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Book culture of the Siberian Tatars (XIX beginning of the 20th century)


UDC 002.2 (091) (=512.145) BBK 76.10 (=632.3)


© V.N. Volkova, 2008

State Public Scientific Technical Library of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences 630200, Novosibirsk, Voskhod St., 15

The history of formation of book culture of the Siberian Tatars (Western Siberia) on the basis of writing and a knizhnost of the Arab (Muslim) East and its transformation in the conditions of the Russian state of the beginning of the 20th century is considered. Questions of school business, local periodicals and book publishing in Tatar, activity of Muslim cultural and educational societies, libraries, feature of reading are taken up.

Formation and development of book cultures in the multilingual, multiethnic, polyconfessional circle of indigenous people of Siberia in the conditions of the Russian statehood have lines of a unique identity. Their study gives the chance to understand those deep sociocultural processes which proceeded in huge trans-Ural territories. It helps and to more reasoned analysis of today's ethnocultural situation connected with the people of Russia of new identity aggravated by search already on a modern round of history. Not without reason for the last one and a half decades there was a set of the works (monographs, theses, materials of scientific conferences, collections of articles and documents) devoted to history and modern national life of the people inhabiting Russia. In this plan also the local subject connected with formation of book culture of the Siberian Tatars during the pre-revolutionary period of national history is of considerable interest.

The Siberian Tatars made most of the Turkic population of Western Siberia. By N.A. Tomilov's definition, in H1H - the beginning of the 20th century they represented the metaethnic (interethnic) community united by similarity of dialects, many forms of culture and life, unity of the territory (West Siberian Plain) and religions (Islam). The concept "Siberian Tatars" incorporated a part of the Siberian bukharets, the Volga region and Cisural Tatars, Bashkirs, Khanty, Mansi, Selkups, Teleuts, etc. [1]. A part of these, as well as many other earlier unwritten people of Siberia, appeared under the influence of Christianity, is active

the century extended with HU1 Russian Orthodox Church. Writing and the book in the and Russian languages appeared at them together with bases of orthodox culture. To the Siberian Tatars the writing and the book came with distribution of Islam. Its penetration into Western Siberia was long and multicomponent - through Muslim preachers of the Bukhara and Khivan khanates (end of the 14th century), at association and strengthening of the Siberian khanate by Kuchum when Islam was announced by the state religion (second half of the 16th century), at last, in the course of centuries-old (from 16th century) rapprochements with Tatars of the Volga region and Cisural area.

The complexity of formation of the Siberian Tatar writing, the literary language and book culture in general consisted in existence of a set of dialects. Tatars of certain and even near territories (for example, Siberia and Cisural area) talked and wrote kind of in different languages, badly understood each other. At the same time the general Arab graphics facilitated written and book contacts of the Siberian Tatars with the wide Muslim world.

In the first years of the 19th century the representatives of the Siberian Tatar intellectuals tried to create on the basis of the Arab alphabet writing taking into account features of a spoken language of the people. So, the teacher of the Tobolsk main national school I. Giganov made "Tatar grammar" and the "Russian-Tatar dictionary" including 10 thousand words and expressions. Authorship of other teacher of the same school N. Antometova possesses the "Abc-book of the Tatar and Arab letter" published in 1802. Russian akademi-

it sciences. These works were valuable manuals for Tatars, Kazakhs and other Turkic-speaking people of Siberia. They facilitated and language contacts of the Siberian Tatars and Russians [2].

Islam played an important role in life and the culture of the Siberian Tatars, regulating ethical and social norms of their life. Through Islam they comprehended the Arab and Persian languages, writing on the Arab alphabet and the book culture of the Muslim (Arab) East. Together with Islam to them also the cult of the Word imprinted in the Quran which each Muslim had to comprehend during all life came. For this purpose the literacy which was considered as obligatory for the devout Muslim was required.

Muslim schools began to open in Siberia from 17th century. Initial educational institutions (mekteba) and average (madrasahs) were under authority of Muslim priests, were financed the population and prosperous persons. The number of elementary schools and their pupils does not give in to accurate accounting - the official information about them is very contradictory. So, according to data

N.M. Yadrintseva, in 1880 in Western Siberia was 51 "Mohammedan school" with the number of the studying 1,670 people (from them 1,370 - boys) [3]. According to the Tobolsk statistical committee, at the end of HGH of century from 275 Tatar settlements to a mekteba or madrasah were in 63 [4].

