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Domestic historiography: Kayala River location problems

 © 2007 urban districts of A. Litvinenko


Search of a location of the Kayala River mentioned in "Tale of Igor's Campaign" generated among researchers in two last centuries a number of hypotheses. The assumptions are based on several principles according to which there are options about the exact name and location of the main river of the poem. In our article the attempt to systematize these principles and to present views of those researchers which brightly characterize them is given.

The first group of researchers goes on the shortest and, in their opinion, the most obvious way. They try to find Kayala among those rivers whose names are in consonance to her. So, N.M. Karamzin identified Kayala on accord with Ka-galnikom near the mouth of Don: "Kayala - the present Kagalnik falling into Don. Russians receded to the Collum, nearby from there connecting to Don" [tsit. on: 1, page 85]. But still V.N. Tatishchev and N.P. Barsov challenged this version. They claimed that in many ancient sources Seversky the Donets was called Don, and therefore Kayala's correlation to Don was wrong. From here the conclusion was drawn that Karamzin's route is very far from boundaries of the Russian land. Such researchers as Butkov, Artsybashev, Kudryashov wrote about it.

Aristov believed that "Kayala the river by all means is Kalmius to whom Igor when pursued enemies from Syuurliya, or from the Corner formed two Orelyami" that "in two and a half days of army could pass freely distance from one river to another versts in 70" was rejected [1, page 51].

The second group of researchers considers that it is not necessary to be engaged in search of the rivers with the names close on accord. V.G. Fedorov gives a number of the rivers similar on pronunciation: Kalmius, Kagalnik, Dry and Wet Yala near Kalmius's upper courses because "such relatives on accord of the rivers in the southern strip of Russia can be met as much as necessary, in particular on more ancient cards". Fedorov specified that long search of the rivers on the area from Don and Seversky the Donets to Dnieper gave the chance to make the atlas with their large number, "and concerning each of these rivers, of course, it would be possible to state time -

the personal assumptions with appropriate conclusions of the place of fights of teams of Igor" [2, page 58-59]. And further he provided such names: the Kalchik River flowing into the enormous lake which nowadays disappeared, located on the Oril River near the village of Prishchepino; the river Wide Kilchinka - inflow of Oril; the Kilchen River is inflow of Samara; swamps KaYk - Kashyu between the Seversky Donets and the Face, to the southeast from Raisin.

Therefore researchers of the second group consider that by Kayala's search it is necessary to hold the opinion expressed in 1878 to P.E. Vadenyu-kom that "Kayala the name not geographical, it comes from a word & #34; каяти" - to repent, damned". Professor N.K. Gudzy considering that Kayal is meant by the "damned river" also agreed with it [tsit. on: 2, page 52-54]. Among researchers of the 20th century this version was defended by V.G. Fedorov.

He believed that Kayala should be looked for near Syuurliya. He considered that Igor's army after collision with Cumans should be transported back through Syuurly - to Orelk, but Russians were surrounded suppressing number of nomads who blocked them a way to the Collum. In the beginning Igor slowly, but nevertheless moved ahead to the Collum, but gradually more and more surrounded and tesnimy Cumans to the big lake or to the sea which was, according to the researcher, on the place of modern lakes and swamps about Aurélie and Orelki's connection, was forced to stop. Here Cumans began a gradual environment of the Russian teams and their pushing off from the decree rivers. Fedorov cited words of the Lavrentyevsky chronicle as the proof that Russians were exhausted from a drought and thirst. Attempts of teams to break through on the northeast to the Collum were not crowned with success. Then Cumans surrounded Igor's army from the North, the West and the East and rejected it to the South towards swamps and lakes - to so-called "sea", or as Fedorov considers, to the big lake where the prince Igor was wounded. The Russian regiments kept not for long and soon ran. On their way "sea" (lake) where Cumans intended to dump them lay.

Fedorov gives the Suugli card, confluences of Oril to Orelkaya who, according to him, "perfectly explains all circumstances of death

Igor's teams". In this place of the river very strongly spread in particular in the spring, and in close proximity to their merge there are swamps Dry and Black. It is quite possible that before there were lakes. In the same place on lower places till our time numerous lakes remained: Rezekovatoye, Suddeno, Sasokova, gulf Cutter; a little further to the southwest - lakes Round, Black, Popovo, the Gulf Domakha, the Lake Lototovatoye and Kapostyano. And on the basis of all this Fedorov concluded that "at the time of Igor all these lakes merged to one enormous lake which, apparently, and was called the sea unlike small lakes" [2, page 72].

