The Science Work
History
Site is for sale: mail@thesciencework.com
Category: History

Question of purchase and sale of the earth at the beginning of the XX century



danny P.Ya. Bukshpana, in 1838 from 1058 enterprises of manufacturing industry of the Moscow province 432 (40.8%) were busy with production of silk, and in 1843 the cotton manufactories involved 42,504 workers, at 382 enterprises (55.3%) made products on 12,415,793 rubles (43.8% on the Moscow province) [9]. Blossoming of silk and especially cotton industry of Russia was prepared in the second half of the 18th century, in particular and efforts of trade on the Astrakhan direction.

Thus, the value of import of east goods in the 18th century was defined first of all by the interests of the textile industry of Russia. In our opinion, since the second to a half of the 18th century import of cotton played bigger value, than silks as fabrics from it were more available - to a general population of Russia at the price and the need for them was higher.

Literature

1. RGADA, t. 1361, op.1, 4.
2. GAAO. f. 681, op.1, 3073,3074,3075.
3. V.V. Dantevsky. Russian gold: The history of opening and production to the middle of the 19th century. M, 1959. Page 15

>- 59; A. Keppen. Precious metals, their consumption and performance//Mountain magazine. 1880. T. 1. Prince 2. Page 261-263.

4. RGADA, t. 276, op. 1, 2833, l. 2-12; t. 397, op. 1, 660, l. 2-2 about.; 661, l. 2 - 3.
5. Yukht A.I. Trade with east countries and domestic market of Russia (20 - the 60th years of the 18th century). M, 1994. Page 46-47.
6. RGADA, t. 19, 236, l. 65.
7. AVPR, t. The intercourse of Russia with Persia, 1768, op. 77/7, 143, l. 47.
8. O.P. Markova. The Russian-Iranian trade in the last decade of the 18th century//Scientific notes of institute of oriental studies. T. 1. Baku, 1969. Page 114.
9. P.Ya. Bukshpan. The history of silkworm breeding and silk industry of Russia in the first half of the 19th century: Yew.... edging. east. sciences. M, 1962. Page 244.
10. RGADA, t. 397, op. 1, 636, l. 54.
11. Gay gifts of MX. Cities and urban craft of Azerbaijan the XIII-XVIII centuries Baku, 1967. Page 65-70.
12. RGADA, t. 19, op. 1, 297, Part 13, l. 115-155 about. (1777); Part 14, l. 338-383 about. (1778); Part 16, l. 237-250 (1780 g); Part 17, l. 144-156 (1781 g); 257: Part 16, l. 40-72 (1779); t. 1261, op. 6, 940, l. 88-136 about. (1787); 942, l. 78-111 (1788); 945, l. 240-260 (1789 g).
13. RGADA, t. 276, op. 1, 1449, l. 2 - 3 about.
14. RGADA, t. 397, op. 1, 660, l. 2 about.
15. RGADA, t. 397, op.1, 661, l. 2-3.
16. RGADA, f.1261, op. 5, 601, l. 22 - 23.
17. RGADA, t. 19, op. 1, 297: Part 13, l. 115-155 about. (1777); Part 14, l. 338-383 about. (1778); Part 16, l. 237-250 (1780 g); Part 17, l. 144-156 (1781 g); 257, Part 16, l. 40-72 (1779); t. 1261, op. 6, 940, l. 88-136 about. (1787); 942, l. 78-111 (1788); 945, l. 240-260 (1789 g); 948, l. 115-139 (1790 g); 949, l. 63-84 (1791).
18. RGADA, t. 276, op.Z, 1590, l. 1^ about.
19. A. Semyonov. Studying historical data on the Russian foreign trade and the industry from a half of the XVIII century on 1858 SPb., 1859.

Ch. 1. Page 200-201.