According to the description of researchers and witnesses, training of the Tatar children (both boys, and girls) in the second half of HK of century was carried out at mosques, in private houses or the rural societies allocated for means. Specially equipped schools were not (sometimes classes were on "plank beds"), any textbooks and visual aids - too. From a class the pupils were not transferred to a class, in one group children of 8-16 years could study. Study term most often was 4-

5 years, sometimes - 1-3 years. Pupils came to classes and left when wanted. It was impossible to define their general quantity. Mullahs (with girls their wives were engaged) were engaged in training of children. In settlements where there was no mullah and the mosque, the classes were given by competent Muslims or pupils of madrasah.

In a mekteba children studied reading and the letter in Tatar and in Arab, mastered elements of Islamic dogma, learned by heart texts from the Quran. Also rudiments of secular knowledge - four actions of arithmetics, the rule about the section of inheritance according to the instruction of Sharia, data on marriage, laying of things, etc. were given [5].

Despite archaic methods of training, its results were rather powerful. This conclusion is confirmed, in particular, by indicators of literacy Tatar (in comparison with Russian)

the population of the Tobolsk province, recorded by a general census of 1897. Among Tatars there were 25.5% of competent men and 16.8% of women, among Russians - 17.5 and 4.5% respectively. At the same time 93.3% of Tatars were competent in the language [6]. As S.K. Patkanov in work "Economic life of the state peasants and foreigners of the Tobolsk district of the Tobolsk province" noted (SPb., 1891), "mullahs were engaged in training of children for the most insignificant payment or is even free". "In rare Tatar settlements there is no mosque and the mullah at it, and in this regard children of Tatars are put in the best conditions, than peasants" [7].

Resistance of the Tatar Muslim population including Siberian, to russification and inclusion in Russian-speaking cultural space in the 1870th generated a number of the governmental decrees approving obligation of learning Russian. At the same time all Muslim schools (including a mekteba and madrasah) were transferred by the resolution of November 20, 1874 to the jurisdiction of the Ministry of national education [8].

On indicators of literacy of the Siberian Tatars for 1897 it is possible to judge weak results, the measures taken by the government. The Russian-Tatar schools of the Ministry of national education in Western Siberia really began to appear, but long time did not enjoy confidence of Muslims. And a mekteba and madrasah, according to the trustee of the West Siberian educational district

And. Alektorova, formally being under management "not departments of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, not national education", were "kind of absolutely autonomous institutions in which anybody's public eye" does not look [9]. In result and in 1903 the census of children of school age of Tomsk fixes the most considerable, almost full literacy in the native language at children of Muslims - 88.64% and the lowest-25.57% - in Russian (in comparison with Lutherans, Judaists, Catholics, Orthodox Christians, sectarians). At the same time secondary education of the European type was got by only 0.57% of the Tatar children [10].

Having ended a mekteba, the Siberian Tatars could continue education in madrasah - average educational institutions at big mosques which trained attendants of a cult and teachers of elementary schools. In them such objects as Arabic, Muslim divinity, philosophy (Socrates, Platon, Aristotle), dialectics, metaphysics, logic, Muslim jurisprudence (Sharia), arithmetics, geometry, geography, astronomy, medicine were studied. Prior to the beginning of the 20th century of science were studied generally according to ancient Arab and Central Asian compositions.

In the Tobolsk province by the end of the 19th century there were 30 madrasahs. All of them were created on an initiative and at the expense of prosperous Muslims. The madrasah, most known in Siberia, was founded in 1841 in Embayevsky' yurtas near Tyumen by natives of Central Asia and were financed Gabdelniyazov's bukharets, from 1871 to 1917 - to take-yami-bukhartsami Seydukov. Later one of brothers - Nigmatulla - built the stone one-storey building for school. For training in separate objects of Seydukova invited teachers from the different cities, including from Istanbul. Graduates of school had reputation of highly qualified specialists.