The researcher then noted that "obliquely from the corner formed by confluence of Oril to Orelka the Krivel River accepting a part of Orelki waters flows". This river also is, according to Fedorov, Kayala [2, page 73]. He gave the following calculations as the proof. The distance passed by Igor's army on Saturday and Sunday, for those two days (on May 11-12) when it made the way on the North and the northeast to the Collum and when came back from the South and the southwest under the pressure of superior forces of Cumans, could not be more than 30 versts: the Russian speshenny regiments had to conduct continuous battles with the enemies surrounding them.

Under such circumstances, Fedorov considers, teams managed to move ahead from the place of a lodging for the night on very small distance, the most bigger of versts on ten, then Russians were stopped by superior forces of Cumans and after flight of a part of army (kovuyev) there could be ottisnuta to the sea.

Krivel - Kayala is applied on the trekhverstny card of last century as channel between Oril and Orelka. The remained and dried up lakes (modern swamps) are located from merge of these rivers at distance about 3 versts. From this Fedorov made the assumption that near Kriveli 2 - 2.5 versts and the former sea - modern swamps - and defeat of regiments of Igor could happen an extent [2, page 73-75].

The third group of researchers offers the principle, other than the first two. They try to define the exact name of the Po River to those epithets which were given it in the poem. So, Kudryashov reminds that "Word" calls Kayala "fast" ("that sya the brother of the razluchist on Braisaz of fast Kayala"). It contradicts that Kayala is the river of repentance or grief and therefore the epithet "fast" is not applicable to the river of repentance and contradicts symbolical interpretation. Whereas, on the contrary, in application to a watercourse stony (Kayala - Kamenka) it is appropriate and clear, the researcher believes. Same prin-

the chick also Longinov who considered that at investigation of the place of death of Igorevy regiments the epithet given by the singer Polovtsian Kayala "fast" can help adhered. Owing to all this the historian believed that the river which absorbed Igorevo a militia has to be "abounding in water", and identified with annalistic Kayala the river Wet Yala, and concerning the lake sea mentioned by the chronicle stated a guess that that lake which is "beside the village of the Athlete" could be it quite [2, page 53].

According to Afanasyev, Igor's troops after collision with Cumans on Syuurliya continued approach in "east direction, pushed aside Cumans and forced them to be transported through Donets. After Cumans passed to other coast and the Russian shelves. Further events - Igor's capture, defeat of the Seversk teams - according to Aristov, happened on the left coast of the Collum, "close quickly current in rocky river banks of Kayala (that in translation from Tatar and means the river fast; this Russian name of the river Fast keeps till our time the last big left inflow of the Collum)" [2, page 57].

N.V. Sibilev suggested to look for Kayala on space between the cities Raisin and Sloviansk, between the Seversky Donets Rivers and Tor. He identified Kayala with the small small river Makatikhoy which, according to it, quickly flows in abrupt high coast. K.V. Kudryashov agreed with this opinion. He reasoned this hypothesis with proximity of Torsky salt lakes which he identified with mentioned in "the Word..." by "sea". "From the description of the Ipatyevsky chronicle we know, - Kudrya-shov developed further the thought, - that Igor seized with Cumans saw how his brother Vsevolod already without weapon continued to beat off Cumans "idushche round езере". Meanwhile, according to the Lavrentyevsky chronicle, Russians were kept out by Cumans of water why were exhausted from thirst and heat. At first sight between two instructions - an obvious contradiction. Becomes unclear: how could happen that the Russian soldiers suffered from thirst if battle happened at coast of the lake? However any misunderstanding disappears if to agree that fight was played near one of Tor-sky salt lakes. Water was really close, but it was impossible to satisfy thirst" [1, page 72].

Kudryashov provided archaeological data on what at the device of a branch line through Sloviansk in 1894 between two salt lakes (Veysov and Repny) was dug out at a small depth from the Earth's surface many human frames lying in a disorder

among the remains of iron weapon. If to assume, Kudryashov noticed that these archeological finds are traces of the last fight of Igor with Cumans, then it is quite possible to identify "sea" "Words..." with one of Torsky salt lakes.

