of century of the educational movement represented by the French materialism. Under the influence of rationalistic Education and bourgeois political revolutions history of mankind entered a new era. From this point of view politicians and ideologies it was the capitalism era, from this point of view a way of production - an era of the birth of an industrial civilization. Replacement with an industrial civilization agrarian is called also a modernization era. Briefly speaking, all history of mankind - since the period of the Renaissance and till today - can be considered as an era of an industrial civilization. It appeared after the bourgeoisie birth therefore it is necessary to tell, as in Russia before the October revolution the industrial civilization practically was also a civilization capitalist.

History of a capitalist civilization is history of the people inspired by material desires which seek to use by means of scientific mind development of industrial production for obtaining material riches and material pleasures. Main value orientations

literatures, - "global studies". From a certain point of view it is a step backwards. The first concept placed emphasis on "problems", that is on the problems brought by globalization having the negative impact on existence of mankind which he needs to solve; as for the second concept, it considers globalization as a neutral, technical question. The first concept - specifically Russian, a concept of the socialist Soviet Union, the second is in use in the Western capitalist world, it is imbued with spirit of pragmatism. The facts demonstrate that globalization, having promoted development of production of goods, at the same time brought a set of serious problems to life and therefore has also serious negative effect. We have to pay attention to this effect as it represents serious threat to the existence of mankind.

humanity of capitalists there was a pursuit of material riches and material pleasures. The bourgeoisie and a capitalist system nothing worried, except personal benefit, all their interests were connected only with it. Inspired by material desires, a pursuit of money, handicraftsmen, dealers and the arisen then all class of capitalists continuously developed science and technology, expanded production, were engaged in fierce competition, ransacked everywhere, they had a great influence on development of productive forces, and steadily within several centuries the way of capitalism was followed by a triumphal march. Therefore it is not casual in "The manifesto of the Communist Party" Marx and Engels, speaking about the bourgeoisie, first of all give appreciation made by it in the history of thinking revolution, that is its sermon of individualism and egoism.

As Marx and Engels spoke, the bourgeoisie and capitalism played in the history a revolutionary role, including the fact that they stimulated new nauchnotekhnichesky revolution of the XX century and emergence of a wave of economic globalization. However the new scientific and technological revolution is just consecutive denial of value orientations of a capitalist system and capitalist industrial civilization as under the influence of these orientations the capitalism approached the natural border, having for the first time faced an absolute obstacle.

Desires of the person have no limits. Self-increase of the capital, its unlimited expansion has no framework. However similar expansion inevitably meets obstacles in the way, it by all means is followed by resistance and the crisis phenomena. From the historical point of view the similar expansion brought the third crisis of a capitalist system to life.

The first crisis was connected with the fact that expansion of the capital and its reproduction encountered resistance of working class, at the same time it brought to life the conflicts between capitalists. Evident demonstration of resistance of working class was rapid growth of labor movement in the western countries in H1H of century and fierce fight of the bourgeoisie and proletariat. The conflicts between capitalists were mainly shown in free competition in the market that led to economic crises. Class fight and economic crises demonstrated that the capitalist system becomes fetters for development of production forces and that it already trained the grave-digger. Then for the first time the capitalist system appeared in crisis. The Marxism was a product of this crisis.

Under pressure of class fight of workers the bourgeoisie was forced to change the tactics, mitigation of class contradictions was a consequence of what; thanks to emergence of Keynesianism it found effective methods of counteraction to an economic crisis, and it was gradually resolved within capitalism.

The second crisis of a capitalist system is connected with two world wars caused by the movement of the national capital outside of the frontiers and emergence of an imperialism. Before transformation of science and technology into the first productive force the increase in wealth of capitalists relied mainly on operation and capture: within the country - on exploitation of workers, outside it is on occupation of colonies. Greedy aspiration to material wealth

forced capitalists to move apart a framework of the national states after development of productive forces, to go to the outside world and to pursue various imperialistic policy. The expansion of the capitals connected with it inevitably leads to the conflicts between the imperialistic states for space for the development. Both world wars just were also manifestation of these conflicts. Followed one by one, they showed that expansion of the capital met new obstacles and restrictions and that capitalism entered new crisis. However creation of the UN and emergence of such international organization as the WTO, demonstrate that the bourgeoisie of various states agreed to certain general rules of the game thanks to what this crisis was also solved within capitalism.