At all attention to training and education of younger generation in the spirit of the Muslim East, at the end of XIX - the beginning of the 20th century the Siberian Tatars as the ethnic community developing in the Russian economic and sociocultural space could not but respond to time calls. Many of the Siberian Tatars filled up number of city employees, successfully proved in trade. They actively participated in rural and city fairs, the general holidays. Expansion of contacts with Russians resulted them in bilingualism. The increasing value was gained by the secular education of the Russian-European type answering to new vital conditions. Need of reforming of education, education, all sphere of national and cultural life became more and more obvious. The revolutionary situation of 1905-1907, emergence of the law allowing to open national and cultural associations accelerated processes of transformations.

Among the Siberian Tatars societies of Muslim progressionists which programs, unlike similar societies of the European Russia, did not make political demands began to be created and were not beyond religious, economic and educational problems. The first of such associations became registered in March, 1906. The Tobolsk society of mu-sulman-progressionists which founders were honourable bukharets of the Bukhara volost of the Tobolsk County, public T.S. Aytmukhame-tov of a thought, the hereditary nobleman B.Sh. Kulmametyev, etc. The purpose of activity of society proclaimed "improvement and development of cultural, legal and economic life of Muslims and distribution of modern education in Tobolsk and within the Tobolsk County".

For performance of objectives by the Charter of society it was provided:

"a) to promote improvement of the existing Russian-Muslim schools, a mekteba, madrasah, opening of new schools as educational, and

professional nature, educational workshops, model farms of field and dairy farms;

b) to publish popular brochures and books of educational, pedagogical, agricultural and legal contents in Tatar;

c) to arrange for members of society of reading and a conversation in the objects relating to tasks of society;

d) to organize meetings for promoting of legal knowledge and the best use of all legitimate rights inherent in the Russian-citizen, and it is right on local government" [11].

Despite so extensive cultural educational program, the Tobolsk society did not manage to realize it rather convincingly. According to the report of the Tobolsk governor in Department of spiritual affairs of November 26, 1910, it "functions in weak degree" - has no constant room, does not conduct almost any activity, local Muslims do not even know about it [12].

Societies of Muslim progressionists were created also in other cities of Western Siberia. In 1909 such society appeared in Tomsk, in 1915 - in Biysk. Since 1913 the New Nikolaev Muslim charity worked. In 19151916, attempts to open in Tomsk Society of distribution of education among the Muslim population of the Tomsk province, not been crowned, however, with success [13] became.

The central and local authorities with great mistrust treated Muslim cultural and educational societies, suspecting them of distribution of the ideas of Pan-Islamism and political unreliability. According to the order of the Ministry of Internal Affairs their work constantly stopped, charters were revised, registration of already operating organizations was cancelled. After the ban of societies of musul-man-progressionists in Siberia (1912-1913) their activity whenever possible continued within charitable associations.

The greatest mark in cultural life of the Siberian Tatars was left by the Tomsk society of Muslim progressionists - one of the most active, according to the Sibirskaya Zhizn newspaper (1915, on April 9), not only in Siberia, but also in the European Russia. Among its initiatives it is possible to call opening of Russian-Muslim free reading room and the Siberia's first newspaper in Tatar, the device of charitable evenings and literary and musical performances in Tatar (proceeds went for the maintenance of schools and libraries), annually spent Tatar holiday Sabantuy, the organization of literary circle, etc.

The greatest attention Tomsk, as well as other local societies of Muslim progressionists, gave to the reforming of an educational system which was outlined at the end of HK of century and connected with the ideas of Jadidism. Jadida proclaimed indissoluble connection of Islam with education and science, supported expansion of secular disciplines, learning Russian. Updating of school business had to be carried out in two main directions: 1) reforming of teaching in Muslim Tatar schools, first of all madrasah, and 2) increase in number of the Russian-Tatar secular schools. Before many other educational institutions of Russia passed Embayevsky madrasah to a new method of training [14]. At the end of HGH of century in a dzhadidsky (novometodny) mekteba and madrasah of the Tobolsk province (Embayevskiye, Sauskan-skiye, Turbinskiye's yurtas, etc.) the klassnourochny system of teaching was approved, training programs are developed, the cycle of secular general education disciplines is entered (or it is expanded): history, geography, physics, mathematics, fundamentals of natural sciences. Russian became an obligatory subject. Entered secular objects and for girls (data on medicine, sanitary hygiene) [15].