Kudryashov noted that in close proximity to Torsky salt lakes the river the Naked Valley flows. But she cannot reckon with the quiet and peaceful current as "fast Kayala". However falls into it fast and deep, with tiny falls, flowing among the high steep coast reminding a canyon, the Makatikha River [1, page 73].

But already ten years later Kudryashov changed the opinion. In work "About Igor Seversky, about the Russian land" he disproved a hypothesis "Kaya-la - Makatikh", using data of a hydrological research. It was found out that "the Makatikha River is a small stream. Mack's valley - are silent represents the boggy washed chernozem and though the drain of water has "abrupt falling", but "it is not perfect. It leads, on the one hand, to bogging, with another - to formation of steps with small falls" [3, page 45]. The given characteristic of Makatikhi means, the researcher drew a conclusion that it is not the "stony" river and, so she cannot be considered Kayala.

Fedorov, having revised all the earlier delivered assumptions, joins researchers of the third group. He also supports the version about Kayale as to "the stony river" and believes that the way of Igor departing from the Syuurly River to Seversky to the Donets inevitably had to cross the Kamenka River flowing in four versts from the Izyumsky barrow and flowing in Seversky the Donets between Izyumts and Oskol. The surrounded Russian troops, beating off enemies, continuously moved ahead to the Collum throughout the day on May 11 and mornings on May 12, yet did not get beaten on Kayala. Kudryashov considered that in these conditions the advance of the Seversk troops happened though more slowly, than during their approach to the South, but in the specified time they could reach from the place of a lodging for the night in the steppe the Kamenka River. This Kamenka River, or as the researcher specified, Wet Kamenka, he also named "the real Kayala in view of full compliance of the name of Kamenka with the name "Kayaly" in value "каменистая"". The name of Kamenka will quite be agreed with the fact that in both parties from it the wide strip with exits of breeds of the Jurassic and cretaceous systems lasts on the right bank of the Collum (limestones, chalk, sandstones). Were available near this river and the lake". The historian added to it that with "that direction, on koto-

to rum Igor had to recede, the road from Sloviansk on Raisin shown on the maps of the end of XVIII and the beginnings of the 19th century close coincides" [3, page 45].

"However if even to assume that Kayala in "A word about regiment Igoreve" can have symbolical value, - Kudryashov continues to reason, - that should be remembered that in the chronicle Kayala it is called as a geographical concept on the equal basis among other rivers - Donets, Oskol, Salnitsa, Syuurly, Kayala, Torahs, Don" [3, page 46]. The refusal of search of the geographical Kayala River resembles recognition of powerlessness to find it on the card for what there are no bases, the historian considers. He believes that to Kayal's identification - Kamenka does not contradict the annalistic message at all that some kovu (auxiliary cavalry of Igor), having got beaten on Kayala, "in the sea of an istoposh [3, page 46].

Many researchers defined "sea" "Words." as Azov. For this purpose, according to Kudryashov, there are no bases as the place of fight was spaced from the Sea of Azov at distance over 200 versts that makes impossible to carry the place of death kovuyev to the Sea of Azov. Under "sea" the historian believed more faithful to understand the lake what to it told scientific 19th century Artsy-bashev, A. Potebnya, M. Andrievsky and P. Zhitetsky about. Kudryashov provided data that in the annalistic description of the Battle on the ice Lake Chudskoye is called "sea", and presently shallow lakes on a shore of the Caspian Sea are called the population "морцо". Such names as the sea Moscow, Tsimlyansk, Rybinsk and others, say that "sea" in lake value occurs in our language and to present day, the researcher noted. All this led Kudryashov to a thought that expression "in the sea of an is-toposh" does not belong to the Sea of Azov, and Kaya-la was not near it, and between the present cities Raisin and Sloviansk [3, page 47].

Thus, in a domestic historiography there is a set of solutions of the problem of a location of the Kayala River. We tried to divide the existing hypotheses into three groups that, perhaps, will allow to facilitate studying this question. But, unfortunately, it is impossible to call any of them only right. Today this problem remains not resolved for historical geography which development will sometime allow to give a certain and exact answer to one of riddles of "Tale of Igor's Campaign".


1. K.V. Kudryashov. Polovtsian steppe. M, 1948.
2. V.G. Fedorov. Who was an author "Words about a regiment 3. K.V. Kudryashov. About Igor Seversky, about the earth

Igorev" and where the Kayala River is located? M, 1956. Russian. M, 1959.

Rostov state university On December 11, 2006

Baert Ruben
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