The third crisis arose under the influence of a scientific and technological revolution, it is connected with crisis of existence of the mankind. This crisis is well-known, it is shown in the next three moments. The first. The revolutionary development of productive forces caused by a new scientific and technological revolution considerably increased opportunities and scales of human activity for transformation of the nature. As a result we have continuous deterioration in an ecological situation, reduction of natural resources today therefore a serious problem is the further possibility of existence of mankind and production. The second. The economy is quickly globalized, however the mankind still has no corresponding mechanism of conscious response to world problems of economic and political life therefore in the course of globalization continuously there are numerous conflicts between various states and regions. On the one hand, it causes a large number of economic crises of global character, damage is caused to productive forces; on the other hand, there is a continuous updating of weapons of mass destruction which striking force continuously increases. Two of these facts in total lead to the fact that the international conflicts are original threat for existence of mankind. The third. Along with development and use of science and technology, acceleration of development of productive forces and increase in material wealth the general alienation of the person considerably increases. The material prosperity is accompanied tension in the spiritual sphere, by monotony and monotony of life.

The above-noted changes inevitably lead to a thought of whether further existence of mankind is possible, whether it is necessary to look for a new way of development, - it becomes real, very serious problem. The farther, the more people begin to show concern for the fate of mankind, to reflect on an industrial civilization and its values. In comparison with two previous crises this - third - crisis cannot be solved within capitalism. The reason generating this crisis is not connected with any concrete technical things or concrete political actions. It roots in values to which the bourgeoisie since Renaissance adheres: boundless increase in material wealth for satisfaction of continuously increasing material desires. It is a basis of a way of life of a capitalist civilization and also all industrial civilization, including the Soviet Union and other socialist countries. If once these valuable

stny orientations will be rejected, not to mention capitalism, all industrial civilization will finish the existence. But whether the mankind has other choice? No. If we do not want disappearance of mankind, it is necessary to reject former values, to finish an industrial civilization. The facts speak well for it.

The industrial civilization is based on science and technology, their development leads to the fact that it reaches the historical peak, and it causes a wave of globalization and threat for existence of mankind. This abnegation of an industrial civilization. Understanding of globalization has to be combined with understanding of the threats constituting now danger to existence of mankind that, in turn, has to be based on deep understanding of development of science and technology, in particular a new scientific and technological revolution of the 20th century. Emergence of an industrial civilization is connected with Renaissance therefore end of this civilization will mean in the history of mankind the same turn, as well as Renaissance. If we are not able to lift studying problems of globalization on due height, it will be purely external and superficial. The facts demonstrate that it is hard to make it. In the West many people oppose globalization because it promotes capital flow worldwide that leads to reduction of opportunities for people to find a job in the countries; in a number of developing countries, for example in China, some scientists welcome globalization as it represents chance for development of own economy, they seek to find in it useful arguments for the theoretical conclusions.

Of course, there is a large number of the people who are seriously reflecting over this considerable turn of history. The termination of an industrial civilization in terms of Marxism means replacement of capitalism with communism; from the point of view of heads of China, it means implementation of the scientific concept of development and creation of harmonious society; from the point of view of the academician V. Styopin - the termination of a technogenic civilization; from the point of view of the Russian scientist V. Inozemtsev - arrival of post-economic society. Speaking to the point, the Russian philosophy of the Silver age gave the description of trends of development of a human civilization for a long time, among them the deepest, most brilliant work is the great work by N. Berdyaev "The meaning of history". Though it was published over 80 years ago, the fact that in it is mute is told, has to the facts of today direct reference. It is the most precious contribution of the Russian nation to history of a human thought. Each person of a modern era has to read this work.

Translation of the Doctor of Philosophy

V.G. Burova

Angela Gray
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