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National culture: logic of historical and cultural transformation



respublika Buryatia

Victoria NOMOGOYEVA

NATIONAL CULTURE: LOGIC of HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL TRANSFORMATION

In search of the best national-state device of Russia it is necessary to remember culture role as it, testifies to it history, can serve as the role both uniting, and separating in society.

In the last decades there were a sharp rise in national consciousness of the people and revival of interest of ethnic groups in the cultural originality 20th century. This process continues and today. Culture is interdependent economic, political, social, environmental and other problems of development of society and is interconnected with them.

Today efforts of society on strengthening of national cultures encounter resistance of various public forces, for example, as it is paradoxical, the nationalist elements declaring "freedom of the nations". Exaggeration of national values in our commonwealth, first of all, is connected with the general economic and social crisis of the country, strengthening of the group interests which often are covered with national motives. The appeared slogans about priority of the radical nation and its special rights in the territory, discrimination of other nations bear big danger to common cultural space and the cultures of the small people and narodnostey1.

The history of existence of human society shows various models of development of national cultures at different stages of the development. Many modern representatives of policy and science recognize that today's reality in cultural-national area lags behind practice of the 1920-1930th godov2.

Buryatia symbolizes itself the most stable region in respect of international and interethnic interaction today. The reasons of this phenomenon are explained historical and cultural, geopolitical, natural, etc. by factors. The important role was played also by the Soviet transformations.

Creation of new socialist culture in Buryatia was complicated by prolonged civil war and peculiar historical conditions of stage-by-stage state construction of two Buryat autonomous regions of RSFSR and DVR. In the Western Buryatia at the beginning of 1922 the Buryat autonomous region as a part of the Russian Federation was created. East Buryatia owing to a difficult international situation appeared as a part of the Far East republic. Formation of the Buryat autonomous Region of Far East happened in the conditions of the continuing armed struggle in April, 1920. Some difficulties in a control system of national NOMOGOEVA education resulted. During creation of a system of authorities and upravle-

Victoria a niya of the Buryat autonomous region of RSFSR was directly

Vladimirovna experience of national-state construction is used

- to. and. N, the associate professor in the Soviet Russia. Autonomy the Buryat as a part of DVR was vynuzh-

Buryat state university

1 V. Churbanov United Russia and "uniform culture"//http://www.nasledie. of a gi/kukug/4_4_2/агйс1е^р? ag =18.
2 G. Starovoytova. Through thorns. — M.,1990.

the day measure connected with need of the organization of the Far East buffer and though in it there were also Sovietization processes parallel existence of two equivalent administrative units was absolutely inadmissible further neither in terms of the state expediency, nor in terms of economy of means and forces, and, at last, such situation would not answer the basic principles national samoopredeleniya1.

With finding of the relative, and then steadily getting stronger political stability in Buryatia ways and for cultural construction opened. When developing concrete actions of cultural construction the leaders of the republic met many difficulties. First, there was no practical experience; secondly, cultural construction was carried out in the course of the largest socialist transformations; thirdly, the special heat noted ideological fight around cultural heritage of Buryatia in the 20th years. In many respects it was connected with ambiguity of prospects of further development. Some of them stood up for development of original national culture, creation of the all-Mongolian literary language on the basis of a halkha-mogolsky adverb, revival and development of ancient customs and traditions. Others denied need of creation of national art, writing, school that assimilation process the Buryat with Russians went too far and prospects for development of the nation are not available. According to them, Buryats could come to socialist culture through Russian and writing, without needing development of the national culture.

During this fight universal values were rejected therefore already in the late twenties in Buryatia, as well as in all Soviet country, the principle of class culture built in the absolute triumphed. Any dissent began to be considered as manifestation klassovo alien, hostile ideology, any attempts of alternative approach to consideration of political, welfare, esthetic problems

1 N.D. Shulunov. Formation of the Soviet national statehood in Buryatia. — Ulan-Ude, 1972. - Page 393.

were rejected and ruthlessly were suppressed. Were consciously rejected as unacceptable some traditions of centuries-old national culture, ancient customs and ceremonies. Church and attendants of religion were pursued, destroyed, considered as the phenomena bearing in themselves only negative hostile to socialism sushchnost2.