At the beginning of the 20th century among Tatars of Western Siberia the number of schools of various departmental accessory - private, ministerial, confessional quickly grew. In 1913 the Russian-Tatar school financed from the city budget was open in Tyumen. The greatest achievements in school education of the Siberian Tatars belonged to Tomsk. In 1908 in the city already worked

6 schools for Muslim children (3 men's and 3 women's) in whom 450 boys and 165 girls studied. At the initiative of the Tomsk society of Muslim progressionists in 1910 and 1912 two schools were open for girls. The second school headed by the famous figure of Muslim education F. Navruzova was but-vometodnoy. In 1913 in the city the two-great Russian-Tatar school with two offices and a 6-year course which thanks to the teachers invited from Kazan gained great popularity among local Muslims opened. For adult population at school the evening school and library worked [16]. According to official statistics, in 1917-1918 in the Tomsk district there were 13 Tatar schools, 15 teachers and 556 pupils [17].

After February, 1917 for the first time there was an opportunity to open the Turkic-Tatar teacher's seminary which was approved by the All-Russian Muslim congress in Tomsk (Tomsk, August 25, 1917). Its purposes included training of teachers for the Tatar initial schools. Study Turkic-Tatar was planned

language and history, Arabic, history of religion and also those objects which were included into the program of the Russian teacher's seminaries (the last were taught in Russian). Thus, it was supposed, having kept traditions of national culture of the Tatar population, to bring closer it to the Russian culture and the European educational standards. In 1917 at seminary two preparatory classes were open. In 1918 in a preparatory class 54 pupils (from them 18 girls) studied [18].

The beginning of the 20th century generated basic changes not only in the educational system of the Siberian Tatars, but also in other spheres providing development of national book culture in the conditions of the modernized Russia. So, in

1905 the reform of the Arab alphabet which made it more economic for the press and easily readable [19] was undertaken. On this alphabet books for the Muslim people, in particular for the Kazakhs and Tatars living beyond the Urals were printed.

The noticeable role in development of book publishing in Tatar and formation of national periodicals belonged to the obshchestvennopolitichesky figure, the scientist-specialist in Islamic studies, the educator of the Tatar and Kazakh people Gabdrashit (Abdrashit) Ibragimov - the native of the Siberian bukharets, the native and the resident of Tara of the Tobolsk province.

In 1906-1907 in St. Petersburg G. Abdrashitov issued in Tatar the Ulfet newspaper ("Olfet") ("Friendship") and on Arab - the Tilmiz weekly (Shakird), in 1907-1908 (and before in 1900-1903) - the proceeding Miraat edition ("Mirror"). Many works belonged also to G. Ibragimov. So, in 1907 in St. Petersburg his book by "Chulpan Yoldy-za" ("A morning star") which for the first time appeared in 1894 in Istanbul was republished.

In all editions connected with G. Ibragimov's activity the rusifikatorsky policy of the power in relation to the Muslim people of the country sharply was criticized, the thought of need of national self-determination, education and education in the native language was approved. In 1907 Ibragimov for the political views was exposed to prosecutions what his emigration abroad is connected [20] with.

In the circle of the Siberian Tatars during this period works of educational character begin to be created, the first national newspapers appear. So, in 1911-1917 the resident of Tobolsk H. Chen-bayev who ended a gymnasium translated from Russian on the Tatar number of popular brochures. In 1911 in Kazan its works were published: "Who invented the steam-engine" and "Invisible enemies and friends" (about harmful and useful to the person mik-

uniforms), in 1914 in Orenburg - "History of sciences, educations, crafts and inventions". In 1917, brochures "What Was Invented by Veniamin Franklin and Galvani" and "Who Thought Up Occupation the Photo" are published [21] in the same place.