20. P.A. Khromov. Feudalism economy essays in Russia. M.,1957. Page 177-178.

Astrakhan state technical university

On September 12, 2002

2003 of T.A. Yeremeyev

The QUESTION OF PURCHASE AND SALE of the EARTH at the beginning of the XX CENTURY

The question of land ownership, its purchase and sale belongs in Russia to questions historical. In the world there were no so many disputes, discussions on this subject, as in our country anywhere. In the temporary scale of a discussion there are about two centuries. They gained special sharpness at the end of XIX - the beginning of the 20th century due to the need of modernization of the agrarian sphere and the solution of the land question very relevant for those times.

The author tries to cover highlights of discussions on land ownership and its purchase and sale in the first decades of the 20th century in this article and to show government steps according to the solution of the land question in Russia.

at the end of XIX — the beginning of the 20th century Russia remained mainly agrarian country. On a census of 1897 in

rural areas more than 85% of all population of the country lived. From them 77% were actually the peasants who were engaged in agriculture, cattle breeding, crafts. 60% of villagers were concentrated in the European part of Russia, in particular, in great Russian provinces - in Moscow, Kaluga, Tver, Ryazan, Nizhny Novgorod, Penza and in the south of the country. In some areas of the black earth belt of Russia the agrarian overpopulation was observed.

In 1905 the land fund of the Russian Empire contained 1 billion 965 million desyatin1 (2 billion 141 million hectares) lands. But from this number of the agricultural land (under an arable land, pastures, hozyaystvenno

& Tithe-ancient Russian land measure. 1 tithe = 1.09 hectares.

only 23.8%, including under an arable land - 6.9% (135 million dessiatins, or 147.1 million hectares) [1, page 11] were the used woods, etc.).

The huge land fund belonged to the state treasury (40%), imperial family, landowners, peasants, communities, religious faiths, Cossacks, individuals, the cities. In particular, the imperial family (61 persons) owned 74 million tithes (80 million hectares) of the earth. The Russian Orthodox Church together with monasteries had 2 million 611 thousand tithes (2 million 845 thousand hectares). For Muslims of the Russian Empire was registered in modern calculation of 200 thousand hectares, and for Buddhists - 50 thousand hectares of the earth [2]. The state in general allocated to the Cossacks for centuries-old service 65 million tithes (70.8 million hectares) of the earth from which 67% were communal possession of villages (the rest - an army stock and the hereditary property of the Cossack landowners) [3]. In 50 provinces of the European Russia belonged to landowners 53.2 the million tenth (57.9 million hectares), and to peasants (to community members and under-vornikam) - 138.3 million tithes (150.7 million hectares). Though by the number of the earth the peasants were ahead of all private owners in the empire, but counting on men's soul their plots were less privately owned by 340 times. Besides to the post-reform period, after the 60th of the 19th century, steadily there was a reduction of a country plot. So, in 1900 the country plot on average decreased by one revizsky soul up to 2.6 tithes against 4.8 - in 1861. And 16.5 million peasants (about 20%) had a plot in 1 tithe. The fifth part of peasants in general was landless [4]. By the beginning of the 20th century in the village twice there were more poor people in comparison with the period till 1861 (60 against 30%). Thus, a malozemelya and poverty were the main scourge of the village of radical Russia.

Other special sign of the Russian village - preservation of communal way in economy and communal, collectivist outlooks in minds of peasants. By the time of the beginning of Stolypin agrarian reform of 83% of the next-to-skin earth (115 million tithes) there were in communal possession also only 16.2% - in household possession of country families. Communal traditions of possession of the earth defined also the special relation of peasants to the earth. They considered that the earth is given to people from God, it in general "neutral", but those who process it have to own it first of all. It is desirable that the zemlitsa was enough for all eaters in family and as families were big, by calculations of peasants, on the country yard it is necessary to have not less than 18 - 20 tithes of the earth. The Cossack plot in 30 tithes and a 40 tithe ground on average on one orthodox monk and the nun in tsarist Russia was a subject of envy of the Russian peasants. Therefore when in 1917 the Social Revolutionaries promised peasants to allocate 30 tithes of the earth for each country economy, in party began to register the whole villages, and in army

>- military units.