Problems of construction of national culture in Buryatia were discussed at a republican cultural-national meeting in September, 1926. In the theses published then the separate brochure under the name "Issues of Cultural-national Construction of Buryatia", M.N. Erbanov defined such main objectives as indigenization, creation of own writing, elimination of illiteracy, strengthening of work among women, fight against influence lamaizma3. The brochure by M.N. Erbanov, in fact, "was the detailed program on implementation of the cultural revolution in the republic".

Due to the beginning of socialist transformations in Buryatia there are cardinal changes in an education system, the state system of national education including initial, seven-year and average schools, schools of professional training, establishment of preschool education of children, higher educational institutions begins to be formed. Within the welfare company the process of elimination of illiteracy in Buryatia which main result was creation of the general secular culture of the population of Buryatia is carried out. These years, during welfare construction, the network of art and educational institutions (theaters, the museums, clubs, libraries, reading rooms) which had a great influence on rise in culture of the people of Buryatia begins to be created.

This period is estimated as one of dynamic and interesting in the history of our people. Conditions for creation of many types of creativity were created. At the same time during this period were created and proceeded in a distance -

2 History of the Buryat literature of 1917-1955. Part 1. — Ulan-Ude, 1995, building 62.
3 M.N. Erbanov. Issues of cultural-national construction of Buryatia: short essay.

— Verkhneudinsk, 1926.

neyshy those shortcomings and defects which usually accompany process of the forced construction of any "new" phenomenon.

First of all it was connected with negative consequences for development of national culture. At development of reference points of future cultural development of Buryatia in practice of the political management the official ideology which caused irreplaceable damage national kulture1 was introduced.

Some representatives of the national intellectuals in initial years of the Soviet cultural construction fairly believed that development of the Buryat culture has to be closely connected with features of religious culture of the East. So, B. Baradin claimed that shamans are "bright spokesmen and the only keepers of language purity and art and language dynamics" therefore "the shaman poetics the Mongol Buryat has to play an exclusive role in the field of development of art and language, literary style and in the field of theatrics, music and singing" 2. He considered that it is necessary to use widely religious poetry in practice of creation of new art.

P. Danbinov wrote about Lamaism that "on this littered site of Lamaism, in its datsans there are pieces of values which are necessary also for our construction. These values - art. Art of datsans is original, picturesque, it is unusual on the brightness to the European art" 3. Munko Saridak (B. Naydakov) stood up for creation of synthetic theater on a basis lamayskogo4. B. Badrino urged to learn lessons from lamsky experience "devices to conditions of living and life kochevnikov-skotovo-

1 B.V. Bazarov. Social and political life of 1920 — the 1950th years and development of literature and art of Buryatia. — Ulan-Ude: BNC Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science publishing house, 1995, p. 173.
2 B. Baradin. Theatrics questions Mongol Buryat//Life of Buryatia, 1924, No. 6, p. 80.
3 P. Danbinov. About national and art construction of Buryatia//Buryatiyevedeniye, 1929, No. 1 — 2, p. 190 — 191.

Saridak M. Melzhelge (Leaves from a notebook)//Life of Buryatia, 1929, No. 2, p. 72.

Dov" 5. However at that time these performances were regarded as manifestations of bourgeois nationalism and underwent cruel kritike6. In Buryatia, in connection with later establishment of the Soviet power and features of natsionalnogosudarstvenny construction, the decree "About disestablishment and schools from church" in the first half of the 1920th remained unrealized. It was adopted only in 1925. "The Soviet power entered fight against the Buddhism not at once, being engaged in political and social problems, more important for it" 7. Therefore in the 1920th in the region the relative ideological and scientific pluralism, polemic of ideologists of church with the official point of view were still possible.

