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Business role in formation of commercial education in Kazan in the second half the XIX beginning of the 20th century

l. G. Nasyrova


Work is presented by department of national and general history of the Yelabuga state pedagogical university.

The research supervisor - the doctor of historical sciences, professor A.M. Kalimullin

In article the preparation problem in Kazan of professionally educated experts in trade and the productions capable to meet the requirements of the progressing capitalist economy in the second half of XIX - the beginning of the 20th century is considered. The most active role in the organization of commercial education in Kazan was played by representatives of the business world - the businessmen and industrialists making more and more increasing impact on all aspects of life of the provincial center.

The article deals with the problem of training of professionally educated specialists in the sphere of Kazan trade and production, who were able to answer the requirements of capitalist economy in the second part of the 19th century and at the beginning of the 20th century. Representatives of the business world, merchants and manufacturers influencing all sides of the life in the provincial Center played the most active role in organization of commercial education in Kazan.

Development of Kazan as large commerce and industry center of the Russian Empire was followed by processes of formation of modern cultural and educational infrastructure, the versatile civil institutes realizing requirements of young bourgeois society. The most active role in their formation was played by the representatives of the business world making more and more serious and increasing impact on all aspects of life of the provincial center.

Training of competent and professionally educated experts in trade and the productions capable to maintain an intense competitive competition was the most burning issue for the businessmen and industrialists of Kazan seeking to master not only the extensive markets of the state, but also economic spaces of foreign countries and to meet the requirements of the progressing capitalist economy. Therefore not

it is accidental that in the second half of the 19th century city business put forward the idea of creation of special commercial institute. The Kazan merchants appealed in 1857 to the capital about establishment in the city of this educational institution in which sons of dealers and industrialists could get an education. In return merchant society a sentence of December 17, 1857 appointed for construction and equipment of future institute one-time assignment from the gostinodvorsky capital of 38,000 rub Besides, various individuals offered on these purposes of 24,000 more rub. The Kazan public bank deducted 72,872 rub 67 kopeks of the profits. The fixed capital of institute which was 135,000 rub in 1864 was placed in public bank [1, l. 27-32]. However allocation of so considerable means did not mean a fast solution. The central authorities acting through Mini-

sterstvo of finance and educational committee of Head department of schools in 1863 considered that even such finance is not enough for establishment and the maintenance of commercial institute.

Therefore it was offered to applicants to invest the available capital in less expensive educational structures which are engaged in teaching commercial sciences. However the enterprise community of the city did not refuse the purpose and at the request of City Duma on June 1, 1864 formed the commission for development of new offers, financial estimates and the draft of the charter of future institute as a part of merchants I.Ya. Tikhonov, D.I. Varaksin, F.I. Obraztsov, A.I. Shikhov, S.A. Vasilyev, V.N. Unzhenin. It is indicative that the Kazan dealers assumed to work on these documents together with the famous scientists, professors of the Kazan university A.M. Butlerov, A.K. Chugunov, etc. [1, l. 3-4].

Nevertheless quickly businessmen did not manage to solve this problem. It was necessary to accept the government proposal and to agree to establishment in the city of real school with 4 lowest general education classes, 2 classes with the general and commercial training and an additional class with teaching the objects necessary further for receiving the higher commercial education. The decision of City Duma about it followed on April 2, 1873 [2, l. 167ob.]. At the request of the minister of national education of June 12, 1875 the managing director of the Kazan educational district made the order about opening of real school [2, l. 41ob.]. The funds raised at the time for needs of the designed institute went for its maintenance. In 1877, construction of the educational building with a total cost of 85,000 rub began

Despite vigorous educational activity of real school, level of commercial preparation in it remained

low in this connection the number of persons interested to get here specialized education remained low. This circumstance caused Kazan's consideration - sky exchange committee at a general meeting on February 15, 1894 of a question of transformation of real school to commerce and industry institute with all-commercial, agricultural, commerce and industry and chemical offices [5, page 51-52].

However, and this decision was not fated to find the concrete embodiment. The government founded in 1897 in Kazan technical school, and dreams of local businessmen of special educational institution for preparation of trade shots remained unrealized again. The municipal government just was not able to support initiative of merchants financially. And still the Kazan Duma most of which of vowels was made by representatives of a business community in 1899 created the commission for creation a lump again - merchesky school in the city. The merchant, the wholesale merchant bread Vasily Aleksandrovich Karjakin became one of her active members to the 1st guild. This uncommon person, besides bright enterprise talent, had enviable energy of the public figure, being the vice-chairman of the Kazan exchange committee, to vowels of the Kazan City Duma, the member of the committee of the Kazan society of care about poor and sick children, the chairman Kazan merchant about - mutual aid shchestvo. Having become the actual head of commission, V.A. Karjakin undertook financial and organizational support of difficult process of creation of commercial school. The City Council authorized the businessman to petition before the Ministry of Finance for the adoption of the charter and opening of educational institution. V.A. Karjakin twice, in 1903 and 1904, personally left to the capital and as a result achieved the positive decision.

Thanks to its efforts the long-term activities of the Kazan merchants for establishment of commercial school were crowned with success. The charter of school was approved on February 17, 1904 [4, page 21]. At the same time the businessman was engaged in search of the funds necessary for construction of own building and the maintenance of commercial school. He actively used a personal contact in the environment of the Kazan merchants and businessmen of Rybinsk and as a result achieved allocation of 125,000 rub from the Rybinsk exchange committee on construction of the academic building. With its direct assistance the largest Kazan businessmen N.V. Unzhenin, Ya.F. Shamov and brothers of Oko-nishnikovy offered on these purposes of 75,000 more rub. V.A. Karjakin's activity was supported also by City Duma which decided to transfer to the maintenance of school several thousands of rubles with establishment of special fund in the Kazan public bank on development of commercial education, where from revenues of bank to deduct 2 thousand rubles

Creation of its Popechitelny council which part were as the chairman - the nobleman, public the Duma, the Honourable magistrate of the Kazan urban district Rudolf Fedorovich Nikolay, as members - merchants V.A. Karjakin, D.V. Varaksin, Ya.F. Shamov, the lawyer of S-@ Sh. Alkin, etc. became an important event in life of new educational institution. Yakov Filippovich Shamov (1833-1908) not only became the serious philanthropist for school, having given 25,000 rub to its needs, but also successfully fulfilled duties of the vice-chairman and treasurer of Popechitelny council. He was born in Orlove (nowadays Mr. Halturin) the Vyatka province in family of the merchant. In 1863 at the request of the uncle P.A. Laptev moved to Kazan and arrived on service to the wholesale merchant bread and hardware goods X. To F. Fomin. On the new place the young businessman showed

from the best side also deserved himself thereby respect and trust of the owner. Soon Ya.F. Shamov married his daughter - to Agrippina Hrisanfovna, and after the death of X. F. Fomina became the owner of huge and very successful business enterprise. In 1877 Ya.F. Shamov was ranked in the Kazan merchants on the 1st guild. At the beginning of the 20th century he rented a city mill gritty flour and had own flotilla including 1 steamship and 9 barges with a total cost of 100 thousand rubles [3, l.116]. Being the talented organizer, the merchant made a lot of things for establishing competent financial accounting in school, construction of its building. His house turned into a peculiar headquarters where plans of Council were discussed, specific actions on arrangement of future education center were outlined. Not casually in educational institution one of classes bore a name of the philanthropist, also Yakov Filippovich's portrait was placed here.

Other rich businessman Nikolay Vasilyevich Unzhenin (1846-1913) who got at the time an education in the Moscow practical academy of commercial sciences and well understanding value of special vocational education of dealers and industrialists also promoted opening of long-awaited commercial school. At the request of V.A. Karjakin he allocated 25,000 rub for opening of one of classes that significantly strengthened the financial basis necessary for construction of the educational building.

Official opening of educational process in commercial school took place in January, 1905 when admission examinations in the senior preparatory and first class were made. In total 21 persons arrived for study [4, page 22]. A small amount of pupils was explained by the middle of academic year and lack of the big and adapted for classes room. Despite existence of sufficient means for full construction, vozvede-

ny the uchilishchny building dragged on for several years, in connection with counteraction of the Rodionovsky in-statute of noble maidens and various bureaucratic obstacles which was a row. Thanks to tireless activity of V.A. Karjakin who was carrying out in 1906-1907 correspondence with the highest authorities, visited the minister of trade and the industry in St. Petersburg, permission was got in March, 1907 the Popechitelny council practically at once created the construction commission into which businessmen D.V. Varaksin, K.I. Okonishnikov, S.I. Chetvergov, the director of school A.I. Nemirovsky, civil engineers P.P. Golyshev and V.A. Trifonov entered. Construction was conducted by prompt rates, and already on August 31, 1908 in the new building served a solemn prayer.

Pupils received perfectly equipped classes, chemical, commodity, physical and photographic laboratories, fine library and also modern living conditions. Besides general education lessons the program included special objects: accounting, bookkeeping, merchandizing and technologies and many other things.

It should be noted especially that after the end of construction city business still tried to care for the child. In the first years of existence of school scholarships of commerce of advisers of P.V. Shchetinkin, M.L. Sveshniko-were founded

va, the merchant L.N. Urvatsov, etc. Besides, trustees tried to exempt the needing pupils from a tuition fee, and in 1910 founded Society of assistance by the pupil which financed study of boys from poor families subsequently [4, page 80-81].

It is remarkable that creation and support of commercial school became common cause of all city businessmen irrespective of religion and national identity. Active participation of Old Believers merchants Ya.F. Shamov, S.I. Chetvergov, K.I. Okonishnikov, S.-G. Al-kin's Muslims, B.K. Apanayeva, etc. pays attention. Among pets of school there were an outstanding mathematician, the academician M.A. Lavrentyev, the astronomer I.V. Belkovich, the famous Tatar writer Mr. Rahim, the Chuvash actor F. Pay-muk. Here many young successors of the rich Kazan families which were going to continue business of the fathers at the new modern level got an education.

Thus, development of commercial education took place a difficult way of development in Kazan. Its emergence was obliged to persistent and vigorous activity of local business and the municipal government and represents a striking example of a public initiative of the bourgeoisie which was purposefully advocating the corporate interests. This long-term work promoted emergence in the city of real and industrial schools, to development of a system of national education in general.


1. HA PT. T. 98. Op. 1. 873. L. 47.
2. HA PT. T. 98. Op. 8. 10a. L. 174.
3. HA PT. T. 123. Op. 1. 107. L. 123.
4. Decade of the Kazan commercial school of 1905-1915. Kazan, 1916. 96 pages
5. L.M. Sverdlova. At the intersection of trade ways. Kazan: Tatar book publishing house, 1991. 157 pages
David Manning
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