The first periodical of the Siberian Tatars arose in Tomsk, at the initiative of the Tomsk society of Muslim progressionists. From February, 1912 to September, 1913 in the Tatar and partially Russian languages in the city the Sibi-rya newspaper (Siberia) was issued. V.Sh. Navruzov, at that time the manager of the third Muslim school was her editor. The official program of the newspaper included: 1) editorials, 2) government directives, 3) correspondence from the different cities of Siberia and the European Russia, 4) reprints from different newspapers and the translations, 5) a review of the Russian life, 6) a life review abroad,

7) feuilletons, novels, stories, stories and verses,
10) commerce and industry and help departments,
11) bibliography, 12) mix, 13) announcements. It was supposed that the newspaper will appear from one to four times a week, and in process of material replenishment - weekly. Really, since October, 1912, it was issued two times a week.

V.Sh. Navruzov establishes relations with eminent Muslim public figures and writers of Russia, involves them in cooperation in the newspaper. The edition begins to be renowned not only in Siberia, but also on other side of the Urals. At the same time the local Tatar community was not ready to support similar initiative sufficiently yet. The newspaper constantly experienced financial difficulties and in September, 1913 was closed "because of a lack of means". Besides during this period the government campaign against national and educational societies was launched.

After closing of the Sibirya newspaper with the wife of the editor Navruzova the project of creation of the new newspaper - "Satellite" was prepared. It was supposed to be based in Tomsk, and then to transfer to Ufa. It is known that in Ufa the Turmysh newspaper ("Life") began to appear [22] at this time.

There is one more known attempt of creation beyond the Urals of Muslim body of periodicals. It arose in Tara in 1915 and belonged to the manager of private library of the merchant R. Ay-tikin of X. To Bikbasov who found a keen interest of readers in the Muslim newspapers appearing in the European part of Russia. In a plan of X. Bikbasova creation of Muslim printing house and issue of the newspaper which would be for the Siberian Tatars "a conductor to the world of Muslim culture" [23] entered. Collecting donations on construction of printing house was announced. There was not enough money, however, and it was necessary to refuse high plans [24].

Speaking about the works of the press created by the Siberian Tatars and intended for them it should be noted also publishing of the Tobolsk diocesan commission of Orthodox missionary society. It printed books in Tatar with use of the Russian graphics. At the beginning of the 20th century the commission published a number of manuals for Tatars of the Tobolsk province - two editions of "The Russian-Tatar dictionary" (1904, 1905), "The Russian-Tatar phrasebook"

(1905), "Russian-Tatar alphabet. A grant for studying the Russian diploma by means of the native language" (1909), etc.

Besides dictionaries and textbooks the Tobolsk commission published for the Siberian Tatars and religious Christian literature. So, in 1903 in St. Petersburg it printed "The initial data on orthodox Christian belief reported to the Tatar of the Tobolsk province preparing for a sacred baptism" (in the edition parallel texts in the Russian and Tatar languages were cited). In the Tobolsk printing house of Diocesan brotherhood there were such editions as "About Jesus Christ and Muhammad" (1905); Imadeddin's work transferred from German "The autobiography of the mukhammedanin converted to Christianity" (1907), the Giant of the faith (1908) [25].

In 1910 in St. Petersburg on an adverb of Tatars of the Tobolsk province the book "Missionary and Christian Apologetics" in which three parallel texts with use of two alphabets - Arab and Russian were cited was published. The book was presented in "The catalog of the Russian department of the International exhibition of printing and graphics in Leipzig" which was planned to opening [26].

Besides creation of own literature and the press nationalities are always on the lips, one of the most important manifestations of development of book culture is an existence of national libraries, their prevalence and availability to the population.

The first Muslim libraries began to appear in Western Siberia in the second half of HK of century. It is known, for example, of two such libraries in Omsk opened in 1865 and 1875; to private library in Tara founded at the end of HGH of century at the expense of the merchant of the first guild, bukharets of N. IT kina (included literature modern for those times on different fields of knowledge) [27]. The big popularity beyond the Urals was gained by the library of bukharets of N. Seydukov founded by it in Embayevsky madrasah. Being a passionate collector of rare books, N. Seydukov constantly filled up with them a private library. For many decades he wrote out books from Bukhara and Turkestan, brought from Egypt, Syria, Jerusalem, bought at business trips in Kazan,

Tashkent, Moscow, subscribed to periodicals from Beirut, Istanbul, St. Petersburg, Kazan, Ufa. Books in the Arab, Persian, Turkic, Tatar languages were stored in N. Seydukov's library. There were works on philosophy, medicine and other sciences.