The prevailing communal psychology in the country environment affected the relation of farmers to a question of frequent land ownership, its purchase and sale, pledge. Most of the Russian peasants rejected the idea of trade in the earth which they read the nursing mother. In such spirit also met rus-

Skye village revolution of 1905 - 1907 and Stolypin land transformations.

During the first Russian revolution the agrarian (land) question very relevant for the country with hundred million villagers was the central question. It was repeatedly discussed by peasants, political parties, deputies of I - Highway of the State Dumas and also the government.

Requirements of peasants for the land question were stated in the resolutions of a congress and delegate meetings of the All-Russian country union which took place in the summer - fall of 1905. In decisions of country forums the following demands were made: destruction of private land property, transformation of the earth into public property, alienation (without repayment) the landowners', monastery, church, specific, kabinetsky estates; leveling land use [1, page 99 - 109].

Expectations of peasants at that time expressed three Russian parties - Social Revolutionaries, social democrats, cadets.

Revolutionary socialists (Social Revolutionaries) considered themselves party of the working people as which they understood first of all the numerous peasantry. On the earth the eserovsky requirements were as follows:

>- socialization of the earth, i.e. its withdrawal from a private property, from the sphere of purchase and sale and the address to public property. At the same time it was provided that rural communities and also local authorities (volost and district councils) will dispose of public property;

>- leveling land use. Nobody could demand the earth more, than was able to process it or work of members of the family.

Social Revolutionaries adhered to this strategy until the end of existence of the party.

Among social democrats a consensus on the land question was not.

Lenin and Bolsheviks came up with the idea of nationalization of the earth, i.e. withdrawal from a private property and its transfer to the property of the state for the subsequent distribution of the land plots between peasants. Nationalization of the earth and its transfer to unlimited use to peasants had to lead, according to Bolsheviks, to the fact that the earth stopped being a subject of purchase and sale and the rent relations.

Mensheviks defended the program of municipalization of the earth. Its essence was that a private property, and together with it and purchase and sale, remained on next-to-skin lands of peasants, and landowner were transferred to possession of municipalities - bodies of local governments or zemstvoes. It meant for peasants that they received the next-to-skin lands in full property free of charge, and would pay for rent of the former landowners' estates to zemstvo.

One more group of social democrats led by S.A. Suvorov offered the partition of landowners' estates and their transfer to property to peasants. Thus, preservation of the state and privately owned lands was supposed.

At the IV (unifying) congress of social democrats (1906) almost all above-stated opinions were vklyuche-

ny in final documents on an agrarian question that sparked playful criticism of delegates of a congress [5]. In the future, when the uniform Russian social democracy broke up to two parties, each of them adopted the part of the agrarian program.

The position of the tsar and the government on the land question during all revolutionary period repeatedly changed. So, in the middle of the revolution in the fall of 1905 the tsarist government was ready to give to peasants 25 million tithes of the earth including landowner. Glavnoupravlyayushchy land management and agriculture

N.N. Kutler already began to make the corresponding project, but then this document was postponed and was not carried out [4].

And in May, 1906, acting in the I State Duma, the prime minister Goremykin in the official reply of the government to inquiries of deputies noted that peasants will not receive the earth at all [1, page 118]. Soon, however, this conservative minister was replaced by the person with reformatory outlook: Pyotr Arkadyevich Stolypin was appointed the Prime Minister. At him the government began to carry out the solution of the land question in practice.

The main idea of Stolypin agrarian reform were the idea about the right of a free exit of peasants from community and fixing of a plot to his owner with the right of sale of land. Thus, communal land country ownership collapsed and the private property in the country environment was approved.

In the decree of November 9, 1906 the fact that the property has to be not family, not group, but individual was new.

Earlier the family in which there were about 8 - 10 people was the owner of a plot of the communal and household (farmstead) earth. Now one person, the householder became the owner of the next-to-skin and farmstead earth. Other family members lost this right. Thus, Stolypin agrarian reform replaced family possession of the earth with individual. For what substitution was necessary? For ensuring process of purchase and sale. At family land ownership the transaction was more difficult to be made, than with the individual owner.