After the revolution in Buryatia datsansky schools for huvarak continued to work, in the printing yards of the Buryat datsans the Buddhist educational and popular literature was published, attempts of reorganization of datsansky schools in secular schools for laymen and lamas with introduction of teaching anatomy, physiology, diagnosis of diseases by a technique of the European medicine were made. Any national republic in the past had no so many religious schools and pupils as Buryat Mongolia. In the period of the organization of the republic (1923) in its territory there were 73 lamsky schools with four thousand huvarak (pupils) 8.

In October, 1922 the Buddhists of two autonomous Buryat Mongolsky regions held the first congress in Atsagatsky datsan. At a congress there was a split

5 B. Badrino. About ways of development of the Buryat national theater (as a basis for discussion)//Life of Buryatia, 1930, No. 4, p. 86-87.
6 V.A. Bogdanov. About biases in understanding of issues of cultural-national construction//Buryatiyevedeniye, 1928, No. 1-3, p. 3-11; D. Munkin. Results of one debate//Life of Buryatia, 1929, No. 2; Sh. Ibragimov. About manifestations of great Russian chauvinism and local nationalism in Buryat Mongolia//Life of Buryatia, 1929, No. 5, p. 15-21; Berlin Item. Against a lamayshchina in musical construction//the Culture of Buryatia, 1932, No. 2, p. 22-23.
7 History of religions in Russia. - M, 2002, p. 408.
8 A.A. Durinov. Essays of history of schools and pedagogical education in Buryat Mongolia. - Ulan-Ude, 1948, building 20.

between Renovationists and konservatorami1. The first not only recognized the Soviet power, but also urged lamas to change a habitual way of life sharply: to pass to labor self-service with nationalization of all income. Conservatives apprehended these appeals extremely hostilely. Between two currents there were also other disagreements.

Renovationists considered that the education got only on the basis of ancient Indo-Tibetan culture, already insufficiently; it is necessary to study the all-European culture and sciences for what at each datsan it is necessary to found special school. Rough superstitions and charlatanism not only compromise clergy, Renovationists believed, but cause a loss and to the Buddhism. It is necessary to translate a church service into the Buryat language that their sense was clear to the people, and instead of mysterious predictions which are so loved by lamas, to preach Buddha's doctrine, to tell a story to his life.

In general the congress ended with a victory of Renovationists. At it the Central Spiritual Office (CSO) which should replace the power in all datsans was elected, having elected "hidsky" (monastic) councils. The conservative-minded clergy created the separate management.

At the obnovlenchesky movement of Lamaism there was a program of reorganization of an educational system into which objects of the European character had to be entered, but after all creation of such conditions as a result of which "the precious doctrine of religion will become property of national culture" 2 that was in line with the concept of national and cultural revival remained the main thing in it.

Such situation proceeded up to the end of the 1920th. Antireligious fight contacts problems of class fight more and more, and antireligious promotion is brought to the level of public policy. The second plenum of regional committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) of BMASSR of May 22, 1925 developed "Burobkom's theses on a lamsky question" in which the exploiter essence of lamas is proved.

1 Gerasimova of K.M. Obnovlencheskoye the movement of the Buryat lamaistsky clergy (1917 — 1930) — Ulan-Ude, 1968, building 71.
2 In the same place.

Actually they became the main tool in fight against religion and clergy in Buryatii3.

Thus, the alternativeness of judgments concerning religion gradually is replaced by the concept of militant atheism. In general it is necessary to recognize that state policy on religious associations was quite consistent. Its aggressive tone organically fitted into a context of the started fight against clergy.

Within the 1930th this fight gains more and more large-scale character. Charges of political character are added to habitual charges of sabotage, wrecking. It was claimed, for example, that the Buryat lamas were engaged in espionage in advantage of Yaponii4. Such conclusion quite was entered in the scheme of the "counterrevolutionary plot" incriminated by the authorities of church and for many years was fixed in the Soviet history.

Against lamas and shamans especially tough repressions were carried out, meanwhile not all of them caused feeling of rejection and hostility in the fellow countrymen. Fight against a cult, ceremonies, traditions led to depreciation of national culture which almost ceased to play the adapting role in society.