A competent part of the population could use gratuitously materials of library that sometimes caused the last irreparable damage. For the best safety of books N. Seydukov in the 1890th near madrasah and the mosque built the special building for library. It consisted of three rooms - for storage of books, for reading and for rest of the librarian. People gathered in the recreation room after a Friday Mohammedan prayer, communicated, discussed the household problems, had tea. The library worked daily. On a table for readers the feather, paper, ink were always prepared. In 1898 before death N. Seydukov bequeathed library to the Muslim community of the village of Embayeva.

In 1913 in library there were 2,200 volumes of hand-written and printing books among which rare historical and cultural monuments occurred. The postrevolutionary fate of books of unique library is unknown. In 1923, according to archival documents, they still remained in house H. Seius-dukova. Then, in 1923, the advocacy department of RCP(b) of the Central Committee became interested in library, and in 1928 to the village of Embayevo there arrived armed men and on three vehicles took away books to Tyumen where, on unchecked rumors, they were burned. Separate editions of library were found in archive of Tobolsk, in Tyumen subsequently, but the main part of fund completely disappeared [28].

In 1913 the first private Muslim library was open in Tobolsk. It belonged to the merchant of the 1st guild M. Abakulov. For many years collecting he created a rich collection of the printing and hand-written works devoted to religion and Muslim culture (brought them from Central Asia and Transcaucasia). On the means M. Abakulov built the building of library which basis of fund was formed by its personal collection including 1,238 books. For the first three months of work the library was visited by more than 3 thousand people. It enjoyed wide popularity also among the Russian population of the city. At the end of the same year the library burned down, but in March, 1915 M. Abakulov managed to open new library. Its funds were restored thanks to old communications of the organizer with libraries of Central Asia and Transcaucasia (1,205 units of storage) and also to gifts from Kazan, Ufa and St. Petersburg (240 books in the Russian, Tatar and Arab languages are received). Also many editions were sent

in Turkish, connected with the ideas of Pan-Islamism [29].

In August, 1913 in Tomsk the Siberia's first Russian-Muslim free reading room organized by the Tomsk society of Muslim progressionists opened. In a year it was transported to the new building. The library included up to 700 books (from them 500 in Tatar), had 41 subscribers. In reading room about 40 newspapers and magazines in the Russian and Tatar languages were subscribed. In 1914 10,701 visits of reading room, among them 41 - women were registered. The last could come to library only in hours when it was closed for men. In 1915, after prohibition of the Tomsk society of Muslim progressionists, the library was closed, but again revived in January, 1917 already under the auspices of Muslim charity [30].

In 1914 in the building of the Cathedral mosque the Muslim library in Omsk was open. The basis of its fund was formed by the books offered the population of the city. Generally it were religious editions, many of them in Arabic. The library included about 800 books. On the remained archival documents, it was not popular with the population and in 1916 according to the decision of the city authorities was closed behind "absence of regular readers". Books were transferred to Muslim libraries of Tara, Tyumen, Tomsk.

In Tara in the same, the second Muslim library was open 1914. The Bukhara merchant R. Itkin - the brother of the owner of the first library N. Itkin became its founder. It worked at the mosque. The basis of fund was formed first of all by the religious editions offered Muslims of the Tarsky district (more than 300 books) and also educational literature. Managed library X. Bikbasov. In 1915 the collecting donations on an extract of Muslim periodicals was carried out. The library enjoyed wide popularity at the Tatar population of the city. R. Itkin was also the owner of a large personal collection of the rare and printing books acquired by him during the trips to Central Asia, Turkey, to the Middle East [31].

In June, 1917 the library in Muslim bureau Novonikolayev-ska was open. In it it was supposed to have all newspapers of socialist parties. The library received "the Vote of Siberia", "The earth and will", "News of Councils of working and soldier's deputies of Novonikolayev-ska", "Vakt Turmush", Yulduzshuro [32].