Stolypin agrarian reform provided also broad sale of land. According to reform both country, and landowner, and state lands from now on could be alienated, bought and be on sale freely, i.e. be in a market turnover with free prices.

Stolypin measures for the solution of the sensitive land question caused a new wave of discussions about the fate of community, about a private property, purchase and sale of the earth. In society two points of view came to light. There were both supporters of the vigorous prime minister, and his opponents. It is necessary to distinguish noblemen-land owners, the bank bourgeoisie from the first. Their views were accurately formulated in speeches of delegates and decisions of the All-Russian union of land owners (November, 1905). "All our 40-legny system — it was said in the magazine of a congress, - erected on the principle of communal possession of peasants, was

a fatal flaw and now it should be changed". Further it was noted that the community is that ulcer which does position of peasants hopeless [6, page 46].

Opponents private, property and purchase and sale of the earth were a part of the intellectuals, the "left" parties, the most part of the peasantry, especially great Russian provinces. So, purchase and sale of the earth was opposed by the scientist-chemist D.I. Mendeleyev, the Russian economist, the specialist in the peasantry A.V. Chayanov, the great writer of Russia L.N. Tolstoy. In particular, on the earth between PAS. Stolypin and the writer conducted fierce polemic. "To sell the land is a beastliness", - considered L.N. Tolstaya. "It is impossible to love others on an equal basis with the and it is impossible to take care, improve the earth which is in temporary use on an equal basis with the earth". So a year later after the publication of the decree of November 9

1906 Stolypin answered sharply criticizing, his Tolstoy.

As envisioned by Stolypin, agrarian reform had to take place within 20 years. But in fact in full it was carried out no more than 8 years (from January 1, 1907 to fall of 1914). From the beginning of World War I some provisions of reform were suspended, and on June 28, 1917. The provisional government repealed basic provisions of the decree of 1906 and the law of 1910

During reform from community 25 million householders were allocated. The exit percent on certain provinces made 22 - 24% of total number of householders. However, as the researcher A.M. Anfimov notes, the few were completely allocated. The most part of peasants received the certifying document on an exit to hands, but left the plots in a communal turn [6, page 53].

In the village from community two of its were allocated extreme a layer

>- fist and poor. The last sold the land as he it had nothing to process and sow. Sale of land went at low prices. Fists bought up sometimes 20 - 30 sites. Thus, village "top" more benefited from a land reform of Stolypin. Fists were most often excreted on the farm, took juncture. In total from 1907 for 1917 1.2 million otrubny and 400 thousand farm farms were created [4, page 253] that made only the tenth part from all number of the country yards.

Thus, Stolypin agrarian reform slightly increased number of the agricultural land which was in free circulation. On the eve of the revolution of 1917 about 20% of farmlands of the Russian Empire were involved in process of purchase and sale of the earth.

After overthrow of autocracy the peasantry waited from Provisional government of the solution of the land question. Partially new power equaled his hopes.

On March 12, 1917 the government admitted the resolution on transfer to treasury, i.e. to public foundation of specific and kabinetsky lands (more than 70 million tithes) which belonged to a royal surname and royal dignitaries earlier. Thus, the Provisional government carried out by this measure partial nationalization of privately owned lands that further rasprede-

to pour them among persons in need. However the most part of private lands remained in inviolability. These lands belonged to landowners, churches and monasteries, fists, farmers and otrubnik, commercial banks, individuals. Requirements of peasants-bedggakov of the center of Russia extended to these lands.

Under pressure of disorders of peasants the Provisional government agreed to holding a land reform. For its preparation it was decided to form at the ministry of agriculture the All-Russian land committee. On places, provincial, district, volost land committees "for preparation of a land reform and development of urgent temporary measures until permission of the land question by the Constituent assembly" were organized [7].

In preparation of future land reform the active part was taken by the representatives of cadet party who were a part of the government and the main land committee. In 1917 the program of cadets became more radical. As prospect the proposal on transformation of the earth into state ownership was made, i.e. it was asked about its nationalization. The land fund of the country, according to cadets, has to be formed of kabinetsky, specific, monastery, church and other privately owned lands, but alienation of lands should not have taken place gratuitously.