Certainly, the Soviet state socialism was the modern project which implementation in the multinational country was carried out especially persistently. In this project of modernization of social being the Russian people tried to become the partner of the new power which replaced autocracy.

Including religious views by a part of national culture of the Buryat people, it should be noted that fight against them had result destruction of a complete system of philosophical and religious, moral and ethical and medical knowledge. During replacement of the Buddhism and Shamanism their positive elements were lost: cultural and ceremonial

3 M.N. Erbanov. Issues of cultural-national construction of Buryatia: short essay.

— Verkhneudinsk, 1925; It. Lamaism in Buryatia: tez. Burobkoma. — Verkhneudinsk, 1926; A. Oshirov. About the Buryat Lamaism and fight against it//Antireligioznik, 1930, No. 6, p. 62 — 69; B.D. Togmitov. Lamaism and the Buryat national democratism//Antireligioznik, 1930, No. 7, p. 21 — 25.

4 Kochetov of A. Lama agents of the Japanese intelligence//Buryat Mongolsky truth, on March 1938, 3.

and folklore and esthetic party. Together with the become obsolete archaic forms the humanistic and ecological principles of a religious cult created within centuries were buried in oblivion. Opposition of the younger generation to the senior, attraction to mass antireligious actions of youth and youth was a social negative point in the course of eradication of religion that was one of the reasons for further disintegration of complete cultural experience naroda1.

As for development of the Buryat language, during this period the sphere of its application considerably extended. Training at school was completely carried out in the native language. Not only children, but also adults studied: the system of an educational program worked, the network of schools of country youth developed. Intensively publishing in the Buryat language developed, cultural level considerably increased, formation of the Buryat intellectuals and scientists began. However subsequently numerous directive changes of writing and political actions of the 1930th caused a huge loss to preservation and improvement of the Buryat language. For the short period the change of writing, at first from the old Mongolian letter to Latin, and then to Cyrillics was carried out. During these actions the procedure of recognition literary a horinsky dialect, led to a distance of the Buryat language from Mongolian was carried out.

The analysis of a real language situation shows that the question of historical expediency of use of any given option of the Buryat writing, also as well as the literary language, was not solved. Language is the carrier and the translator of national culture. With loss of the native language assimilyativny processes amplify, there is a fading of national culture and eventually — ethnic group.

All these deformations brought a certain break in the spiritual life of people and

1 B.V. Bazarov. Social and political life of 1920 — the 1950th years and development of literature and art of Buryatia. — Ulan-Ude: BNC Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science publishing house, 1995, p. 34.

affected the nature of the subsequent course of ethnocultural process in Buryatia and in activity of the nation.

Nevertheless concerning Buryatia it is possible to say that by the end of the 1930th there were high-quality shifts in the ratio types of cultures. The factors promoting this process were diverse. The Soviet school designed to bring up new socialist type of the personality more or less successfully was engaged in brain washing of pupils. During the specified period the network of "centers" of socialist culture — rural recreation centers, clubs, libraries extended, their material and financial state improved. The mass kinofikation and a radiofikation of rural settlements was carried out. The first generations which are brought up on the Soviet cultural traditions began to enter active age.

Undoubtedly, the main fundamental perspective issues of construction of the Soviet type of culture certainly were resolved. However ways of formation of culture of Buryatia were complicated by the system of administration developing into authoritative forms, there were many contradictory trends, unreasoned experiments.

However, according to modern issledovateley2, the large-scale ateization of which the actual disappearance of attendants of a Buddhist and shaman ceremony was result in many respects bore in itself and positive contents. Activity of party, Soviet and public bodies entailed eradication of religious limitation, broadened cultural horizons of the population. Work on elimination of illiteracy, expansion of network of school, cultural and educational and medical institutions increased cultural level, gave the chance of familiarizing to universal, first of all to the western, and Soviet culture. But, on the other hand, this process went to damage of safety of national culture.

2 B.V. Bazarov. Social and political life of the 1925-950th and development of literature and art of Buryatia. — Ulan-Ude, 1995, building 34.
Walsh Reynold
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