It is necessary to notice that in the Siberian Tatar environment libraries of the public and social and political organizations poorly developed, the libraries of the Russian-Tatar schools consisting of textbooks were not popular and

books in Russian. Most often libraries worked at mosques, at the same time the best of them were created on a private initiative and on personal means of the prosperous and educated Muslims which did not deprive the Siberian Tatar society.

All given facts testify about long since the skills of reading which developed among the Siberian Tatars. Educated Tatars read literature of spiritual and secular contents in the Arab, Persian and Tatar languages. Separate of them owned collections of manuscripts and printing works. In many Tatar houses, even in small settlements, it was possible to meet the small shelf with books. There was a tradition of family reading, long skills of copying of books, the reverential relation by the way, written down in the Quran and traced by the Arab ligature continued to remain.

Studying a mekteba and madrasah were brought up on religious, mythological, semi-folklore works by the ancient writers based on Quran plots, the description of historical events and also life of the famous people of last eras. All this promoted education at youth of such moral qualities as wisdom and restraint, fidelity to duty and honesty, humanity and kindness. Among similar works it is possible to call Kyyssasel-en-Biya ("The legend on great and prophets") 14th century, the poem Cool Ali "Kyyssasi-Yusuf" ("The legend on Yusuf") HS of century. As "Bouzas egt", "Takhir and Zukhra", "Kyzyl Alma", "Kakharman Hatil", read drawlingly, pupils knew such works by heart and their plots retold among the friends and relatives. Also compositions of local educators, for example the "Book of manuals" written at the end of the 17th century by Akhun of Tobolsk of Hodge Shukur Gavay-bay (under the pseudonym Amda-mi) on the basis of the poem by the Persian poet F. Gadda-r were widely used at schools; The "Collection of hikayat" ("The collection of ancient legends and legends") created by the educator Mukham-madrakhimom in 1775 in the Tarsky County of the Tobolsk province [33].

In the second half of HGH - the beginning of the 20th century the Siberian Tatars regularly read the books in Tatar published in Kazan, Orenburg, St. Petersburg. Works by scientists-educators Sh. Mardzhani, K. Nasyri, R. Fakhrutdinov, R. Ibragimov were popular. Works of G. Tuqay, F. Amirkhan, M. Gafuri and other Tatar writers and poets were known to a wide range of readers. Books of verses of the Kazakh and Bashkir poets of A. Kunanbayev, Akmulla were distributed in Siberia [34].

Numerous works oral national tvorchest-

were darlings in the Tatar environment

va (heroic epos, historical songs and legends, fantastic and household fairy tales, proverbs, sayings, bytes (genre close to ballads), etc. Among the works, most popular in the people, it is possible to call "Tsontay mergen", "Kadysh mergen" (mergen - the marksman), JSC Kobek, Idege ("Current Tamysh") and many others. The Siberian Tatar environment left many talented storytellers. According to one of them - S.M. Zay-nitdiyev - the local version of the heroic epos "Edigey" was written down [35].

At all commitment of the Siberian Tatars to traditional forms of reading and high inclusiveness in the book culture of the Muslim East, the beginning of the 20th century introduced the amendments in their life. In process of expansion of economic and social interaction with the Russian world their religious isolation and cultural isolationism were gradually overcome. More and more Muslim Tatars knew Russian. Educated Tatars, first of all citizens, read the Russian literature, obtained information on the current events in the country and the world from the Russian press, visited the Russian theaters, participated in amateur theatricals, concerts and other actions. In HGH and the first decades of the 20th century the writing of the Siberian Tatars developed on two graphic bases - Arab and Cyrillic. Only in the 1930th the Arab letter was completely put beyond the law.

At will of history the Siberian Tatars appeared on crossing of world book cultures and could not but test their cross influence. It is impossible to tell that the state and church and orthodox authorities of Russia did not try to weaken civilization influences, alien for the Center. Nevertheless the diversity of development of book culture of the Siberian Tatars was result not only external influences, but also the internal contradictions inherent in process of formation of national culture in the conditions of the multinational state.

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Esther Elliott
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