Positions of other parties on the land question in 1917 changed in comparison with the period of 1905 a little -

1907 . Social Revolutionaries still insisted on socialization of the earth. According to them, the Constituent assembly had to solve a question of it. Bolsheviks offered nationalization of the earth. They considered that the property right to the earth has to belong to the state, and the right of the order - to local bodies. Both parties were negative to purchase and sale of the earth that brought together their positions.

Concerning purchase and sale of the earth also the Provisional government expressed. On July 8, 1917 there was a resolution on prohibition of purchase and sale of the earth. Why the power was forced to make so unusual decision? The fact is that the landowners disturbed by the forthcoming land reform began to sell the manors, stock urgently. It caused sharp protests from the peasantry which understood that from the new owner it will already be impossible to ask "about pieces" and on other topical land questions which collected after 1861. Therefore peasants addressed the government with the offer on the ban of purchase and sale of the earth to the Constituent assembly. The government conceded to peasants, but infringed upon the interests of private owners and banks. The last also made a protest to the power [8].

The measures for the land question were proposed also by the last structure of Provisional government where ten representatives from parties of socialist orientation entered. In October, 1917 the right Social Revolutionary, the minister of agriculture of the Settlement of Maslovym prepared the bill under the name "Rules about settlement by land committees land and agricultural

Rostov state economic university

relations". The project provided formation of "temporary rent fund" which had to include state, monastery and church lands and also those landowners' estates which were leased to peasants. But the landowner land ownership in general remained [8]. What held the government from its full confiscation as that was demanded by a part of peasants, Bolsheviks, the "left" Social Revolutionaries? In our opinion, it was held from this step by force majeure of that time: war, crisis in national economy. Elimination of profitable landowner manors would enhance dissonance in the economic sphere even more. Besides, the partition of landowners' estates would cause mass desertion of soldiers peasants from the front, as happened after adoption of "The decree about the earth".

The last attempt of the solution of the land question was made on October 24. Then in the evening to the prime minister A.F. Kerensky there came the delegation as a part of which there were Mensheviks and the right Social Revolutionaries. It came to him with the decision of Preparliament. Representatives of socialist parties persistently asked Kerensky to sign the document on the land question to calm peasants whose turmoil covered the half-countries. But Kerensky kicked delegation out [9].

And on October 25 (according to articles) 1917 in Russia the new stage of social revolution began.

According to "The decree about the earth", the earth in Russia was nationalized, i.e. all earth, its subsoil, the woods and waters became state ownership. The private property on the earth was cancelled. Sale, rent and pledge of the earth were forbidden. Thus, the most part of peasants of Russia achieved the century requirements. The communal principle of possession of the earth won and for long decades the question of purchase and sale of the earth was removed from the agenda.

Literature

1. S.M. Dubrovsky. The country movement in revolution of 1905 - 1907 of M., 1956. Page 11.
2. Business Tuesday. Tabloid "Our time". 2002. On Aug. 6 Page 1.
3. The history of the Fatherland in terms and concepts. Smolensk; Bryansk, 1999. Page 203.
4. R. Guseynov. History of economy of Russia. Novosibirsk, 1998. Page 214-215.
5. V.I. Lenin.//Half-N of SOBR. soch. T. 13. Page 31.
6. A.M. Anfimov. Unfinished disputes//Questions of history. 1997. No. 5. Page 46.
7. N.A. Kravchuk. The grass-roots country movement in Russia on the eve of October. M, 1971. Page 25.
8. N.A. Kravchuk. The grass-roots country movement in Russia during preparation of the October revolution (March - October, 1917): Avtoref. yew... Dr.s east. sciences. Rostov N / D, 1972. Page 17.
9. A. Rabinovich. Bolsheviks come to the power. Revolution of 1917 in Petrograd. M, 1989.

__________________________________________ on November 25, 2002

Arabella Loren
Other scientific works: